You can also talk about the third factor -lobbying . It had a significant impact on competition, but had a less technical and more personal motives.
There are several stages in the development of competition and liquid solid-sea missile.
When creating a marine first generation missile systems in 1958-1961 years to implement parallel development of liquid complex D-4 initiated by Mikhail Yangel work on this property in 1959 was transferred to KBM Victor Makeev, and solid-D-6 Chief Designer of "Arsenal" Peter Tyurin.
result was unsatisfactory and for liquid D-4, and the solid D-6 options, if we compare the properties of martial American solid-fuel missiles "Polaris A-1", "Polaris A-2", as well as placement on the projected nuclear submarine project 667. Moreover, for the complex D-6 in comparison with the D-4 were unsatisfactory as possible implementation using mixed fuel and using ballistite consumption -and the terms and features.
during the creation of second-generation missile systems can be divided into two sub-stages. At first, initiated by Sergei Korolev in 1961, a significant role in the "competition" played:
-Firstly, the existence of two projects of nuclear submarines -the "big" 667A and 705B compact;
-Secondly, the parallel development of the D-7 with a solid propellant missile RT-15M Victor Makeev and D-5 with liquid R-27 as Victor Makeev, respectively, for "large" and "small-sized" boats.
winning won a fluid direction primarily on aggregate characteristics especially when you consider the beginning of the project in 1963 and developmental work in 1964 intercontinental liquid rocket R-29 Victor Makeev.
The beginning of the second sub-step
should consider the development of the D-11 missile R-31 reentry warhead Peter Tyurin. In 1980, the development has been completed. Trial operation of the complex 12 missiles continued on one boat to the Northern Fleet in 1990. The result was the loss of the D-9R its development began in 1973 and ended in 1977 and R-29R missile intercontinental-range shooting with multiple warheads.
As for comparing second-generation solid rocket Dr Victor Makeev 7 and D-11 Peter Tyurin with foreign counterparts "Polaris A-3" with monoblock, in service since 1964 and "Poseidon C-3" with reentry warhead, In service since 1971, there is the superiority of American missiles was evident in all respects.
Tier third generation systems began with the statement adopted domestic solid-sea missile R-39 of the D-19 in 1983. Tactical and technical characteristics of the missile exceeded the previous analogs as domestic liquid type P-29R in 1977, and solid-American "Trident-1" in 1979. Our missiles were more range and number of warheads of the same power class, increased or comparable accuracy, and so on.However
improving performance characteristics was achieved by weighting missiles in two and a half times the corresponding increase in its size, but also by creating a submarine of project 941 record tonnage of the new system-based and so on, that is costly extensive and not innovative intensive methods.
should be noted that in a relatively short period of time after the creation of the D-19 missiles appeared liquid type R-29RM 1986 and solid "Trident-2" in 1990, which surpassed the R-39 martial properties, but had smaller dimensions and starting weight.
Thus, from 1960 to 1990, domestic solid sea-launched ballistic missiles could not reach performance characteristics comparable with any of our liquid nor solid-American.
Nevertheless, the transition to domestic maritime missile solid direction was approved in 1980. Implementation transition malfunctioned in the 1990s controversial cease development of the D-19UTTH, and there are at the moment "Bulava-30" . It should be noted that:
declared and the expected characteristics of the missile "Bulava-30" is noticeably worse the American counterpart of "Trident-1" delivered into service more than 30 years ago, namely six, rather than eight warheads ceteris close or equal to the characteristics that define combat efficiency and performance.
Furthermore, "Bulava-30" inferior :
-maturity Chinese naval missiles with multiple reentry warhead "Tszyuylan-2", which has already been deployed on two submarines "Datsynguy";
-on the timing and characteristics of the French M-51 rocket;
-on the timing and characteristics of domestic rocket R-29RMU2 "The Blue", which is the basic version with ten warheads was adopted in 1986.
significant leap in improving the performance properties was implemented in 1960 on marine liquid rockets second generation.
First , by filling factory fuel rockets and subsequent welding ampulizatsii fill and drain valves. Thus were excluded:
-Head refill missiles on the shore;
-Filling containers submarines from shore;
-Filling of tanks missiles submarine;
-And were redundant storage tank rocket fuel on the bases.
Second , due to the development of transportation modes refilled any missiles from the manufacturer to the missile base and loading them into the mine submarine.
next step to improve performance liquid propellant proposed to implement in the 1970s, and the technical solutions have been developed in the preliminary design of the D-9M December 1970. principal of "operational" decisions were :
-Waiver of pre-launch and tank pressurization systems submarine missiles with the transition to a stand-alone charging tanks;
-Exclusion of filling the annular gap missile silo tanks of water submarine.
But this direction for the third generation of missiles was not accepted. In June 1971, began the development of solid-fuel missiles R-31 of the D-11 chief designer Peter Tyurin development activities and P-39 of the D-19 General Designer Victor Makeev avanproekt. Operation missile submarine has improved, but had to pay for it :
-For R-31 -a significant deterioration in performance characteristics;
-For R-39 -the cost of providing ground operation as missiles and submarines, which required the creation of new land-based facilities, as well as increase the bearing capacity means loading up to 125 tons.
Moreover, the development of R-31 and R-39 has gone beyond the set task and necessary in terms of maintaining strategic deterrence terms. In this regard, the fear began to develop liquid intercontinental missile R-29R with reentry warhead. Work was completed in record time -4.5 years from start to finish by government regulations. However, these terms have eliminated the possibility to improve the operation of missile submarine, which remained at the level of the second generation of missiles.
currently known and partially implemented technical solutions that can provide a dramatic improvement of operational properties of liquid sea missiles. important of these are :
-first , the application-launch missiles pressurization autonomous system and placed on a rocket based on metered injection fuel component in the contralateral oxidant fuel tank and vice versa;
-Second , the implementation of the "dry" method of starting undrowned missile silo, sealed destroyed at the start of the membrane similar to the method of solid-rocket launch. The yield of the mine provided rocket sustainer engine of the first stage, working first in the second gasifier mode.
Such solutions could almost equalize the liquid and solid rocket under the terms of placement, operation and launch from a submarine.
OPERATING RESULTSOperating experience
sea missiles in conditions based on the Northern and Pacific fleets shows that in the process of improving the missile systems and equipment of locations, as well as warranty and technical supervision over the operation of ships missiles difference in the features of liquid and solid operating steadily declined. terms of conditions providing storage for modern missiles can note :
-first , for solid rocket requires a narrow temperature range;
-Second , for liquid rockets -a traditional presence on submarines and missile bases of technical systems and components to bring them to a safe state in the event of loss of tanks only integrate such systems submarine Operating third generation missiles happened 28 years ago .
When implementing the "dry" method of solid-propellant missile launch was reduced by water systems of the submarine, but increased the composition of air systems , which ultimately did not change the performance and reliability of complex, respectively, the number of faults in systems and everyday prestarter service.Lack
ties with outboard shaft cavity space and irrigation devices increased the safety of everyday storage solid rockets on the boat. However, there is a need introduction of the underlying hardware devices mine dewatering in preparation for loading after launch missiles . There was a need neutralize the drained water and works to clean and restore the paintwork mines.
The quality of coastal exploitation missiles based in places affected by the choice of mode of transportation. For operation of R-39 units were used for rail-mounted due to the large weight of the rocket. This excluded incidents rollover truck-mounted units with missiles during their transportation vnutribazovoy.Technical condition
ways and maintained themselves aggregates based on the requirements of the Ministry of Railways, and the path of movement of units with missiles determined railways. However, implementation of such transportation demanded railway construction in mountainous tundra conditions.
Operation modern intercontinental missiles marine shows that their accident rate mainly depends on the quality of personnel training, as well as structural features of the missile complex systems and the rocket itself, and not the type of fuel. For example, during the operation in order to improve safety and reduce the influence of subjective factors on the complex D-9RM and its modernized version was implemented a set of measures that ensured trouble-free operation. As a result, reduced number of emergency situations.
For complexes with intercontinental missiles emergency number in absolute terms amounted to: in D-9 -72, at the D-9R -25, at D-19 -16, at D-9RM -7.
Given the number of rockets and exploited to divide the figures of accidents on the number of deployed missile silos, we obtain the following values of the relative accident:
And the relative and absolute numbers of accidents did not testify in favor of solid-propellant rockets.
Over the past 25 years with marine accidents missiles were not, including the period of intensive use of modern liquid propellant missiles of the R-29R and R-29RM . The accident, which is sometimes credited with rocket R-29RM, took place in 1989 when tested on "Behemoth" and it took place not with a missile, and its layout. Cause of the accident was the engineering error were not taken into account the corrosive properties of the tube material Signalling pressure environment simulator fuel, which resulted in a broken its flotation in conjunction with the violation of operational documentation that led to the shutdown of blocking signaling pressure.
consequences of accidents last missile submarines are more dependent on the architecture of the submarine, and not on the type of fuel . For example, failure to P-39 in a submarine 941 project in 1991, associated with destruction of the rocket occurred after missile silo abnormal pressurization and not interstage two compartments with a combination of malfunctions.
Destruction missiles accompanied ignition engines and its powder pressure accumulator. Fairings were thwarted on two covers mines, burned acoustic cover of the outer hull, burnt piece of copper pipe in the fence cutting, slightly damaged propeller inside the compartment collapsed pipelines spetsgidravliki control cover for emergency mine after the accident, the mine decommissioned.
should also be noted that the consequences could be disastrous almost, if during the accident would not have been executed maneuver "urgent immersion" Remove loose missile from a submarine.
When accidents occurred previously with liquid intercontinental missiles damage to structures of the submarine did not lead to serious consequences in 1976 and in 1977, the P-29. In an accident with a missile R-29R on a submarine in 1982 were involved in the emergency drain system oxidant irrigation emergency mine and the damage has been reduced to a minimum. Accidents on the R-29RM missiles out.
Regarding accidents in the operation of missiles missile bases , it is linked to external mechanical stress on the rocket from tip-truck-mounted units or damage the integrity of the buildings due to erroneous actions of personnel. All alarms have been eliminated with minimal damage by applying regular emergency equipment and tools missile bases. Reached the operating life of liquid and solid rockets as a result of work on life extension are the same -more than 12 years of warranty periods.
Liquid and solid fuel intercontinental ballistic missiles are different problems associated with their disposal and necessary for this cost.
Liquid rocket submarines after unloading and removal of warheads are transported to the factory. After draining the fuel components and their neutralization missiles disassembled, body disposed on the method of separation of heterogeneous elements, precious metals are extracted from the apparatus.
Propellants reused. Portioned fuel tanks are sent to be melted down, that is for reuse. Currently these technologies utilized about 1,200 marine liquid propellant missiles with expired service.
Solid rocket after unloading and removal of warheads are transported to the factory where disassembled into its component parts. Metal components and devices utilized similar methods for liquid rockets. Engines transported for disposal by burning in the stands of the Federal Research and Production Center "Altai" in Biysk. After incineration or solid fuel required liquidation of the remaining engine casings made of fibers organoplastic not be reused. Today, it is achieved by fragmentation of shells and their disposal.
Effluents discharged into the storage pool and neutralized with slaked lime . Obtained in this technically clean water back in the booth, and a solid phase containing alumina, goes to further processing. In this case, compliance with the combustion technology and environmentally favorable weather conditions, the risk for the population and ecosystems Byisk assessed as very low.
Experience handling, disposal and other issues using a solid or liquid fuel ballistic missiles at sea requires further study and discussion by experts, taking into account the multitude of contemporary circumstances.
/ R.N.Kanin -a leading researcher at the State Rocket Center named VP Makeyev, Ph.D., nvo.ng.ru /