In the 70s and 80s of the last century arsenal of Soviet military aviation added two high-precision laser-guided missiles: Kh-25 and Kh-29L. These munitions allowed to hit the target at a range of up to 7 and 10 kilometers respectively. Semi-active laser homing, in turn, provided a sufficiently high accuracy. Thus, the circular error probable older missiles X-25 does not exceed 10 meters, and for X-29L, the figure was 4.5 meters. With such precision power warheads with 80 X-25 and X-29L 116 kilograms of explosives were sufficient to destroy a wide range of purposes.
For some reason the new missiles were used until a certain time is not too active. For example, in Afghanistan launches the first of these munitions have occurred only in the mid-eighties. Airunits first, mastered the combat use of guided missiles, laser-guided, became 378th separate regiment assault oshap.
Aviation missile Kh-29L laser-guided
Despite all the advantages of guided missiles, their use of Su-25 had several unique features, hampering combat work. The pilot of the aircraft had to find their own purpose, mark it with a laser rangefinder and illumination station "Klen-PS", and then hold the laser beam for the purposes of launching rockets. In addition, it was necessary to fly the plane in a combat situation and launch of missiles became a very difficult task.
Moreover, under certain circumstances strafer never could find yourself a small camouflaged target and attack it. For this reason, for example, the results of the first application of guided missiles in April 1986 under the Host, although they were found to be satisfactory, were mixed. Maneuvering in the mountains, combined with the search and attack targets was very challenging, even for experienced pilots.
brainchild military workshops
Within months pilots and technicians 378th oshap looking for a way to get rid of existing difficulties and ensure proper usability of laser-guided missiles. The decision was simple and original. Already in the first months of 1987 following technical staff of the regiment, together with several experts summoned from the Soviet Union, specially modified newest serial BTR-80.
The idea was armored and rework that a pilot of attack aircraft were shot required to search for the target and its illumination by the laser beam. These tasks are now the crew had to perform modified armored personnel carriers. After refitting the BTR-80 received a new designation Bohm "fighting vehicle gunner aircraft".
One of Bohm collected 378th oshap. On the basis of its kind, it can be assumed that this is the first instance of such a machine
If modifications on top of the car behind the tower, between the upper hull hatches installed a desk with a simple attachment mechanism and guidance. At the last mounted laser station "Klen-PS" withdrawn from the decommissioned Su-25. For aiming the laser beam used sight, borrowed from a heavy machine gun NSV "Utes". Inside the body of the former armored equipped operator`s workstation systems, among others equipped with additional radio to communicate with stormtroopers. All new electronic systems connected to the common power grid armored vehicles.
new car "artisanal" fabrication intended to be used as follows. While the Su-25, armed with missiles X-25 or X-29L, is the goal, Boman comes to the position with direct visibility goal. Next, the operator-gunner looking for purpose and leads to her station "Klen-PS". When the attack came close to uke project far enough and is ready to attack, he shall so inform the machine operator Bohm. That includes a laser beam and holds on target. Pilot still waiting when the rocket grab highlighted aim and of launching.
Under ideal conditions with this method of attack aircraft or machine gunner could be at a great distance from the target, without exposing themselves to the risk of being attacked in return. However, according to some sources, in a real combat situation machine Bohm often approached the target at the minimum possible distance, so that the reflected laser light was stronger and more confident missile lock target. Also, defeat an enemy object facilitated by the fact that during the targeting machine gunner stood firmly in position. With this laser tag retention in one place is not too difficult.
In 1987, in accordance with the order of the commander of the 40th Air Army Maj. Gen. D. Romaniuk, Boman tested in a real military operation. Su-25 under the control of Lieutenant Colonel N. Wild 378th oshap and Lt. Col. M. Pudovkin pilot inspector 40th Army produced a total of 75 flights with the launch guided missiles. Test flights with target designation from the land conducted to air support of troops during an operation in the area Aliheyl, near the border with Pakistan. Overall, during the war in Afghanistan, Soviet pilots spent about 140 guided missiles of several types.Effect of processing
newest armored acquitted all costs. Stormtroopers, working with combat aircraft machine gunner, guaranteed to hit targets, including sophisticated enough to destroy other weapons. For example, when properly and not too complicated collaboration pilots and gunner managed to get exactly rocket into the entrance of the cave. If in such a natural shelter located improvised ammunition depot, the effect was stunning.
Probably gunner desire to get closer to the goal indirectly caused to create a new Bohm. The fact that the enemy was quickly realized that the appearance of an armored personnel carrier with some equipment on the roof is a harbinger ambulance attack stormtroopers. In order not to expose the electronics station "Klen-PS" risk and do not unmask the car, in 1987, work began on the construction of a second embodiment of Bohm.
According to various sources, this time as a basis for combat aircraft machine gunner was the BTR-70, but found and information on the use of the same BTR-80. Regardless of the specific model of the vehicle base, the second option Baughman was updated installation system of the laser equipment. At this time the technology 378th oshap collected Linkage, illumination station allows you to clean the inside of the armored corps.The exact amount of the Bohm
made on Soviet bases in Afghanistan, is not known. Different sources are found on the two figures from one machine each option to 5-7. Anyway, a new class of armored vehicles quickly showed its potential and its necessity. Seeing opportunities Su-25 receiving target information from the ground, the Mujahideen began to hunt for armored vehicles with stations "Klen-PS". Fortunately, these machines have been very difficult target and, as far as known, none of them has been lost or severely damaged by enemy fire.
high efficiency machines aircraft gunners made in military workshops, led to the emergence of a new technology similar purpose. In the late eighties 344th Center combat employment and retraining of pilots of Torzhok led by Colonel V. Archegova was created another forward air combat vehicle, the BMA received an index is also found BMAN designation. In creating this project took into account the main disadvantage of "Afghan" Bohm -their specialization. BMA from Torzhok was supposed to be more versatile: she had to not only help in building missiles, but also to the overall coordination of the strike aircraft and helicopters.
as the basis for the new BMA took anti-aircraft missile system "Strela-10" on the basis of light armored MT-LB chassis. With the original SAM dismantled all equipment for transportation and launching rockets, and in its place installed new guides. At the top of the rotary turret mounted two blocks BKP-B812 calculated at 12 unguided rockets S-8 kalibra80 mm. Likely to be used for targeting and labeling lighting smoke rockets models C-and C-8OM 8TSM respectively.Under
blocks guides missiles S-8 installed on one launcher 2P130-3 for a 90-mm flares 9M41 "Illumination." Notably, these launchers were borrowed from the Mi-24 helicopters. Finally, on the sides of the tower operator installed two infrared searchlight, apparently taken from a tank complex "Blind-1." In addition to guiding missiles and machine spotlights BMA received a set of electronic equipment to communicate with pilots of tactical aviation. For its self-defense armed with one machine gun, mounted in front of commander`s hatch in the front of the case.
BMA machine, located in the 344 m and PPI PLC
Using electronic equipment and launchers new BMA could find targets on the battlefield and transmit information about them strike aircraft and helicopters. In addition, if necessary, forward air crew of the BMA could mark a destination using marking missiles S-8TSM or illuminate the necessary territory other ammunition.
projectors "Blind" is probably supposed to be used to illuminate the battlefield in the infrared. On the possibility of target illumination by laser accurate data available. Existing photos on one of the BMA package guides seen some devices to install some equipment. Perhaps the BMA had to carry the station and illumination similar to "Maple-PS".
During the development of a new version of the universal combat aircraft machine gunner assumed that such technology in the coming years will be in each motorized rifle and tank battalion. Due to its composition BMA ground units could more effectively interact with attack aircraft, which would lead to a noticeable increase their combat capabilities.
Approximately 1990 BMA car went into the series. Assemblage art began at a factory of the Kazakh SSR, but the exact location of production remains in question: different sources indicate Enterprise Almaty and Uralsk. The same uncertainty exists with regard to the amount of built BMA. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union defense industry managed to produce from 20 to 50 combat vehicles air controllers design V.Archegova.
BMA machine, located in the 344 m and PPI PLC
After the Soviet Union ceased to exist, the construction of such equipment for the Army ceased.
/ Kirill Ryabov, topwar.ru /