Last time on the pages of "IEE" in several other media, a discussion on intermediate-and shorter-range missiles. Some aspects of this problem, which is not reflected in the publications, we would like to tell you more.
In confrontation with the United States, we do not put the first medium range ballistic missiles near the borders of the other side. This U.S. launched its 1958-1961 years BRSD "Thor" and "Jupiter" with nuclear warheads in Turkey, Italy and the UK, reducing the flight time to the objects on the territory of our country from 30 to 8-10 minutes. In 1962, the USSR responded symmetrically placing Cuba its medium range ballistic missiles R-12 with nuclear warheads. The flight time of Soviet missiles to military installations and cities in the U.S. was exactly the same as the U.S. missiles to military installations and cities of the USSR.Such parity
U.S. not satisfied, and they initiated the Caribbean crisis. The crisis was resolved by the withdrawal of Soviet missiles from Cuba, which was followed by the withdrawal of U.S. missiles from Europe. Thus, the threat has been eliminated, which arose after the first deployment of U.S. medium-range ballistic missiles in Europe.
After the Cuban Missile Crisis United States for many years received a kind of "vaccination" from threatening the USSR organize nuclear medium-range missiles in Europe RSD. However, in 1979 it was accepted so-called "dual solution" of NATO, providing accommodation since 1983 in Western Europe nuclear medium-range missiles and negotiating with the Soviet Union on arms control. In taking this decision, the Americans hoped that the Soviet leadership, mindful of the crisis in 1962, no longer will be in place as a response to their medium-range missiles in Cuba, and if he tries, the United States now will not allow this.
One representative of a large family of modern tactical missile" Iskander-M "
planned to deploy 108 ballistic missiles "Pershing-2" and 464 cruise missiles, land-based GLCM BGM-109G. Officially, the deployment of new missiles in Europe justified the need to address the imbalances caused in connection with the deployment of new Soviet MRBM "Pioneer". These missiles were replaced outdated Soviet medium-range missiles R-12 and R-14. While the number of medium-range missiles deployed decreased, although the number of deployed warheads increased as "Pioneers" were equipped with MIRV reentry warhead with three warheads.
As the number of nuclear delivery vehicles medium-range RSD, aviation, including a deck of NATO in 1979 surpassed the USSR almost twice 1800:1000 . The U.S. had superiority over the USSR in the number of warheads on strategic carriers ICBMs, SLBMs, and heavy bombers -11000:7000. At the same time, medium-range missiles from the Soviet Union was more. Britain and France had 178, and the Soviet Union -about 600, of which approximately 100 were located in the Asian part of the country.If
Soviet RSD "Pioneer" never threatened the United States, the U.S. missiles "Pershing-2", having a high accuracy of the CWE -35 ... 40 m and penetrating warhead, creating the threat of "decapitating" nuclear strike on command posts higher command and control units strategic nuclear forces and public administration.
In 1980, the negotiations on the limitation of nuclear weapons in Europe, the Soviet side suggested a moratorium on the deployment of a new nuclear missile medium-range NATO and the Soviet Union, that is to "freeze" in the quantity and quality level of these weapons existed, including forward-based nuclear States in this area.
In 1981, the Soviet Union put forward a motion calling for a reduction of medium-range nuclear based in Europe, including aircraft -carriers of nuclear weapons, about three times, to a level of 300 units for each of the parties.
In December 1982, the Soviet side proposed to establish the equality of both the number of RSD in Europe, and the number of aircraft -carrier medium range. At the same time the Soviet Union was to be left as many missiles had England and France.
In October 1983, the USSR expressed readiness in Europe have no more than 140 missiles "Pioneer", which is less than the RSD had France and Britain. At the same time the United States had to forgo their RSD in Europe. The proposal provides for the equal sides ceilings on airplanes -media medium range. United States did not accept any of these proposals.
In 1981, Reagan proposed the so-called zero option, which included the U.S. refusal to install missiles "Pershing-2" and cruise missiles in Western Europe in exchange for the elimination of all Soviet medium-range missiles in Europe and in the Asian part of the country. Thus, it was proposed to eliminate the actual detailed grouping of more than 600 missiles in exchange for giving the U.S. plans to deploy missiles that were still under development.
In March 1983, Reagan announced his readiness to go to an intermediate version, provides for the equal amount of the USSR and the U.S. RDA. While French and British missiles and aviation is not covered by the proposed agreement. In November 1983, the U.S. proposed to establish an equal number of warheads ceilings RSD parties in an amount of 420 units. None of the American options, except zero, did not provide the U.S. refusal to deploy new missiles in Europe. In late 1983, the U.S. began to deploy new medium-range missiles in Europe .
was necessary to force the U.S. to withdraw its RSD of Europe. In response, November 24, 1983 the Soviet Union announced the cancellation of the moratorium on the deployment of its medium-range missiles in the European part of the country, placing in Czechoslovakia and the GDR tactical missiles with extended range "Temp-S, deployment in ocean areas and seas means that its characteristics will be adequate to the threat posed by the USSR and its allies, the U.S. missiles in Europe.
was developed the following action plan. Decided to create a new mobile missile system "Speed". Rockets `Speed` planned to place on the territory of the GDR and Czechoslovakia, and target them to the locations of missiles "Pershing-2", cruise missiles and other objects of NATO, threatening their lightning destruction. It was also envisaged place in Chukotka BRSD "Pioneer". Their zone of action covering the whole Alaska and north-western part of Canada.When modifying
warhead missiles and placing it on a light warhead instead of three in range missiles "Pioneer" has a significant part of the United States. Threatened destruction proved lightning radar post Clergy system of missile warning EWS "Bimyus" Alaska radar early warning system "Cobra Dane" on the island of Shemya and "Parks" in North Dakota.
natural that such steps would lead to an international crisis. Assumed that the way out of it would be to remove the American medium-range missiles from Europe in exchange for the withdrawal of Soviet missiles "Speed" from Czechoslovakia and the GDR and missiles "Pioneer" -Chukotka. While fully preserved grouping of more than 400 missiles "Pioneer", which would be based on their original places. However, actively supports this plan CPSU General Secretary Yuri Andropov, Defense Minister Dmitri Ustinov died in 1984. When Chernenko work on rocket "Speed" continued.
If the first deployment of U.S. medium-range missiles in Europe was eliminated on an equal footing -the USSR and the United States removed its missiles forward deployed, were located near the borders of the other hand, the second elimination of missiles called parity is difficult.
U.S. missiles eliminated provocatively placed outside its territory, close to our borders. And the Soviet Union eliminated missiles, which are located in their own territory, including missiles based in the Asian part of the country. At the same time the Soviet Union in the implementation of the INF Treaty had to eliminate twice more missiles than the U.S. 1846:846, and almost three times as many launchers 825:289. Our liquidated missiles could carry nearly four times more nuclear warheads than the U.S. 3154:846.
only kind of missiles, which the U.S. destroyed under the INF Treaty is more than the Soviet Union, it GLCM 443:80. However, this exchange had neither for us nor for the United States of fundamental importance. The U.S. had a large group of marine cruise missiles "Tomahawk" and air ALCM-B-based, with the same performance characteristics. The total number of cruise missiles, sea or air in 1994 was planned to increase to 7 thousand units. So that the deployment of ground-based Raman unlike missiles "Pershing-2" does not create any fundamentally new threat to the USSR.
mobile missile system with two-stage solid-fuel medium-range ballistic missile RSD-10" Pioneer "in the West known as the" Sabre "can now be seen only in the museum .In other classes
USSR destroyed far more missiles than the United States. In the class of medium-range missiles, unless you consider our obsolete missiles R-12 and R-14, per single-warhead missiles "Pershing-2" we gave 2.8 triblock missiles "Pioneer" . Was completely eliminated grouping shorter-range missiles "Temp-S" 718 missiles, 135 launchers, without receiving virtually nothing! U.S. missiles of this type in service already had. Obsolete missiles "Pershing 1A" 170. were decommissioned, stockpiled, and they remained only one non-deployed launcher.
Also, not getting anything in return from the United States, was liquidated group of 239 new ballistic missiles "Oka". Maximum range missiles "Oka" 400 km does not fall into the range of 500-5500 km ranges of missiles covered by the Treaty . However, Gorbachev went to activate the rocket part to be eliminated under the INF Treaty. At the same time, the U.S. abandoned the Soviet proposal to reduce the Treaty lower bound flight range missiles to 400 km liquidated.
Thus, the United States not only have Missiles "Oka", but retained for itself the production flight testing and deployment of developing ballistic missiles of the same class, "Lance-2", which had a range 450-470 km.
a result, after liquidation in accordance with the INF Treaty missiles "Oka" USSR could not get near its borders deployed missiles of the same class, "Lance-2." It would be a double loss. However, the need for a rocket "Lance-2" dropped because of dramatic changes in the military-strategic situation in the world after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the abolition of the Warsaw Treaty Organization. Schultz called the decision in respect of "Oka" "divine gift" on the part of Gorbachev . He also said that " this step was so one-sidedly favorable to the West, he was not sure, the Soviet leaders would be able to pull this off, whether in Moscow democratic legislatures ".
more than two decades, our country did without ballistic missiles and medium-range ground-based. Since then, the situation has changed significantly, and for six countries have medium-range missiles land-based. Among them, China, Iran, North Korea, India, Israel, Pakistan.
of increasing threats to the medium-range strategic stability can be achieved in different ways. One of them -the improvement of the strategic nuclear forces so that they ensure nuclear deterrence at all operational areas without intermediate-range missiles. The advantage of this way is to reduce the range of in-production and armed missiles.However
distraction of the ICBM combat missions on medium-range retaliatory capability reduces strategic nuclear forces on enemy targets located at intercontinental ranges. It is possible that under deploying U.S. global missile defense system and the growth of medium-range threats in the SNF capacity is insufficient for nuclear deterrence in all strategic areas.
Another way -out of the INF Treaty and the deployment of intermediate-range and shorter-range land-based. The article by Academician Alexei Arbatov, "look before you leap" presented convincing arguments showing unreasonableness of such a step for Russia. Russia`s withdrawal from the INF Treaty would be "indulgence" for U.S. deployment in Europe of new medium-range missiles in addition to the already placed there missile defense. Of course, they can deploy these missiles, the first coming out of the treaty, as they came out in 2002 of the indefinite ABM Treaty.
THIRD WAYBesides two
set options for solving the problem of nuclear deterrence is another -to deploy medium-range missiles or airborne sea, which are not covered by the INF Treaty. However, in accordance with the START Treaty medium range ballistic missiles sea-based, hosted on submarines will be counted equally with intercontinental range SLBM. Deployment of intermediate-range SLBMs by reducing the number of intercontinental range SLBM reduce potential retaliation SNF towards North America, which is unacceptable.
Option airborne BR medium range to 5 December 2009 fell under the ban of the START-1. This treaty prohibits the manufacture, flight testing and deployment of ballistic missiles "air-surface" ASBMs with a range greater than 600 kilometers. The START Treaty does not prohibit the testing and deployment of ballistic missiles "air-surface". It missiles of this class nuclear equipment identified as one of the types of heavy bomber nuclear armaments.
as possible carriers BR appropriate to consider medium-range aircraft, not attributable to the current START Treaty heavy bombers. One such aircraft is the bomber Tu-22M3. In 1990 JSC "Tupolev" GosMKB and "Rainbow" worked out the use of modernized Tu-22M3 as a launch platform for the launch vehicle "Skif", dedicated to the orbit spacecraft. The three-stage liquid rocket "Scythian" was to be suspended under the fuselage of the bomber. Launch mass was 17 tonnes Start envisaged at an altitude of 12 km at a speed of 1800 km airplane/hour.
carried out in 70-80s study showed the possibility of creating a compact monoblock ICBMs with a launch weight of 11-15 tons in the mid-70s as part of research "Swirl" Design Bureau "Arsenal" them. MV Frunze developed mobile missile systems of intercontinental range. Starting weight monoblock solid-ICBM was 13.5 m, length 11.4 m, diameter casing -1.28 m 80s -early 90s by the Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology developed mobile missile system "Courier" with compact solid-single-warhead ICBMs. This missile had a launch weight of about 15 tons, a length of 11.2 m, diameter casing -1.36 m
was fully implemented ground testing missiles, but in accordance with the agreement between the leaders of the USSR and the U.S. to develop an ICBM "Courier" and American ICBMs compact "Midzhetmen" was discontinued in October 1991. Even lower launch weight and dimensions had to develop "Yuzhnoye" liquid ICBM "Spear-R" missile complex mobile ground-based. In 1985 he released the draft design of the complex. Launch mass "Spear-R" was 10.9 tons, length -12.9 m, and the diameter of the body -1,15 m
mrbm airborne do5500 km by using at the start altitude and airspeed media, as well as because of the lower than ICBM flight range will have a launch mass of about 7-8 tons Taking into account the design study on the complex "Skif" as a carrier of such missiles can use the modernized Tu-22M3. In accordance with the provisions of the prisoner in the 2010 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty Tu-22M3 is not a heavy bomber.
The Protocol to the START Treaty, "the term" heavy bomber "means a bomber of a type, any of the bombers, which meets any of the following criteria: and its range is more than 8000 b KMiles it is equipped for nuclear cruise missiles air-launched long-range ".
bomber Tu-22M3 does not meet any of the above criteria. Are in service of Russian aircraft heavy bombers of the START Treaty covers only Tu-95MS and Tu-160. In accordance with the Protocol to the START Treaty, "the term" heavy bomber equipped for nuclear armaments "means a heavy bomber equipped for nuclear ALCMs, nuclear missiles" air-surface "or nuclear bombs".Since
Tu-22M3 is not heavy bomber, when armed ballistic missiles "air-surface" it would not be considered a heavy bomber equipped for nuclear armaments. In this START Treaty places no restrictions on the number of deployed and non-bombers that are not heavy bombers. Ladder warheads contract provides only for deployed heavy bombers. Thus, Tu-22M3 bombers and warheads placed on them BR will not be counted in the total number of warheads, as well as deployed and non-carriers, limited by the START Treaty.
Another possible carrier of the BR medium range may become the MiG-31. In 80 years on the basis of the fighter aircraft developed anti-satellite missile "Contact". The complex consists of a carrier aircraft MiG-31D developer OKB. Mikoyan and rocket 79M6 "Contact" developer OKB "Torch". By the early 90-ies were completed flight tests of the aircraft carrier. Due to the withdrawal of funding for the complex have been discontinued.In
90s OKB Mikoyan OKB "Vympel" based on the MiG-31 system developed spacecraft orbital rocket with RN-C. At the same time, a group of scientists at the Moscow Aviation Institute with the support of specialists OKB Mikoyan considered the option of using the carrier aircraft MiG-31 aircraft to launch missiles "Micron". The missile, which had a launch weight of 7 tons, a length of 7.25 m, a width of 3.7 m with rudders, was put into the orbit of 250-300 km payloads weighing 150-200 kg.
From 2005 to 2007 based on the MiG-31D was designed aircraft missile complex "Ishim" designed to remove payloads into space. The head developer of the aircraft carrier was RAC "MiG", and rockets -Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering. By plane carrier MiG-31 And had placed three-stage rocket, which had a launch weight of 10.3 tons, a length of 10.76 m and a diameter of 1.34 m body envisaged launch of a height of 15-18 km at a flight speed of the aircraft carrier in 2120 -2230 km/h.
Given the complex elaborations "Ishim" may use the upgraded MiG-31 as a carrier of the BR medium range with a starting weight up to 10 tons missile system of medium-range ballistic missiles will have a high survival rate due to the high loss rate of the aircraft from the airfield at Receiving a missile warning. MiG-31, equipped with medium-range BR would not meet any of the criteria of a heavy bomber, and accordingly on the plane and placed on it by the BR and their warheads will not apply quantitative restrictions of the START Treaty.
missile system of medium-range ballistic missiles airborne can be used for solving the problem of nuclear deterrence in Europe, eastern and southern areas of strategic aircraft carrier without going beyond the country`s airspace. Due to the flight range of aircraft carrier can carry out such a complex nuclear deterrence simultaneously on several strategic areas. Missile systems with BR medium-range ground-based features such do not possess.
Aviation BR medium range can be unified with missiles designed for real time interception of spacecraft and satellites. One of the options that reduce costs and shorten the time of development of medium-range missile system is the creation of BR using elements of existing operational-tactical ballistic missile "Iskander-M".
Thus, there are now technically possible to build and deploy ballistic missiles, medium-range air-launched out prohibitions and quantitative restrictions of the Treaty on the INF and START. Feasibility of this new trend of improving nuclear forces should be determined as a result of the relative military and economic evaluation with other options to maintain the strategic balance.
/ Michael Kardashev, nvo.ng.ru /