(son of Henry II). The living embodiment of the ideal image of the medieval knight, Richard has accomplished many well-documented valorous deeds. In addition, the Third Crusade, he established himself as one of the few literally for all Ages brilliant generals. Ruler, he was mediocre, since virtually all his reign spent abroad: the Crusaders (1190 -
1191 gg.) in captivity in Austria (1192 - 1194 gg.) and then long fought with the French king Philip II Augustus (1194-1199 gg., with almost the entire war was limited exclusively to the siege of the fortress. only major victory Richard in this war - taking Zhi-tensor (near Paris; 1197g.). He died from wounds received at the siege of Chalus (at Limoges). inherit his younger brother John (reigned 1199-1216 gg.).
After his victory, William came to the throne under the guise of legitimate succession to the throne. He possessed no law of war as a conqueror, and confiscated estates only home of Harold and his followers as the property subject to confiscation rebels. Erly mighty north, was not the decisive moment Harold no help later revolted, but were also overthrown and only increased their estates royal property.
Wilhelm joined the practice of the principle of legality of conquest, he gave away most of the collected by confiscating-
tion about 300 possessions accompanied him martial combatants, of which about 40 so-called lords, or at a later designation barons got a very large possessions with the obligation set for it at the disposal of the king's knights. The number of given on a trespass (servitia debita) knights, including those who had delivered the higher clergy, was in total about 5000.
To perform this duty barons, for his part, attracted subordinate themselves vassals, without, however, that the number of Real Made number given on a blanket trespass knights, as Baron could keep the knights in his court and settle them, as well as gain they only can-
Lord - and the Anglo-Saxon name literally means breadwinner. Title Baron came to England with the conquest and means the same as homo - vassal. Initially it has spread, apparently all received directly from King County, but the concept is gradually narrowed and became only apply to the largest of them, the largest of which received the title of earls.
ment necessary. These knights were called from the court containing Mr (super dominium).
Baron, who had put 60 knights, already belonged to the most powerful earls.
Major royal vassals were exceptionally Normans, among vassals found several small Saxon names, and among them podvassalov was pretty much due to the fact that Saxon resistances were in agreement with the winners and received them in the service. The total number of men endowed with fiefs, including here the Saxons (as Danes) and the Normans under William was about 5000, of which about one-quarter had on a former local population, the rest were lodged William knights who spoke French. The number of the latter ranged from 3 thousand to 4 thousand people. Along with vested lennymi Norman possessions in the service of the king or the country have remained strong and a fair number nenadelennyh. But even including the last, number of soldiers, who were able to not only win, but also a long time to establish itself in such a large, populated once very warlike people the country, with a population of 1.8 million souls, yet very little.
Gradually the number of knights, granted fiefs, increased slightly. When the great-grandson when the Conqueror, Henry II, in the 1166 census was made, it appeared that the number of knights was about 6000 400. Both secular and spiritual magnates have given so much of their fiefs vigilantes that knights often had more than their obliged to deliver once Wilhelm. In-
Chin this, I think, lay not only in their desire for the sake of his power to have more soldiers at their disposal, as they in fact could keep them at their courts. It turns out that it was during the Civil War when King Stephen knightly new county was created little. The reason for this should rather be sought in the fact that bestowed fiefs knights were more noble warriors. Thus, by award lennogo estates, sacrificing part of their property barons created yourself squads of people standing up socially and more satisfying their brilliance and ambition, and at the same time outstanding achievements rewarded his loyal subjects. All the value of such compensation can be by-
Stich only to realize that it was not the only one tangible rewards, but only that it made it possible to establish the remuneration of any kind: it was unavailable warrior who lived at the court of the lord.
any fixed amount for the county knight, for example 5 or more allotments, was not. Military conscription was distributed between counties also scoping. King established a number of duties only in the most general form, in large numbers, multiples of 10 and 5, and laid them on a large minded people in proportion to their holdings. Individual directly or indirectly gifted fief, and establishing the Knights had possession of the most diverse values, up to small plots of land.
Large possessions which gave William the Conqueror in the county, not lying nearby, and were scattered throughout the kingdom. This was done with conscious intention is clearly to prevent their coalescence into closed principality, as it was on the Continent. Due to this practice, despite the existence of major barons normal mandate nskie kings were able to run through the county officials and sheriffs. Position management does not become fief. Name Earl turned into a simple title. True, the grandson of William, King Stephen, the situation began to resemble that which was on the continent: the barons seized government and law office, built castles, minted coin, private wars fought among themselves, but Stephen's successor, Henry II, the first Plantagenet, all suppressed it again, stall locks to the base and restoring strict royal authority. Permanent advantage on the side of the royal power was the result not only of the skilful distribution of land holdings, but also the result of the national contradiction between chivalry and the people, obstacle-
lished their unification against the royal power.
Division of Public Administration (sherifstvo) and the Barony of each other, the Norman kings of England thereby prevented penetration of continental feudalism to England, and destroyed all the independence of individual regions, created a large, strongly centralized kingdom and yet retained a military unit of its era, the basis of which is a qualified single fighter. They reached that introduced an entirely new element: money, cash reward, taxes.
William demanded that his vassals into force massed lennogo appeal to him, and the largest of them led to the assigned number for each podvassalov, but very soon this technique has proved to be impractical or impossible. Already the Wilhelm during a raid of the Danes in 1084, instead of convening his vassals, set the tax at 6 shillings for each and put the money collected set of mercenaries.
Until the time of Edward (Edward I, 1272 - 1307 gg.) that continued to exist side by side, then one after another, and call feudal mercenary. Magna banned mercenary is a powerful and dangerous tool in the hands of the king. It happened that the noble barons refused to receive a cash payment for the military services, as they realized that the strength of their political position regarding King based only on natural feudal obligations, but the natural course of things was stronger such political considerations, and mercenary triumphed.
From the outset, it was unclear how far does military service minded people. To some Frankish Count Loire Charlemagne could order his troops to go into your account and within one month trek on the other
Party Elbe, because the graph, being somewhere between a lord and an officer could raise funds countywide. From English as Baron King could not demand that he set his knights at his own expense for an unlimited time, for example, the war on the continent. Soon in England as on the continent, has become the rule, that their costs should serve as a vassal of 40 days: however, whether this refers to the service and on the other side of the canal remained controversial, as part of the barons was met with a direct refusal. But limited six weeks of the war in general could not be anything other than divisive neighbors. Only when the riots, predatory incursions and border feuds with the Scots or uelstsami really resorted to feudal duties in the strict sense of the word at all, she was replaced by a monetary tax. Transitional stage were similar to the requirements of the Carolingian chapter house, co
Equipment and exhibiting several knights one soldier.
In 1157 Henry II made an expedition (maximam expeditio-nem) vs Wales: for the expedition fitted out every two knights third duo milites de tota Anglia tertium pararent. In 1198, Richard I demanded for a hike in Normandy every nine knights outfitted tenth.
can trace this development in the Abbey of St. Albani. In abbot was 6 knightly fiefs, each county was distributed among many podvassalami. When the king summoned his army, the various owners of the county combined and each exhibited a knight. Sometimes this was done so that they hired a knight or two sergeants, and sometimes they have chosen for duty of any of their own environment, paying the appropriate amount of his equipment and maintenance.
It would be wrong to characterize this as a simple procedure for the mercy of military conscription in the sense that each knight or baron in each case given a choice: either comply with the order, or pay a certain sum of money. More correct is the assumption that the kings held firmly this basic rule: do not lose their appeal following lennye rights, but that punishment may be weakened, making some money in the coffers.
So pomestnichestva large military value now appears thus that in this class of society the military spirit is passed from generation to generation by tradition, by education and exercise, whereby the medium of this class can recruit soldiers. Not effect the-
shows lord, and in its sole discretion, wanting to achieve rewards, playing in the English knight hike, thus supporting, military tradition and valor.
mercenary and chivalry in the British military structure soon pushes the notion of feudal law far into the background.
decree from King John in 1205 prescribes that when the first news of the enemy's attack with weapons just need to rush to the defense. Owns an estate in case of absence without valid (not disease) causes at all times deprived of this estate for themselves and their offspring. Having no possessions get together with their descendants into slavery and must pay a poll tax in year 4 of the denarius. No one because of poverty can not evade conscription, who appeared as fed by the king. Sheriffs and balivy (bailiffs) were everywhere, at markets and fairs, to notify about this order and under the personal responsibility to report to the king about each draft evaders.
new decree on the arming of Henry III from 1252 takes as its starting point a prescription from Henry II in 1181, but the latter goes further. While Henry II categorically enjoins all its weapons only-
freely, Henry III distributes it to all persons from 16 - to 60-years of age, citizens of cities, freeholders, and other villeins (cives burgenses, libere tenentes villanos et alois); if Henry II distinguishes only 3 class, now they become 5, the first horse requires service, the penultimate stage, along with a sword and dagger, and should have a bow and arrows, the last stage - the owners of the smallest land owners with a movable or more than 40 shillings required to have only scythes, daggers, knives and etc.
Small arms. These militias should be led by the constables and chief constables.
Separation of the English people against conscription into 5 classes with step arms compared with the same division into 5 classes in Roman Centuries. External resemblance is striking, but the difference lies in the fact that the Romans talking about the order set in a disciplined army, the British also - about the militia that existed only on paper almost parallel which contained genuine host.