Once at the end of 1943 came armed with heavy tank IS-1, based on it decided to create a fully-armored self-propelled. Initially, it met some difficulties: it IS-1 body had markedly narrower than the KV-1S, based on which in 1943 was created heavy self-propelled gun SU-152 with 152-mm howitzer-gun. However, the efforts of designers Chelyabinsk Kirov plant and gunners under FF Petrov failed. Before the end of 1943 was released 35 self-propelled guns armed with 152-mm howitzer-gun.
ISU-152 features a powerful artillery and armor protection system, good driving characteristics. Availability panoramic and telescopic sights can fire both direct fire and indirect fire. Easy design and operation contributed to the rapid development of its crews that in wartime was crucial. This machine is armed with 152-mm gun-howitzer, commercially available from the end of 1943. Its mass is equal to 46 m, the thickness of armor - 90 mm, the crew consisted of 5 people. Diesel engine capacity of 520 liters. s. car accelerates to 40 km / h
Later on the chassis of ISU-152 self-propelled guns were developed some heavy self-propelled guns, which were equipped high-power gun calibers 122 and 130 mm. Weight ISU-130 was 47 m, thickness of armor - 90 mm, the crew consisted of 4 people. Diesel engine with 520 hp. s. provide speed of 40 km / h Mounted on self-propelled 130-mm gun was a naval gun modification adapted for mounting in the conning tower machine. To reduce the gas content of the crew compartment is supplied with a purge system stem compressed air cylinders of five. ISU-130 frontline passed the test, but for service has not been accepted.
Heavy self-propelled gun ISU-122 was armed with a 122 mm field gun model 1937, adapted for installation in the SU. And when the design team, headed by FF Petrov, created a 122-mm tank gun of the sample in 1944, it also installed on the ISU-122. Machine with a new tool called the ISU-122S. Gun model 1937 had the piston seal and the sample 1944 - semi-automatic generator. Furthermore, it is equipped with a muzzle brake. All this has increased the rate from 2.2 to 3 rounds per minute. Armor-piercing shell of both systems weighed 25 kg and had an initial speed of 800 m / s. Ammunition consisted of rounds of separate loading.
Several different angles vertical guidance tools: on the ISU-122, they ranged from -4 ° to +15 °, and on the ISU-122S - from -2 ° to +20 °, traverse angles were identical - 11 ° to each side. Combat weight ISU-122 was 46 tons
Self-propelled gun ISU-152 based on the JS-2 anything except artillery systems, no different from the ISU-122. It was installed 152 mm howitzer-gun model 1937 with piston gate rate which was 2.3 shots per minute.
ISU-122 crew as ISU-152 consisted of commander, gunner, loader, lock and driver. Conning hexagonal shape is fully protected by armor. Instrument, secured on the machine (on the ISU-122S in the mask), offset to starboard. In the fighting compartment, except arms and ammunition, were fuel and oil tanks. The driver sat in front of the gun to the left and had their monitoring devices. Commander's cupola was absent. Command was watching through the periscope in the roof of the cabin.
Soviet heavy self-propelled artillery played an enormous role in achieving victory. They are well-proven in the street fighting in Berlin and in the assault of powerful fortifications Koenigsberg.
In 50 years of self-propelled ISU preserved in the Soviet Army, passed as tanks IS-2 upgrade. Overall, the Soviet industry produced more than 2,400 ISU-122 and more than 2800 ISU-152.
In 1945 on the basis of the JS-3 was designed by another piece of heavy self-propelled guns, gets the same name as the machine developed in 1943 - ISU-152. Feature of this machine is that the common front plate was given a rational angle, and the lower side hull plates were reverse angles. Combat and control department were combined. Mechanic located in the conning tower and was watching through the periscope viewing device. Specially created for this machine targeting system linked to the commander gunner and driver. However, the many advantages of a large angle walls of the cabin, the significant value of the gun barrel recoil-howitzers and overlapping branches substantially obstructed the work crew. Therefore, the ISU-152 sample 1945 adopted was not accepted. The machine was manufactured in one piece.
The performance characteristics of the ISU-152
Combat weight, t 46
Length, mm 9050
Height, mm 2480
Armor, mm 60-90
Ground pressure kg/cm2 0,8
Speed (highway), km / h 35
Cruising (highway), 145 km
Wall height, m 1,0
Trench, m 2,50
Fording depth, m 1,30
Option Type Model No. Capacity, l. s.
1 D B-2IS, 12-cylinder, V-twin, liquid-cooled four-stroke, 520 liters capacity. s. at 2000 rev / min 1520
Option Type Caliber, mm Model No. Ammunition / 1
Cannon 152 ML-20S January 20
Country of manufacture of the USSR
A developer CHKZ
Year of adopting 1943