Air Defence Missile System (ADMS) Sea Cat melee designed to combat low-flying subsonic air attack weapons at ranges of up to 6km and altitudes up to 3km. Complex Sea Cat various modifications in service with the Royal Navy of Great Britain from 1961 to mid-80s, they were equipped with virtually all classes of ships. Currently removed from service and replaced by the UK fleet SAM Sea Wolf.
complex designed by Shorts Brothers (now Thales Air Defence Ltd - Belfast Northern Ireland). Tests of the first version of the complex, the designation GWS-20, in the armed frigate Decoy began in 1961.
During his long service repeatedly modernized complex - Sea Cat SAM is part of maritime air defense systems of several modifications: GWS-20, GWS-21, GWS-22 and GWS-24. In 1970. control means have been developed using solid SAM modules allowing to 2/3 of their lower weight and reduced dimensions. As a result, had the opportunity to organize complex on small patrol boats, ships hovercraft. Helicopter version was developed complex, received the name of Hellcat. Based on the Sea Cat SAM also established overland option antiaircraft complex short-range - Tigercat (see photo). Complex Tigercat adopted for Sun Brazil, Iran and Nigeria.
Complex Distributed widely exported, they were equipped warships Australia, Germany, Sweden, Brazil (class frigates Niteroi), Chile (Leander class frigates British-built), Nigeria (class frigates Vosper Mk9), Indonesia (class frigates Ahmad Yani) and other countries. In the 1990s, a program of modernization of the fire control system complexes Sea Cat, standing armed Navy of Brazil and Chile. Currently complex almost everywhere removed from service or is it replaced with more modern and efficient. In particular, the replacement program complex Sea Cat in the armed frigates Indonesian Ahmad Yani the SAM Mistral and Brazilian Niteroi - by Albatros-Spada.
There are two modifications to GWS-20 SAM - for destroyers and patrol ships. They use a single SAM Sea Cat and have the same construction scheme and action. The difference lies in the constructive design of some elements of controls and SAM launchers (for destroyers it lasts for 4 missiles for patrol boats - 12 missiles). Accommodation on patrol ship with two SAM launchers, according to experts, creates ample supply of missiles and does not require them to feed from the holds of the ship as the destroyer.
Tools Zour complex include:
post target tracking and rockets,
computing devices guidance,
transmission station radio controls aboard SAM
remote control launcher.
These devices are mounted on a rotating platform in the azimuthal plane and on the launcher (transfer station radio controls).
as detection and targeting system for both types used SAM radar detection as well as means of identification of goals and target mounted on ships and included in the overall management of their fire. Operator fire control complex Sea Cat, located on the main point of the fire control of the ship, according to radar detection and identification means selects a target for shelling and remotely deploys her azimuth controls Zour, thereby effecting target designation.
Post tracking has wide binocular sight (sight), designed to "capture" and target tracking, as well as tracer Zour. The optical axis of the sight can be rotated by the operator in elevation and azimuth planes with two handles. The right arm is also mounted joystick to control the mouse in its SAM. Together with the pivot axis remote sight and directing the launcher. In a modification to escort ships accompanying the post to replace the device with binocular sight mounted on a pedestal with a light elastic base. Upgraded post tracking complex Sea Cat television apparatus equipped with a variable focal length Marconi Elliot Avionics type 323, providing automatic tracking tracer Zour.
launcher in both versions of the complex is stationary (the base is attached to the deck of a ship in a certain place). It allows to open SAM launches guide of finite length at variable angles imparted via electrohydraulic mechanisms guidance. Charged launcher manually by remote command from the remote control is given in position for loading - a guide attached to the upright position. Time manual zaryazhadiya quad launcher 40c (according to other sources - 3min). By launcher missile destroyer served cellars with a winch. Some of their stock can be stored in fiberglass containers on the deck. To protect it from sea water and weather factors, each SAM covered elastic plastic encapsulation, which can not be removed before starting. Weight quad PU in firing position - 4.7t.
To organize in small patrol boats, ships hovercraft instead quad launcher developed structed PU significantly lower weight - 1.270t.
Zour Sea Cat subsonic, single-stage, built on the aerodynamic configuration "rotary wing" (see diagram). Equipped with a dual-mode solid propellant. Separating has no parts in flight. When flying at maximum range uses a passive part of the trajectory. Induced by radio command telenavedeniem method "covering objectives".
missile consists of compartments: the nose cone with a non-contact infrared detonation device, warhead, guidance electronics equipment, drive rotary wings, solid propellant sustainer mode SRBs pilot mode and engine nozzles. SAM compartments fastened together by spring locks, reliable electrical connection between them is provided by spring contacts with face abutting the assembly to the appropriate contacts PCB.
rotary wings (leading edge sweep angle of 60 °) are made of fiberglass impregnated with a resin and hard-filled foam. On the front and tail edges of the wings are placed sensors shock detonation device, and two of them, moreover, radio control and receiver antenna pointing. Stabilizers are arranged in planes offset by 45 ° relative to the wings. Stabilizers on all of similar design with wings, made nests for tracers (typically use two tracer). Rotary wing servos are driven by hydraulic drive, which acts on solid propellant sustainer discharged gases passing through the hydraulic pressure accumulator. Fuel kickoff and sustainer solid propellant burns consistently.
There are two versions of SAM Sea Cat: Mod.0 equipped with a warhead weighing 15.5kg (2.5kg explosive), Mod.1 - warhead weighing 27.5kg (19kg explosive).
GWS-24 - a set designed specifically for weapons frigates Type-21 fire control system WSA-4 skompleksirovana radar detection "Type-912" (the British equivalent of the Italian radar RTN-10). This powerful radar I-range target detection provides type "plane" at a distance of up to 40km and type "cruise missile" - at a range of up to 20km.
firing range, km
wingspan and stabilizers, mm
tests and operation
Currently, there are no reliable data on the use of the complex "Seacat", members of the armed Iranian frigates "Vosper" Mk 5, during the Iran-Iraq war, so the only confirmed case of combat employment of this complex should be considered as the Anglo-Argentine conflict in 1982. By the time the SAM "Seacat" represented an outdated system, but was part of the air defense systems of a large number of British ships involved in the conflict (for example, an aircraft carrier "Hermes", equipped with systems GWS-22).
During the conflict, there have been numerous cases of SAM "Seacat" various modifications. However, despite the fact that the official British statistics puts on his account a few downed Argentine aircraft, actual combat effectiveness of the system was low. It is impossible not to mention the fact that the British frigate "Ardent", sunk by Argentine aircraft as a result of the bombing, was armed with SAM GWS-24 "Seacat". The positive aspects include high reliability missiles "Seacat" and the complex as a whole. In particular, the fire control system to operate reliably in complex narrow strait zones, amid rugged rocky coast, under the powerful electronic jamming, ie, where complexes with radar guidance principle were ineffective.