Policy Almoravids called at the beginning of the XII century a new movement among the Berber nomadic tribes of the Maghreb. As the initial motion of the Almoravids, the movement clothed in the form of religious preaching about the need to fight against a life of luxury and nobility its violation of Islamic law. Preachers urged to return to the purity of early Islam and strengthen holy war against infidels. As an apostle, this time made Berber theologian Ibn Tumart that required cleansing the Islamic faith from the various innovations, such as common in IX-X centuries the cult of saints, their tombs and sacred places. Assuming this cult idolatry, a departure from the basic Islamic dogma of monotheism, called Ibn Tumart alone his followers monotheists (Arabic - al-muahhidun in Spanish pronunciation - Almohads).
Ibn Tumart declared himself Mahdi rd, ie God sent messiah - reducing faith. In 1121 a large Berber tribe recognized Masmoudi new Mahdia his head. Thus began a theocratic Almohad-sky state, headed by Mahdi infallible, and then his successor, as the infallible imams Khalifa. When Mahdi establish the Supreme Council of the top 10 of his students, who led the public affairs. In important cases, together with the Board met ten yet another council of 50 representatives of the Berber nomads.
Muslims and Monotheism-workers now recognized only followers Mahdia Ibn Tu-March, and all others were called infidels and polytheists-E. War with them was declared a religious duty. First Imam-Caliph Abd al-Mu'min, Ibn Tumart student, captured the city and the entire Maghreb Marrakush, defeated the army of Al-moravidov (1146), and after that won and their estates in Southern Spain. After winning managers almohadskogo movement, in turn, took possession of the lands, estates and wealth of supporters of deposed Almoravids. Almohad managed to strike the Spanish-Christian knight armies in Spain a heavy defeat in 1195, but completely stop reconquest they could not. Almohad Politics in Southern Spain are even more reactionary character than policy Almoravids.
But in its African possessions Almohads not carried out any reforms and did not care about the development of agriculture and animal husbandry. Hope ordinary nomads Almohad replaced by disappointment. In 1212 Almohad-cal forces in Spain were routed militias joined the Spanish-Christian states, and then Reconquista movement made rapid progress. Deprived of support Berber-
Sgiach tribes Almohadskoe State in Africa started to quickly disintegrate into small fiefdoms. Primarily Almogia-dy lost Tilimsan (Tlemcen), then Tunisia, and finally, in 1269, a new dynasty Meranidov robbed Almohad Marrakush and put an end to their rule.
1053-1056 gg. SOARING OF POWER TOUAREG. It lived in the Sahara Berber tribe led by a born military genius Yana ibn Omar captured most oases Western Sahara. Yana ibn Omar founded the dynasty of the Almoravids and began to prepare his people for war.
1054-1076 gg. CONQUEST Almoravids WEST
AFRICA. This meant the first penetration of Islam in sub-Saharan.
1056-1080 gg. CONQUEST Almoravids MOROCCO, atakzhe western and central Algeria. Committed under the leadership of Abu Bakr ibn Umar and his cousin, a brilliant military leader Yusuf ibn Tashfin.
1086-1092 gg. CONQUEST
Almoravid Muslim Spain.
1120-1130 gg. BECOMING Almohad. In the Atlas Mountains Mohammed Ibn Tu-March established militant religious confederation Berbers.
1130-1147 gg. OVERTHROW Almoravids.
headed Almohad Abd al-Mu'min ibn Ali (al-Kumi), a follower of Ibn Tu-March and a great captain.
1145-1150 gg. CONQUEST Almohad Muslim Spain.
1147-1160 gg. Conquest of Almohad Algeria, Tunisia and WESTERN TRIPOLI-
Britain. After his victories Abd al-Mu'min ibn Ali al-Kumi took the title of Caliph.
East Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolitania. Nominal price-
central part of North Africa until the middle of XI century, is still ruled by the Cairo Fatimid caliphs - until the local dynasty Zirids not declared independence. As a punitive measure Fatimids put several wild nomadic Arab tribes ravage the region. On the coast is often hit by raids Pisans, Genoese and Normans; few years, most of the coastal regions was conquered by the Normans. However, when at the beginning of the second half of the XII century the rapid expansion of the Almohad and the Zirids, Arabs and Christians were driven out.
In the second half of XI century, when the Caliph Mustansir (1036 - 1094 gg.), the central government in the Fa-timidskom caliphate weakened. Growing political influence Guaro-
Diya Mamluks led to the same consequences as in the states of the Abbasid and Samanid other: Caliph turned into a mere instrument of the military elite Guards. Flashed frequent rebellions and civil wars of the Turkic and Negro guards. Weaken the military power of the Fatimids led to the loss of Algeria and Tunisia (in the middle of the XI century.) Syria and Palestine were captured by the Seljuks and Western crusaders.
main reason for weakening the central government was further developed by the Institute iqta fund public lands. Iqta surrendered military officials first temporary holding. However, by the end of the domination of the Fa-thymidine iqta in Egypt and actually turned into a hereditary fief (fief). By this time, the predominant part of the land fund, together with sat on land-
Le peasants already in the hands of owners ictus. Adoption of the coastal strip of Syria Crusaders, which Fatimi-ladies in the XII century had to endure heavy fighting, and the capture of Sicily by the Normans (1071) deprived F-thymidine former dominance in the Mediterranean and gradually led to the transition of Mediterranean trade in the hands of the Italian cities.
1015 - 1016gg. EXILE ZIRIDSKIH Corsairs from Sardinia.
1049 INDEPENDENCE Zirids. Mu'izz Emir Ibn Ba-dir declared independence
from the Fatimid and denied otshiizma returning to the Sunni doctrine.
1058-1060 gg. Punitive measures Fatimids.
al-Mustansir sent to ravage the land of Arab nomads Zirids, which they did - except the territory adjacent directly to the capital city of Mahdia.
1060-1091 gg. EXILE Zirids from Sicily.
1087 time capture
Mahdi Genoese and PI-
1135-1160 gg. Norman invasion of North