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Anti-aircraft missile system S-125M Neva-M

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    Basing

    :

    Surface PU

    management system:

    Office for radio

    Warhead:

    high-explosive/fragmentation/incendiary

    Application:

    Antiaircraft

    Country:

    Russia

    Range:

    18 km.

    year development:

    1964

    anti-aircraft missile system with 125m-neva-m S-125M is designed for the defense of the most important administrative, industrial and military installations from attacks of all types of air attack, flying at extremely low and medium altitudes. Provides defeat bombers, fighter-bombers, multi-purpose aircraft and cruise missiles with radar cross section of 0.2m2 and more.

    Development S-125 began in 1956 in the KB-1 (NGOs "Diamond") in response to the aircraft, able to act effectively at low and extremely low altitudes. The terms of reference for the development of this complex provided for the possibility of destroying targets flying at altitudes from 200m to 5km and 6km from distances up to 10km at speeds up to 420 m / s (1500 km / h). After the first test with a missile complex 5V24 appeared addition to the technical task of the SAM. They introduced a new missile 5V27, unified maritime SAM "Wave". This significantly improved performance characteristics (TTC) system.

    In 1961 the complex was adopted into service and receives the designation S-125 "Neva".

    Later

    complex suffered repeated modernization. Its members were further introduced: equipment TV channel viewing purpose, equipment noise control GSHN, equipment remote indicator SRP, equipment distraction PRR "Stand", equipment identification, equipment sound control goals. Complex could bombard ground and surface targets at ranges up to 17 km.

    Upgraded Version of C-125M "Neva-M" adopted in 1964. The export version was designated the S-125 "Pechora". Deliveries of S-125 in the Warsaw Pact countries began in 1969, and a year later, and in other countries. Among them are: Afghanistan, Angola, Algeria, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Egypt, Yemen, India, Iraq, Korea, Cuba, Libya, Mali, Mozambique, Peru, Polshi, Syria, Tanzania, Czech Republic, Finland, Ethiopia, Yugoslavia. < / p>

    last attempt to modernize the S-125 took place in 1980, when it was proposed transfer station missile guidance on digital element base isolation missile and target channels by introducing two control (allowing the introduction of the method of "complete preemption" to increase the distant border the affected area to 42km) and the introduction of channel homing missiles. These proposals were rejected because of fears that the updated C-125 will prevent to begin production of the S-300P.

    now offered the option of upgrading complex, designated S-125-2 "Pechora-2".

    the west complex C-125M was designated SA-3b "GOA"

    Composition

    anti-aircraft missile system with 125m-neva-m The system consists of air defense missile system (ADMS), anti-aircraft missiles (SAMs) or 5V24 5V27 and logistics facilities.

    SAM includes the following basic facilities.

    radar tracking and guidance SNR125M placed on two trailers (UNK control cabin and antenna post CNF) CHP 125M has radar and television channels escorts working in automatic and manual modes. The station is equipped with an automated device missile launch APP-125 designed to determine the boundaries of the affected area air defense system, solving the problem of determining the coordinates of the start point and meeting targets and missiles.

    missile battery comprising 4 5P73 launchers with four missiles each;

    power supply system, including the distribution cubicle ONS and diesel-electric station. You can connect to industrial networks.

    complex for single-channel and dual purpose by the rocket. The target may be picking up two missiles simultaneously.

    Additionally

    SAM can be given to radar detection and targeting of the P-12 and P-15. Funds placed in the SAM transported trailers and semitrailers, the relationship between them is carried by cable.

    decision difficult task of creating a low-altitude air defense missile systems require non-trivial solutions. This, in particular, due to its unusual appearance of the antenna device CNF CHP-125 (see photo).
    To strike at the turn of 10 km target, flying at an altitude of 200 meters at a speed of 420m / s, it is necessary to produce launch when the target at a distance of 17 km, and the tracking of a target lock on (AC) at a distance of 24 km. Then, the detection range of a low-altitude targets should reach (including time dopoisk) 32-35 km. In this case, the elevation of the target detection is only about 0,3 °, and when taking it to the AC - 0,5 °. At such low elevation amount of the reflected radar signal from the ground station exceeds the missile guidance signals reflected from the target. To reduce this influence to S-125 includes two antenna systems. One - no scanning, receiving and transmitting, the other - Scanning, desk. When working at low altitudes the transmitting antenna is set to 1 °. When the transmitter irradiates the ground only the side lobes of the antenna pattern, which is much reduces the signal reflected from the ground. To reduce the tracking error target associated with the so-called "mirror image", which is a direct and multipath interference from the ground target signal receiving antennas both planes rotated angle relative to the horizon at 45 °. This predetermined characteristic form of the antenna post "Pechora".

    Another challenge associated with low altitude goals was to create a hardware selector moving targets (MTI), extracts the signal effectively target the face of strong reflections from the ground clutter. Here also was first developed cherezperiodnoe subtractor on solid ultrasonic delay lines (UDL). Characteristics of MTI significantly superior performance of all existing radar pulse radiation. Suppression of clutter and reflections from stationary objects reached 33:36 dB. To stabilize the pulse repetition period sensing synchronizer CHP aligned to the delay line UDL. Later it was the lack of station since made it impossible to arbitrarily change the repetition rate for the detuning of synchronous impulse noise. To combat the active interference envisaged system jump transmitter frequency in excess of a given level of nuisance.

    Zour 5V27 (V-601, 4K91) two-stage, made of aerodynamic configuration "duck" (see diagram). The first stage is a solid accelerator mounted on it disclosed after starting four stabilizers and two aerodynamic surfaces at the transition connection compartment, providing a reduction flight range of the accelerator after its separation. After these steps separating surface unfolded, leading to intense rotation and braking accelerator with a margin of all or multiple consoles stabilizer and disorderly fall. The second stage is also equipped with a solid-rocket propulsion. Structurally, the second stage consists of a number of sections in which there are radio controlled fuses, control units rudders missiles, high-explosive warhead, power onboard equipment, solid rocket motor, receivers,.

    flight control and missile guidance to the target is carried out by radio, coming from the ground radar guidance and undermining warhead - team of radio controlled fuses when approaching the target to the required distance from the station or guidance. Time of the booster was 2 ... 4, the main engine - up to 20 seconds. To increase the range SAM bridge and on the passive portion of the trajectory, while self-destruct - 49. The missile maneuvers with overdrive up to 6 units. Operating temperature range is from - 40 ° to +50 °.

    Simultaneously with the adoption by the rocket V-601P, work began to expand the combat capabilities of the SAM, including to ensure fire goals with speeds up to 2500 km / h, transonic Target shooting at altitudes up to 18 km, increasing the probability of damage and improve noise immunity purposes.

    were created following modifications missiles:

    5V27G - sealed;

    5V27GP - sealed, reduced to 2.7 km range of the engagement;

    5V27GPS - sealed with an approximate range of the engagement, with a selecting unit, reduces the likelihood of radio controlled fuses tripping on clutter when shooting at low-flying goals;

    5V27GPU - rocket 5V27GP with accelerated prelaunch, which was achieved by applying a high voltage on-board equipment from ground power supply mode prelaunch warming equipment (corresponding revision took place and equipment in the cockpit prelaunch UNK).

    -601 missiles in all modifications issued by the Kirov factory number 32. For education and training of personnel produced mass-size models of rockets, teaching acting and cutting layouts missiles.

    anti-aircraft missile system with 125m-neva-m

    The launch

    - reclining, with launcher 5P73 (see diagram), induced by elevation and azimuth. Transported chetyrehbalochnaya launcher 5P73 (CM-106) was designed to LACA under the leadership of BS Korobov. Launcher without gas deflector and Coil car transported YAZ-214. When firing at low-altitude Target minimum angle of the rocket launch was 9 °. To prevent soil erosion during missile launches around the PU Flooring special rubber-coated metal multi-part circular. Loading the launcher performed consistently two freight-loading machines based on terrain vehicle ZIL-131 or ZIL-157.

    To provide power from an industrial network used mobile transformer substation mounted in the back of a two-axle car trailer. Affixed Division C-125 reconnaissance and target station P-12 nm (P-18) and P-15 were completed its own independent sources of power and AD-10-T/230MAB-8-0/230M AB-4-T/230M.

    Definition nationality aircraft produced imparted Division Ground radar interrogators (NRZ) "Password-3P" (75E6) or "Password-4P" (1L22).

    In the early seventies was modernized complex C-125M in terms of improving the electronic equipment, provide increased immunity channels sighting target and missile control. Introduction of television-optical apparatus and sight target tracking "Karat-2" (9SHZZA) was achieved opportunity to conduct visual support and shelling targets without radar radiation in space. Transmitter is switched to the target channel disposed on the antenna post dummy. Greatly facilitates the work on the aircraft-jammer in visual visibility. However, the optical channel lost sight of the goal efficiency in bad weather and cloud cover, and viewed in the direction of the sun or a pulsed light source, putting the attacking aircraft. In addition, the television-optical sight did not provide information about the distance to the target, limiting the choice of methods and guidance significantly reduced the efficiency of high-speed shooting at Target.

    In the second half of the seventies in the SAM introduced equipment for more efficient use against targets at extremely low altitudes and in firing at ground and sea targets. In addition, the new version was created Zour 5V27D with increased speed flight, which allowed to attack targets "in pursuit." Length SAMs increased, weight increased to 980 kg in weight booster - 407 kg. But for more severe loading 5V27D allowed PU 5P73 only 3 missiles. Complex C-125M1 with rocket 5V27D was adopted for May 3, 1978

    PERFORMANCE

    Affected areas

    altitude range, km

    0.02-18

    Maximum range, km:
    - At an altitude of 0.5km
    - At an altitude of 6km
    - At an altitude of 14-20km


    11
    17
    18

    Maximum

    parameter km

    16

    target kill probability of one missile at a distance of 25km

    0.5

    Features

    immunity

    Disturbance leading off to the corner:
    - Angular tracking error (with GSHN)
    - Angular tracking error (without GSHN)


    2'-3 '
    5'-10 '

    moving target:
    - Angular tracking error targets at the background clutter and clutter
    - Angular tracking error targets "MV"
    - Extension of support targets at the background clutter
    - Work in the ACP background DNA (Rn = 100 km), W / MHz


    3'-5 '
    10 '
    No
    100

    Time Autolock goal for AS, with

    8

    device start

    Mode

    Semi

    Time

    generation data with

    7

    Accuracy evaluation point coordinates meetings km

    1.5-3.0

    distance between the control cabin and the center position, m

    Prior

    20

    Distance from PU to the cab, km

    Prior

    0.07

    5V27 Rocket

    Length,

    5948

    diameter of the first stage, mm

    552

    diameter second stage mm

    379

    Starting weight, kg

    980

    flight speed, m / s

    Prior

    730

    maximum target speed, m / s

    700

    warhead weight, kg

    72

    tests and operation

    anti-aircraft missile system with 125m-neva-m The complex S-125 used in a variety of local wars and conflicts.

    In 1970, 40 battalions of S-125 with the Soviet personnel arrived in Egypt, where he quickly proved to be effective. In July - August 1970 in 16 firings were shot down 9 planes of Israel and three damaged, then Suez on the truce.

    The last case

    combat use S-125 took place in 1999 during the NATO aggression against Yugoslavia. At the outbreak of hostilities Yugoslavian air defense batteries had 14 S-125 with 60 launchers and 4 guides. Some of them have been upgraded by installing a thermal imaging camera and a laser rangefinder to the fire control system, which provided a launch without targeting of CHP-125. However, in general, the effectiveness of the Yugoslav air defense system has been undermined as a result of "aging" of rockets and irregular maintenance. Residual life of the majority, if not all, missiles S-125 is zero. Existing NATO electronic warfare methods were sufficiently effective against the outdated S-125. Divisions were severely damaged, but of 8 ZRDN C-125, which is located around Belgrade and subjected to the most intense attacks, 2 divisions still remain combat ready until the end of the conflict. To reduce losses, the tactics of "Neva" divisions based on the use of its radar only for a short time (23-25 seconds), calculated on the results of the headquarters of the first casualties when striking anti-radar missiles "HARM". Calculations complexes mastered hidden maneuver at a constant moving from position to position and shooting, "ambush". As a result, it is the S-125 shot down an American fighter-bomber, the F-117.





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