The anti-aircraft missile system S-400 "Triumph" designed to engage aircraft jammers, aircraft, airborne warning and control, reconnaissance aircraft, aircraft of strategic and tactical aircraft, tactical, tactical ballistic missiles, medium range ballistic missiles, hypersonic objects and other current and future air attack.
S-400 is based on the existing Russian S-300, however, has a much greater tactical and technical capabilities in comparison with these systems - and by zone, and efficiency, and in the diversity of the targeted objectives. Developers conducted complex evaluation revealed that by "cost - effectiveness" new SAM provides a gain in 2.5 times in comparison with the existing technology. "Triumph" - the only system that can optionally work with multiple types of missiles - as old, were part of the early development (S-300PMU-1, S-300PMU-2), and new ones created recently. With a base version 4 types of missiles having different starting weight and range up S-400 allows you to create multi-layered air defense, expand the affected area of the complex and also has great potential for further modernization,.
high degree of automation of all stages of combat operation, modern element base greatly reduced the wait staff of S-400. Principles and developed system of communication tools "chetyrehsotke" enable integration into various levels of government not only the Air Force, but also other branches of the Armed Forces.
Head developer of the complex - Central Design Bureau "Almaz" (Chief Designer A. Lemansky). In cooperation developers include leading enterprises of the Russian defense industry - IBC "Torch", Novosibirsk Research Institute of instrumentation KB Special Engineering (St. Petersburg) and several others.
air missile system S-400 adopted by the Russian Army RF Government Decree of April 28, 2007 August 6, 2007 First Division has taken up duty in Elektrostal, Moscow region.
the west range was designated SA-20.
In the basic version
air defense missile system S-400 SAM preserved structure of C-300, including the multifunction radar, launchers, autonomous detection and targeting. However, a new set of controls provides greater Channel Targets.
AAMS "Triumph" include:
O command and control point 55K6E;
O radar detection 91N6E.
Anti-aircraft missile complexes 98ZH6E (up to 6 pcs.) consisting of:
O Multifunction control radar 92N2E;
O Launchers 5P85TE2 and / or 5P85SE2 (up to 12 pcs.)
O SAMs 48N6E, 48N6E2, 48N6E3 existing SAM S - 300PM - 1, - 2, as well as advanced missiles and 9M96E 9M96E2 (see photo) and extra high-range missile 40N6E.
Optional imparted by means of:
O all-altitude radar 96L6E;
O 40V6M mobile rig to the antenna post 92N6E.
combat operation - detection, en-route support, distribution of targets between the anti-aircraft missile systems (SAMs), their capture, tracking and recognition, choose the type of missiles, their preparation for launch, launch, missile guidance and seizure for purposes evaluation Accuracy - automated.
command post AAMS has 91N6E radar, creating radar field in the area of the system and carries out in her discovery, en-route tracking and identifying the nationality of all types of targets in the number of hundreds of units. Radar detection 91N6E operates on a circular view, is a three-axis, noise immunity. This radar has an important advantage in comparison with ground radar and combat duty regimes, it is equipped with two-dimensional phased array beam scanning.
According to radar detection command center produces distribution of targets between controlled antiaircraft rocket complexes system provides them with appropriate targeting, and also interacts SAMs under massive attacks of air attack at different altitudes of their combat use, in an atmosphere of intense jamming. Command post AAMS may also obtain additional information about the purposes of trace from higher command posts, which are closed to ground radar and combat duty regimes, or directly from these radars, as well as airborne radar aircraft systems. Integration of radar data obtained at different wavelengths, the most expedient under intense jamming. KP AAMS "Triumph" has the ability to control up to 8 SAM.
SAM equipped monopulse chetyrehkoordinatnymi sectoral multifunction radar (MFRLS) 92N2E. In the combined system is used SAM SAM management, consisting of inertial control over most of the trajectory and homing (GOS) in the area closer to the target. This allows you to step inertial guidance release channels multifunction radar tracking function of SAM and increase the number of simultaneously tracked and engaged targets. Application of active homing heads MFRLS exempt from the tracking function and target illumination for homing site, which also extends the capabilities of the radar on the number of tracked targets. Provides for the application in the active SAM-complexed promising semi-active homing with passive also receive channel capable to search not only the frequency of the received signal, but also to find a target angular coordinates.
One launcher can be placed four extra high-range missiles (400 km), designed to destroy AWACS aircraft, airborne command post, aircraft EW, strategic bombers and ballistic targets with a maximum speed of more than 3000 m / s. She can destroy aircraft outside LOS ground radar guidance. The need to defeat the purposes of horizon required installation on a fundamentally new missile homing (GOS), developed by CDB "Diamond", which can operate as a semi-active and active. In the latter case, the rocket after climbing team from the ground translates into search mode, and finding purpose, induced her own.
In another embodiment, the launcher equipment - four transport - launching container with four rockets or type 9M96E 9M96E2 each. These missiles are capable of hitting all existing and future missile and air assets at medium ranges. According to the purpose Zour 9M96E/9M96E2 similar foreign "Patriot" PAC-3, "Aster-30", but significantly superior in efficiency.
9M96E 9M96E2 fully unified for interspecies applications in defense as Air Force and Navy. Significant reduction in size and weight of these missiles has made it possible to place them in trays four missiles containers with similar dimensions to the containers in which missiles are included in the various embodiments of C-SAM and 300PMU "Reef" - 5V55R, 48N6E, 48N6E2 , 48N6E3. Such an increase in ammunition determines much greater flexibility missiles can effectively resist the depletion of ammunition complex defense by using the massive attacks of the enemy with precision missile systems or their imitations remotely piloted aircraft.
9M96E2 optimized to deal with high-precision weapons, cruise missiles and ballistic targets, including inconspicuous. It does not just destroy air targets, but also undermines their warhead. Probability of hitting one rocket set goals, excluding operational reliability is:
not less than 0.9 for manned purposes, including executed by the "stealth" technology, loitering and committing evasive maneuver;
at least 0.8 for unmanned purposes, including committing evasive maneuver (with probability at least 0.7 is accompanied by destruction of their payload).
9M96E2 Management - combined. In most parts of the trajectory to the target missile control is performed using the onboard inertial system using ground radar information about the coordinates of the goal introduced in the onboard equipment 9M96E2 ground-based air defense system before the start and corrected in flight by radio correction. On the final leg of the flight the rocket is controlled by the data produced by active radar homing.
range missiles hitting the target 9M96E2 - 120 km, and the height of destruction - from 5m to 30 km, weight - 420 kg. While preparing to launch rockets at finding it on the PU is not more than 8 seconds. Assigned service life - 15 years. This period may be extended after technical examination 9M96E2 in their places of operation.
9M96E and 9M96E2 fully unified composition avionics, military equipment and structures different from Rocket 9M96E 9M96E2 on svomi characteristics. Range hitting target - 40 km, and the height of destruction - 20 km, weight - 333 lbs. Power from the engine 9M96E less than 9M96E2 but size and weight they hardly differ.
main feature of modern air and missile defense is the need to destroy the payload means of attack, ie, the result of interception should be such as to prevent the possibility of falling guaranteed payload attacking missiles in the area defended object. Completely exclude this possibility can only be subject to destruction payload objectives during its anti-aircraft missile interception. In turn, a similar result can be achieved either by a direct rocket hit a target warhead compartment and a combination of sufficiently small oversight and effective impact on the target energy of the fragments warhead anti-aircraft missiles.
Unlike their foreign counterparts, and 9M96E 9M96E2 use "cold" vertical start - before starting the main engine they are ejected from the container to a height of 30 meters. During the ascent to the height the rocket using gasdynamic system leans towards the goal. After starting the main engine on the primary and secondary sections of the flight path used inertial guidance with radio (which allows for maximum noise immunity) and directly in the process of intercepting targets - active radar homing.
9M96E 9M96E2 and feature 24-pound fragmentation warhead with a controlled field destruction. Creating and missile 9M96E 9M96E2 information provided managed military equipment was another way to increase the efficiency of destruction of modern air attack. Such combat gear focused on hitting targets with "stopping" action (destruction of structures) in intercepting manned objectives and defeat (neutralization) payload at interception unmanned goals. Arming missiles controlled radio controlled fuses, which are used for adaptation to the meeting to all available information on board the rocket. Radio controlled fuses determines when the warhead detonation, which must be strictly compatible with the velocities of fragments of shrapnel covering vulnerable field goals and the direction in which you want to eject fragments with high-speed expansion. Directional emission controlled fragments carried out using high-explosive fragmentation warhead with a multipoint initiation system. This system team radio controlled fuses to trigger the warhead in a controlled manner (if any information about the phase slip) is initiating its charge in the desired direction of the respective peripheral points of detonation. As a result, there is a redistribution of energy of the explosion of the charge in a predetermined direction, and the main part of the throwing fragmentation field at high speed towards the target. In the absence of information about the phase slip is realized central undermining warhead symmetrical separation of fragments.
important new features AAMS "Triumph" are:
News pairing with lots of existing and emerging sources of ground, air and space-based;
Using the base-modularity, to meet specific requirements of the system when used in the Air Force, Navy and Army;
integrating into existing and future air defense system control groups not only the Air Force, but also the military air defense forces and air defense systems of the Navy.
One of the additional sources of information for the AAMS "Triumph" is the aviation complex radar surveillance and tracking (AK AEW). According to the existing concepts of AK produces AEW enemy air reconnaissance to ensure fighting fighter aircraft and long-range air defense missile systems. Additionally, AK AEW having enhanced survivability compared with ground radar, used for building and early recovery of the radar field.
Description AK AEW in Russia involves a complex A-50 and A-50U modernization with radio systems (RTC) coherent type "Bumblebee-M." Omnidirection antenna system installed on the fuselage of the aircraft IL-76 is capable of detecting high-resolution airborne targets in a wide range of altitudes, fighters manage and share information with them fighting. Provides for the development of promising AK AEW through the use of various types of RTK.
achieved during the development of the AAMS "Triumph" scientific, technical and technological breakthroughs provide a real opportunity to move to the development and production of a new class of weapons - integrated information-firing aircraft and air defense systems.
Integrating information systems firepower and Air Force into a single system can be carried out in the following ways:
creating information-fire system, in which information provision KP AAMS provided all ground and air reconnaissance, and control is carried out by keeping out Zour own information MFRLS (ITS-I);
creating information-fire system, in which information is carried out to ensure all of the above means, but the management is carried out by keeping out the SAM external information (ITS-II);
creating information-fire system, in which information provision is made on all the same tools, but keeping out the SAM management carried on board the fighter (ITS-III).
ITS-I, II, III can be seen as steps creating a comprehensive integrated ILE, in a full-scale integrated ILE they can be regarded as modes of operation, depending on the prevailing situation. Common issues of concern in the creation of these systems is the issue of manual AAMS combat information that meets the requirements of accuracy, discrete, completeness and time of its issuance.
For ITS-I, this problem is not the key, as it provides for work on AAMS own information. Achieved the same level of security of land claims, including manual AAMS, air reconnaissance and information-board equipment is high enough fighters and practically can meet the requirements of the KP AAMS "Triumph" for the solution of the problem.
For ITS-II main sources of information can be fighters and radar AK AEW. Thus, lowering the accuracy issues, discreteness and completeness of information from the radar issue fighters Checkpoint AAMS "Triumph", based on preliminary estimates, we can say that on the balance of time shooting at maximum range SAMs on information from the fighters is possible during the firing cycle Zour, and range detecting radar targets attacked almost maximum range radar. Times and distance from the release of information fighters could be reduced if the target being attacked will be opened AAMS own radar after starting SAM. But such cooperation IA - AAMS at this stage seems to be quite complicated, as before and after start-Zour is difficult to predict the possibility of opening their own goals reconnaissance AAMS.
At interception targets with low radar signature, interception in noisy environments, targets, such as when shooting KR radio horizon for informational support from AK AEW and fighters may be to grant coordinate information purposes sector regarding their flight manual AAMS, which can be used AAMS means for early opening plaque verifying classes and types of targets and aiming at them Zour.
most challenging is the creation of an ITS-III, requiring both to solve the above problems, and problems with the management of SAM side interceptors. Management problem Zour on board fighter requires fundamentally new solutions of tasks involving:
solution of the initial data preparation for start-Zour on external information;
timing of start-Zour;
transmission control system SAM weapon control fighter;
SAM management board on a trajectory with a fighter to defeat the purpose, the control of the transition to SAM homing and control the firing results;
multi-channel management software.
Key issues towards the realization of ITS-W lie in the development of MSA fighter, his information and targeting systems and radar, communications and control systems Zour.
There are several areas to solve this problem in general.
full and reliable solution to it in terms of realization of the highest combat capabilities is to create a combined control system Zour including inertial guidance in the initial part of the flight, radio correction Zour on the trajectory, and semi-active homing active homing at the final stage. Possible combinations in the control system, but in general this solution meets certain requirements inherent in integrating fire systems AAMS - NA in part from the board of management of SAM fighters. Fundamentally, such a system management provides accurate knowledge of the phase coordinates Zour on board a fighter that can be achieved by the presence of inertial systems onboard communication system and SAM fighter - SAM - fighter. Expedient in the management of the AAMS to consider issues of installation precision inertial aboard SAM, as well as issues of implementation of semi-active homing SAMs under illumination purpose on board the destroyer. It can be expected that the greatest efficiency and productivity ITS-III will reach the implementation maximum launch range SAMs and, accordingly, the maximum range radar fighter that the organization of interaction AAMS - IA requires selecting rational zones duty fighters.
AAMS "Triumph" with the agency in their joint actions should include significant participation of persons crews AAMS KP and KP IAP (Mon IA) in the distribution of resources and efforts of subordinates ensuring safety in the areas of fire fighters AAMS.
Possible areas to improve the interaction of IA and safety of air operations in the affected areas promising AAMS "Triumph" are:
increasing automation of work processes;
AAMS manual interaction with several aviation and KP Mon IA;
expansion of information transmitted to the command of the AAMS.
implementation of the proposed concept of a fire information systems will give a significant economic advantage, since it will reduce costs at all stages of the life cycle of systems, including through the optimization of the development and production through the use of advanced design solutions, deeper unification means. During the operation phase can reduce the number of personnel and equipment costs groupings by eliminating unnecessary levels of management and automation systems.
target detection range, km
Number of targets tracked simultaneously
view area radar (azimuth angle x, deg:
- Aerodynamic purposes
- Ballistic targets
360 x 14
60 x 75
The affected area in range, km:
- Aerodynamic purposes
- Ballistic targets
destroys targets, km:
Maximum speed |
destroys targets, m / c
Number of simultaneously engaged targets (full staff AAMS)
Number of simultaneously induced missiles (full staff AAMS)
deployment time from the march, min
Time to bring funds |
system embattled from the unfolded state, min.
Hours funds to overhaul the system, h
Operating life, years:
- Ground facilities
- Anti-aircraft guided missiles
not less than 20