Anti-radar missiles Kh-31P (X-31PD)




    management system:

    Radar GOS








    110 km.

    year development:


    anti-radiation missile Kh-31P (x-31PD)

    supersonic aircraft missile Kh-31P passive radar homing head is designed to destroy radar control systems of enemy air defenses, including radar MANPADS medium and long range "Patriot", "Improved Hawk", "Nike Hercules "and other anti-radar missiles from the previous generation is characterized by greater firing range, high-speed march resistant targeting under intensive jamming and temporarily turn off the radio emitting purposes.

    Development anti-radar missiles (BPD) Kh-31P began in 1975 in the bureau "Star" under the leadership of Chief Designer GI Khokhlova. The need for its creation was due to the fact that its predecessor, the X-27PS PRR not satisfy the customer by its launch range and speed, causing the carrier to produce launch in range SAM "Improved Hawk" and "Nike Hercules" maneuver with care from the target, which in turn allows the calculation of SAM radar off, thereby tearing guidance PRR. It was assumed that the new missile will have a range starting about 60 km and a mass less than 400 kg, and high (about 750 m / s at start-up to a range of 25 km with a small height) speed will allow it to provide a high-explosive warhead defeat radar SAM "Improved Hawk" , before they released SAM reaches the carrier. By SAM radar "Nike Hercules" strikes planned to put out of reach Zour. PRR planned to equip the third generation strike aircraft MiG-27, Su-17M and Su-24, each of which should have been placed at least two missiles. To ensure the desired average velocity for a given mass, it was decided to use the ramjet. To disperse the rocket to launch speed ramjet used solid starter accelerator, which are housed in the combustion chamber of a ramjet.

    In the design process it became clear that a missile weighing less than 400 kg can not be primarily due to the difficulty of creating compact ramjet So, instead of light was obtained PRR PRR medium-range air defense suppression with range up to twice exceeding a predetermined initial was also expanded the list of goals for radar missiles X-31 due to the inclusion of radar SAM SAM-D (future "Patriot"), as well as surveillance radars operating in the frequency of letters B and C, for which NGOs Omsk "Automation "were given an assignment to design three GOS (PSRP-4VP, PSRP-5VP and PSRP-6VP) operating in these ranges.

    In the process of creating the Kh-31 in 1978, the government issued a decree on the establishment of anti-ship version of its base, the designation X-31A, designed to destroy surface ships with a displacement of 4500 tons for this rocket X-31 was installed active radar homing and penetrating warhead instead high-explosive/fragmentation.

    factory flight tests of the Kh-31P began in May 1982 on the MiG-27M. They rocket was presented in Pr1 and Pr2 options, as well as its dimensions and weight models to test emergency relief. Equipped with starting the engine and main engine layout X 31Pr1 intended for testing department rocket launch and its stabilization at the launch site. X-31Pr2 with starting and sustainer propulsion engines intended for testing the main engine start, determine its characteristics, evaluate your system stabilization test aerodynamic and ballistic characteristics.

    November 22, 1983 entered a phase of "A" state joint tests missiles X-31 GOS PSRP-4VP weapon system comprising MiG-27M. By this time, the X-31 has undergone a structural change, outwardly expressed first of all in changing the wing shape and siting to improve the stability of the rocket. In parallel with the beginning August 28, 1984 stage "B" state joint flight tests X-31 in the complex armament of the MiG-27M has developed a list of activities for the modification of the Kh-31 in order to increase its effectiveness. Improvements planned ballistic characteristics to achieve drag reduction through the implementation of the bow in a single caliber (360 mm) to the combustion chamber of the sustainer stage, which also would result in a stock fuel sustainer, downsizing drags, eliminate cracks and gaps between mating elements frame installation rudders in the plane of the wings, etc. The process was planned to improve by providing a better approach to mating plugs, wiring harness inside the compartments to ensure their reliable insulation, more rational layout and ease of installation units. Increased operational reliability by providing equipment and dosborki rocket without its undocking by installing ignition block, gaskets part elsktroskhemy harness and checking the assembly of the engine, the factory installation of squibs without removing the fairings in the operation, installation warhead through the hatch, and not an end causes the having to detach the compartment with guidance and control equipment. A detailed analysis of each component to reduce the launch mass.

    In February 1986. were successfully conducted flight tests konstruktorskis modernized missile Kh-31P. In late spring continued phase "B" state joint flight test weapons complex MiG-27M with experienced the Kh-31P and the experimental apparatus "Progress-H." In early June 1987 stage "B" flight testing was completed and the missile is recommended for mass production and adoption.

    factory flight tests of the Kh-31P GOS PSRP-5VP began in January 1986 and carried on the MiG-27M with the equipment "Progress-H." Then in February 1987 hooked Su-24M (T6M-37), two planes continued flight tests Kh-31A. In the third quarter of 1987 were made practical launches the Kh-31P with PSRP-5VP with Su-24M, possible to successfully complete factory flight tests September 8, 1987

    In late September 1987 began public joint flight tests of the missile conducted on the MiG-27M and Su-24M and successfully completed at the end of March 1988, after which the X-31P with PSRP-5VP was recommended for adoption adopted. Worked out in parallel hardware control providing target information seeker - containers "Phantasmagoria" and "Ethnography" for the Su-24M and "Progress" for the MiG-27 and Su-17.

    In early spring 1988 began factory flight tests of the missile Kh-31P with PSRP-6VP. They were completed at the end of April 1988, then in the second half of 1988 were held state joint testing of this option as part of the missile armament of the MiG-27M, which ended with a positive result. Since intelligence sighting station operating liter V + C and B 'and intended for installation on the Su-24 by this time was not designed to carry out missile tests X-31 M-GOS PSRP 6VP with him was not possible. Therefore prototype Su-24M (T6M-37), modified for the application of the Kh-31P, was involved in the May 1988. for control and serial tests missiles Kh-31P release in 1987, during which also tested the possibility of using aircraft with missiles Kh-31P GOS PSRP-4VP.

    Mass production

    Kh-31P at the Kaliningrad production association "Strela" (now GNPTS "Zvezda-Strela") began in 1987

    anti-radiation missile Kh-31P (x-31PD) Development rocket modernized version of the X-31PK was carried out by a non-contact sensor equipment rocket warhead detonation and improved performance. Formation of X-31PK with passive homing is designed to efficiently defeat radar, including up with remote antenna units (up to 15 m), in continuous and pulsed radiation.

    Increased to 110km range missile provides its effective use, mainly from overseas media reach of enemy air defense missiles SAM. Due to the high speed combined with autonomous guidance, has the advantage in dueling situations where start is made with the target range within reach of carriers SAM missiles.

    currently provides an improved missile Kh-31PD with extended range. Also worked variant missiles "air-air" to combat AWACS aircraft.

    the west missile was designated AS-17 "Kripton".


    anti-radiation missile Kh-31P (x-31PD) The Kh-31P (see projection) is based on the normal aerodynamic scheme with X-shaped arrangement of the wing and rudder. The missile consists of three compartments. Each compartment is a structurally and functionally complete unit. In the case in a plane bearing surfaces there are four round side supersonic inlet closed in flight discharged plugs conical shape. The Kh-31P is equipped with high-explosive fragmentation warhead, upgraded X-31PD - universal tape, weighing 110 kg, increased lethality.

    Engine 31DPK - ramjet, created in the ICD "Soyuz" (city Turaevo Moscow region). It consists of: air intakes, fuel tanks with a system of repression and fuel metering equipment, front-line unit, the combustion chamber with a fixed supersonic nozzle, electrohydraulic control system roszhiga.

    In the combustion chamber

    sustainer engine located solid boosters, which after separation from the rocket carrier aircraft safely allow it to accelerate to speed up the startup ramjet propulsion. After work boosters pushed ram air. Using such an integrated propulsion system provides increased speed and range srednetraektornoy shooting while reducing the size of the rocket. Combustor ramjet engine has an air-cooling system zavesnuyu, which significantly increases the allowable time and opens up almost unlimited possibilities for the modification of the rocket. Specific fuel consumption at work ramjet 31DPK about 6 times lower than that of solid propellant and small smoke increases the stealth flight. Original solution provided with an independent missile launch ramjet (usually requiring acceleration stages), and stable operation at the maximum specific impulse. 31DPK simple design, it is compact and inexpensive to manufacture, but it is highly reliable. And the use of solid fuel ramjet simplified storage and operation of the rocket. At high speed, the rocket was able to perform maneuvers with large congestion achieved on tests 10g.

    anti-radiation missile Kh-31P (x-31PD) The guidance system upgraded Kh-31PD includes an inertial system and wide-range passive radar homing (PSRP) A-112E, made in NGOs" Automatic " .

    missile Kh-31P provides the use of the target lock on after suspension under the vehicle. Kh-31PD can be used in two modes: joint with lock-on tracking of PGSN under suspension on the carrier aircraft and offline with lock-on tracking of the GOS on the trajectory of the rocket after launch. Mode selection is made by the crew of the aircraft carrier, depending on the altitude and range target detection. PSRP provides search and target acquisition under suspension on the carrier aircraft carrier according to equipment or offline, as well as target tracking and signal generation for missile guidance. After its discovery pilot sends plane to the target and enters the data into a missile targeting. After launch the missile switches to climb on the program. Further, when a certain viewing angle goal GOS unfolds it and dives, with guidance on target held by the signals of the GOS.

    ground operation missiles provided training complex aircraft weapons "Oka-E-1".

    for transportation and storage of rockets used sealed container.





    Range, km:
    - Maximum
    - Minimal



    flight speed, m / s:
    - Maximum
    - Mean


    Airspeed carrier km / h

    600-1250 (0.65

    Height start



    Dimensions, mm:
    - Length
    - Maximum body diameter
    - Wingspan
    - Swing rudders



    Starting weight, kg



    Weight of warhead, kg



    bearing angle goal at the start:
    - Takeover target by carrier
    - A takeover target in the path

    ± 15 °
    ± 30 °

    Aviation launcher AKU-58


    IBC "Vympel"

    Empty weight PU, kg


    Dimensions, mm:
    - Length
    - Width
    - Height


    tests and operation

    On the basis of the Kh-31P missile target established MA-31 (off-seeker, combat gear and partially modified aerodynamic configuration of the nose fairing). MA-31 target in 1994 won the U.S. Navy advertisement worldwide competition and successfully passed flight tests. Four missile launch target MA-31 were carried out at the test site in the U.S. Navy Point Mugu, California. Contract to sell target missiles MA-31 U.S. Navy, will deliver 20 to 40 X-31 missiles per year.

    One version of why Americans pay attention to the X-31 - is a desire to command the U.S. Navy to develop a missile defense system capable of protecting ships from other Russian supersonic cruise missile 3M-80E "Mosquito" - in NATO classification SS-N -22 "Sunburn" ("Sunburn"). This complex anti-ship weapon state company "Rosvooruzhenie" sold in the armed destroyer 956 type project "Modern" Chinese. The presence of Chinese weapons, against which no one in the world fleet is no effective defense systems, poses a serious threat to the impunity of the U.S. Pacific Fleet operations in Southeast Asia, and it can not disturb the American admirals.


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