| M14 |
main weapon of the U.S. Army during World War II became a rifle M1 Garand. Although M1 rifle was one of the best rifles of the 1940s, it was not the perfect weapon and all its merits in serious need of modernization. The biggest criticism is the power supply system using the M1 rifle packs for 8 rounds, greatly complicates the precharge half-empty store. In addition, the gas engine with great length and weight of moving parts caused a reduction in the accuracy of fire.
experiments to improve M1 rifle in the United States began during the Second World War.
In 1944, the Americans built a prototype T20 rifles, M1 equipping a detachable magazine with 20 rounds of automatic rifle Browning BAR M1918, as well as introducing the possibility of firing bursts.
After the Second World War, Americans are beginning to work on the creation of a new cartridge, which at smaller overall dimensions would retain the ballistic characteristics patrona.30 06 (7.62h63 mm). By the early 1950s, a new cartridge under the designation T65 (7.62x51 mm) was created. In fact it was the same patron.30-06, only with a sleeve shortened by 12 mm and with a charge of more modern and powerful gunpowder, providing the same ballistics.
In 1954, under the new 7.62x51 mm caliber cartridge standardized within NATO, has been developed following prototype rifles - T37, which is characterized by the fact that the vapor chamber was moved slightly back from the muzzle.
Further development and testing have led to the creation of a prototype T44 differs from T37 mainly modified gas engine system in which the circuit with long stroke scheme was replaced with a short (about 37 mm) stroke. It was assumed that the rifle after adopting a substitute in the army is not just an ordinary rifle, but also sub-machine guns and machine-guns, becoming a single unified model of infantry weapons department level.
In the mid-1950s, the U.S. has carried out comparative tests T44 rifle and its main competitor - T48 rifle (released in the U.S. under license from small series rifles FN FAL Belgian development).
Rifle M14 - automatic weapon with a magazine-fed, and the gas engine automatics.
Vapor node attached under the barrel, gas piston is made in the form of glass and has a short stroke. Resulting gases into the gas piston fed through a hole in the trunk and a hole in the wall of the piston, and the piston back after the departure of a few millimeters into the feed gas piston is blocked automatically, thereby cutting off the "extra" gases and mitigating work automation. Its gas piston return spring has not. It acts on the trunk below the bolt carrier, which is associated with a long lever bolt action.
Shutter in design similar to the M1 Garand rifle bolt, closes the trunk to the right side for 2 lugs included in the recesses of the receiver. Normal shutter projection interacting with the bolt in M14 is replaced by a roller to reduce wear. The spring is located under the barrel and acts as the frame.
trigger - trigger, type M1 Garand, but with the addition of a mechanism similar shooting bursts, as well as an interpreter modes of fire on the right side of the receiver, above the trigger.
View of the receiver box
On the left side of the receiver is slide catch that stops the gate in the open position for all cartridges are fired in the store.
safety lever is in the front of the trigger guard.
trunk equipped with a flame arrester and has a slot for the bayonet mount.
Sights consist of an adjustable diopter rear sight on the rear of the receiver and the front sight in namushnike on the muzzle of the barrel. In addition to all military M14 rifles issue left on the receiver there are slots for arm under the optical sight.
Food weapons made from detachable box magazine 20 rounds dual inline. Equipment stores can be carried out without disconnecting from weapons using standard cages for 5 rounds, which on top of the receiver made guides for cages.
rifle could shoot the rifle grenades.
stock of wood, with semi-pistol grip and a metal plate on top of the trunk.
have a bed design - the wooden pistol grip and butt raised in the trunk line. M14A1 is located on the shank front folding handle, the gas chamber mounted light bipod, and flash suppressor - a special removable muzzle brake compensator.
In the 1960s, for vintvok M14 have been developed, but not commercially produced several variants of "landing" lies with folding stock.
Issue M14 rifles has been adjusted a number of firms - Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge (TRW Inc), Harrington and Richardson Arms Co (H & R), Winchester-Western Arms Division of Olin Mathieson (Winchester) and Springfield Armory Inc (Springfield) .
| Caliber, mm || 7.62x51 |
| Length mm || 1120 |
| Barrel length, mm || 559 |
| Weight || 5.1 |
| store count. cartridges || 20 |
| Muzzle velocity |
Bullets, m / s
| 850 |
| Effective range |
| 500 |
| Rate of fire, |
Rds / min
| 700 - 750 |
M14 at the time of its appearance more or less satisfy the U.S. military. It was easy enough, had a large effective range, good accuracy and ammunition knockdown decreased the re-targeting, increased rate of fire fighting.
new rifle was of little use to the new conditions at the time of the war, it quickly became apparent that the U.S. military action in Southeast Asia, especially in Vietnam. M14 rifle was too long for the fighting in the jungle, a large mass of each cartridge ammunition reduced worn unacceptably small, firing bursts of rifle sighting was in any way possible only with a bipod or stop, and then only for a small range. In general, most rifles were issued to soldiers with skim interpreter modes of fire, as in most cases, shooting bursts was nothing more than a waste of ammo - Review of M14 firing at a distance of 100 meters third bullet in the queue went 10 meters leaching starting point aiming. If necessary, an interpreter could be set back on the rifle in the field.
Overall M14 rifle did not satisfy the U.S. Army and remained in service for a short time. In the 1964 decision of the U.S. government issue M14 was discontinued, while all were released around 1.38 million rifles.
In 1965, began to replace the M14 rifle AR-15 / M16 under small-caliber, maloimpulsnogo intermediate cartridge - 5.56 mm.
Armed with U.S. remained only semi-automatic modification of M14 - M21 sniper rifle.
| M14S |
Israel Designer N. Sirkis based M14 M36 sniper rifle designed scheme Bullpup. Produced in China, model M14S.
In the United States, Taiwan supplied M14.
Since 1974, the private company Springfield Armory Inc arranged the production of only self-loading rifle options under the designation M14 Springfield M1A for civilian and police use.
| Springfield M1A |
With polymer lodge and 10 round magazine
also for the civilian market was developed semiautomatic weapons modification M14M (Modified) / M14NM (National Match) for the Match shooting.
In addition, a whole series of small U.S. firms have mastered the production of self-loading rifles M14 variants using sets of parts, decommissioned by the U.S. Army.
significant amount of decommissioned in the U.S. M14 rifles were transferred to other countries through military assistance programs. They gave Turkey, Taiwan, South Korea, the Philippines. In the mid to late 1990s, a number of M14 has been transferred and the Baltic states - Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia.
In the U.S. in the 1980s and 1990s, the use of the M14 rifles were very limited, however, after the United States got involved in active military campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan, the troops took the weapon more powerful than the regular and long-range rifles and caliber rifles 5.56 mm.
simplest solution is the return in order M14 rifles that were issued to the troops in the initial state, and in more or less modernized. Minimum modernization could be to install new brackets and scopes.
| M14 DMR |
Marine Corps U.S. retool some old rifles with new components, including adjustable plastic boxes, brackets and new sights, detachable bipod and silencer shot sound. The new modification was adopted by the designation M14 DMR (Designated Marksman Rifle).
| Mk14 Mod 0 EBR |
U.S. special operations forces, acting under the auspices of the Navy, created on the basis of conventional M14 new "improved combat rifle" Mk14 Mod 0 EBR (Enchanced Battle Rifle). This version features a new lodge, developed by a private company Smith Enterprises, with a telescopic adjustable buttstock, pistol grip and a set of guide type Picatinny rail. Besides the new lodge rifle Mk14 Mod 0 got a whole series of "commercial" components, including a new precision barrel and gas cylinder. Mk14 Mod 0 EBR was adopted by units of special operations forces the U.S., including US Navy SEAL.
M14 rifle became the basis for the creation of other modifications and rifles including sniper.