Since coming to power in Germany in the twentieth century, the Nazis began re Wehrmacht. The army command by analyzing prospects for the development of weapons and equipment given its tactical use, concluded that one of the tasks of creating a qualitatively new armed forces ready for large-scale offensive action, equipping them with weapons is more perfect than that, which is of potential opponents.
tactical and technical requirements (TTP) to create new weapons, drafted by the Wehrmacht Army Weapons (HWaA - Heereswaffenamt), began with the development of requirements for reduced power cartridge shooting at distances up to 1000 meters. As a result, the firm "Polten" was developed in between "short" caliber cartridge 7.92h33 mm (7.92 mm Kurz).
initial tactical and technical requirements, key features of the design of weapons under an "intermediate" cartridge, after years spent in 1935-1937 Numerous studies have been reworked, and in 1938 developed the concept of the program light automatic weapons, designed to replace the submachine gun, magazine rifles and partially machine gun. It would be in the army, only two (instead of three) of small arms - machine gun and uniform for all tasks.
Gained experience takes into account recent advances in scientific thought, and in the manufacture of complex precision engineering products, has led to the development of hard and fast enough TTZ set HWaA for new weapons.
Mkb. 42 (H)
April 18, 1938 Research Bureau of the 2nd Division for testing and designing hardware HWaA concluded with the owner of the weapons company Zulian C. G. Haenel, known gunsmith Hugo Schmeisser, a contract to develop automatic rifle.
new rifle received the official name Mkb (Maschinenkarabin - automatic carbine) differ from those of MR (Maschinenpistole - sub-machine gun).
design teams on designing Mkb himself headed X. Schmeisser. In early 1940, he transferred to the custody HWaA first prototype automatic rifle under the "short" Insert Company "Polten».
Since late 1940 to fight for plum joined another of the most famous German arms companies - "Walter» (Walther) under the leadership of Erich Walter, who managed to obtain a contract for his company in HWaA for research program Mkb. He proposed the creation of a weapons system under the same conditions as C. G. Haenel, but using the waste sector is already fully shop from Mkb system Schmeisser dual inline thirty rounds.
In deadlines made the first prototype, and in early 1941 the company "Walter" presented his officers of artillery and logistics HWaA. Although rifle and showed satisfactory performance in shooting of the landfill in Kummersdorf, work on finishing this still imperfect structure continued throughout 1941.
Mkb. 42 (W)
In late January 1942 for extensive competitive testing HWaA demanded firm C. G. Haenel increase the initial order to manufacture Mkb in 1942 to 200 units, and from the company Walther to July 1942 were required to submit 200 automatic rifles of its construction. Both systems HWaA assigned name Mkb-42 product C. G. Haenel with index «H» - Mkb. 42 (H) of the company and machine Walther, respectively «W» - Mkb. 42 (W).
After demonstrating prototypes Mkb. 42 (W) and Mkb. 42 (H) on the official show in July of the same year, the German Ministry of guide arms and HWaA remained in the firm belief that both companies will soon finalize its products and the end of summer they can be run in production. Moreover, it was assumed that the firm by November will produce 500 Mkb, and by March next year, the total production will be able to bring up to 15 thousand per month.
But those plans went awry. In August 1942, after tests Mkb. 42 (W) and Mkb. 42 (H) control HWaA introduced new requirements in the original specifications. Generalization of experience fighting on the Eastern Front, and in Africa showed that a promising model of primary weapons infantryman must be multifunctional, that is not only striking fire, but (melee) bayonet and butt. In view of the installation at standard carbines "Mauser" 98k rifle grenade, and it was decided to have Mkb similar devices. Firms were instructed to mount on tree automatic carbines tide bayonet and to provide the possibility of mounting a rifle grenade nadkalibernogo model 1940. Amendments briefly, but slow transfer Mkb. 42 production. At the same time, the problems encountered in C. G. Haenel with subcontractors, while Walther with the establishment press-stamping equipment, led to the fact that by October of each firm ordered Mkb none was made.
Mkb. 42 (W)
With grenade mortars
firm Walther at a monthly rate of production of 500 units delivered only 25 Mkb. 42 (W), and in December - 91 apiece. Thanks to the support of the Ministry of weapons, both firms to the top in 1943 were able to resolve the most serious production problems. So, from 500 Mkb, slated for production in January of that year, was nedopostavleno only 200 pieces, and in February and C. Walther G. Haenel actually exceeded the level of production to obtain a 1217 carbines plan together thousands of pieces. Minister of Armaments "Third Reich" Alfred Speer, in order to more fully explore the service and performance Mkb. 42 (H) and Mkb. 42 (W), orders the fact that a number of rifles were sent to undergo military trials on the Eastern Front.
Both automatic carbine
due to stiffness specifications HWaA, and also because of the widespread use of stamping and welding technology, had a very constructive between similarity. Tests revealed that although Mkb. 42 (W) and was lighter, more compact and better balanced, which largely affected the effectiveness of fire, yet there was no doubt that his complicated automation is not suitable for use in harsh field conditions. Mkb. 42 (H) proved to be simpler and more reliable its competitor. The results of tests of new weapons, HWaA decided to give preference to design Schmeisser, but only after making some modifications.
main processing undergone trigger mechanism. Application of the rear sear in Mkb. 42 (H) provides a single and continuous fire, but by single shots, even when udarnikovy trigger, causing justifiable doubts as to accuracy of shooting because of the impact speed when a shot on the stump of the trunk. To improve the accuracy of battlefield original design of the firing mechanism was replaced by a more reliable system Kurkova Walter, with stop valve moving parts in the forward position.
changed design whispered instead introduces into the groove of the handle was set reloading safety lever, Stroke redone with a long to a short, truncated tube gas chamber.
Operation weapons in harsh environments has been improved by replacing the windows of a large sectional area to evacuate residual propellant gases from the tube to the gas chamber 7 mm holes. Technological changes made to the bolt and bolt carrier with gas piston. Withdrawn guide sleeve back and mainspring. Due to the revision of some views on the tactical use of automatic rifle was shot tide bayonet, which, incidentally, contributed Adopting a rifle grenade Gw. Gr. Ger.42 another method of fastening the trunk. In connection with the manufacture of beech butt, its design is also simplified.
Most of the details was produced by cold pressing with wide application connection parts are spotted. Outer surface of the receiver, forearm, and other parts store machine zig-processed machines that extruded grooves of different profiles, significantly increases the stiffness of these parts that are made of thin sheet metal.
One of the major shortcomings of the new machine, and not eliminated designers, left a large mass (more than five kilograms), complicating its use in infantry units as the main sample of individual small arms.
| MP-43 / MP-44 / Stg.44 |
Minister A. Speer, in June 1943 upgraded weapons under the symbol MR-43 (Maschinenpistole-43 - submachine gun model 1943) has gone into production. The term "submachine gun" was used in the designation of this weapon camouflage, not to irritate Hitler, who could not come to terms with the idea that in warehouses in Germany will be millions of obsolete rifle ammunition. And this happened at a time when even the staff officers in Berlin recognized the effectiveness of the new weapons and their ammunition. Introduction of mass production of MR-43 engaged Speer himself.
In September, on the eastern front in the elite of the German - motorized SS division "Viking" - held its first full-service testing of the MR-43. In a report on the combat use of machines more than half of shooters noted that MP-43 is an effective substitute for sub-machine guns and rifles. New weapons significantly influenced the increase in the firepower of infantry units and reduced the need to use their machine guns to fire support. Fire to a depth of 400 meters was conducted by single shots, then during the fighting close combat submachine switched to fire in short bursts.
| Caliber, mm || 7.92x33 Kurz |
| Length mm || 940 |
| Barrel length, mm || 419 |
| Weight || 5.22 |
| store count. cartridges || 30 |
| Muzzle velocity |
Bullets, m / s
| 685 |
| Effective range |
| 300 |
| Rate of fire, |
Rds / min
| 500 - 600 |
in MR-43 firepower and ability to conduct two types of fire made such a strong impression on the SS generals that in their first reports they asked Hitler to allow the immediate mass production machine. Estimated soldiers, MR-43 - a reliable weapon. There was incomplete at his ease disassembly and assembly. Bribed and that weapons provided good performance hit when firing a single battle fire at distances up to 600 meters (at a greater distance shooting were already trained snipers), and when firing short bursts effective fire was up to 300 meters. In conducting continuous fire 100 meters from MR-43 at a target diameter of 11.5 centimeters more than half results fit into a circle of 5.4 cm. New cartridges, being lighter, less overall and have lower recoil energy, also proved to be a good side. When firing from the MR-43 recoil force was twice lower in comparison with the standard carbine "Mauser" 98k. With the "short" 7.92mm cartridge, by reducing the weight of the cartridge, it was possible to increase the ammunition each infantryman. Ammunition 150 rounds carabiner "Mauser" weighed 3.9 kilograms of 98k and 150 "short" cartridges for MR-43 weighed 2.6 kilograms, which increased their stock of up to 180 rounds of ammunition, placed in six stores that were worn in two pouches. Overall, the total mass of the machine with full ammunition does not exceed 10.3 kilograms, which is about one kilogram heavier rifle "Mauser" 98k with a bayonet and ammunition. Excessive severity of the machine compared with a carbine or submachine gun was one of the few drawbacks of the MR-43 is largely recouped its numerous advantages. The disadvantages of the machine that caused the complaints of soldiers, include the fact that, apart from the uncomfortable sight, located on a high rack, when shooting at night from a barrel burst strong flame unmasked arrow.
urgent appeals soldiers supported HWaA minister of armaments and A. Speer, as well as test results, ultimately broke stubbornness Hitler. After he personally requested the opinion of the troops of the new machine and has received positive feedback at the end of September 1943, it was ordered adopting MR-43 on arms infantry and deploy its mass production.
| MR-43/1 |
With infrared eye
This decision further accelerated the work of leading designers of the company C. G. Haenel. In the autumn of 1943 appears MR 43/1, produced in small quantities by Merz-Werke. From the base of the sample he was distinguished by the presence of a new 30-mm rifle grenade Mkb. Gewehrgranatengerat-43 (later known as MP. Gw. Gr. Ger.43), which is screwed onto the muzzle threaded and not fastened clamping device as grenade Gw. Gr. Ger.42 MR-43. In connection with this, the trunk configuration is changed - it has one outer diameter of the cross section, unlike tsilindrostupenchatogo in MR-43. To protect the thread from damage to the barrel is screwed elongated sleeve barrel. Changed and the configuration of the butt, and to reduce the impact increased size backplate.
snipers was created sample MR-43/1, which sets milled mount scopes quadruple ZF-4, as well as infrared night vision scopes ZG.1229 «Vampire." For trial operation was made a party in 300 MR - 43/1 with these sights. Mounting fixture "Vampire" was mounted on the right side of the receiver.
Stg.44 could also be equipped with a special device krivostvolnym Krummlauf Vorsatz J, designed for firing from tanks (and other shelters) on the enemy in the dead zone near the tank.
| MP-43 / MP-44 / Stg.44 |
With krivostvolnoy nozzle firing behind cover
Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Germany April 6, 1944, issued an order dedicated system Wehrmacht small arms, where the name of a submachine gun MP-43 was replaced by the MR-44. Furthermore, the change in the index of production - from 1943 to 1944 th - this change can not be explained by anything more, because any innovation in the weapons have been made.
military situation affected the fact that in October 1944, Hitler had issued another order according to which the MP-44 received a new (the fourth in two years, and this time last) name - Stg-44 (Sturmgewehr- 44 - Assault rifle model 1944). This was due, most likely, political and propaganda reasons than anything else. Changing the notation - "submachine gun" to "assault rifle" - has become more accurately reflect the role and the main purpose of these weapons in combat.
| MP-43 / MP-44 / Stg.44 |
The design of the machine
have been no changes, except the stigma Stg.44, put directly on the old stigma of MR-44, located on the receiver. In all likelihood, it is typical only for weapons, released in late 1944. MP-43 submachine guns / LL-44 were armed, primarily crack troops - motorized units and formations of the Wehrmacht and Waffen SS field.
History German machine MR 43 / Stg-44 has not ended with the surrender of Germany. After the war they from 1948 to 1956 operated by the police barracks and the GDR in 1945-1950 - in the airborne troops of the Yugoslav People's Army.
| Stg.44 |
In various embodiments, making