| HK G3A3 |
At the end of World War II the company «Mauser» was designed assault rifle Stg. 45 based on the new deceleration method rollback speed. However, with the defeat of Germany working on a new weapon was not completely finished.
After the war, a group of German designers develop an assault rifle Stg. 45 worked in Madrid (Spain) at the company «CETME», where she participated in the creation of a rifle chambered for 7.92 mm, acting on the principle of delayed blowback recoil (Scheme Designer Forgrimmlera).
After taking the mid-1950s the U.S. 7,62 x51 mm NATO ammunition as standard, Germany (FRG), as well as other NATO countries, faced the problem of rearmament.
Since the Germans wanted to produce themselves for their weapons, they had to turn to other existing developments. In particular they were interested in the newest automatic rifle Spanish company CETME, developed under the direction of a German engineer Ludwig Forgrimlera.
In 1957, Germany has licensed rifle CETMO and the results of the tender, the rights to produce new weapons received new firm Heckler & Koch (of Oberndorf Neckar), created "in the ruins" and has retained some of the equipment of the former group «Mauser -Werke ».
In 1959, the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) is adopting a new rifle under the designation G3 (Gewehr 3 - Rifle Model 3). Parallel to adopt accepted and its variant G3A1, differing only in the presence of sliding butt instead of a fixed on G3.
| HK G3 |
system thus born in Germany during the Second World War, through the decade and a half, "returned to their homeland».
Rifle G3 - automatic weapon, built on the basis of automation with delayed congestion.
Receiver G3 rifles made by stamping of sheet steel. Inside its stamped on both sides for guiding the shutter. Although tubular housing mounted above the barrel and welded to the receiver, looks like the gas tube, but in reality it placed cocking lever and the front end of the elongated bolt. Cocking lever moves along the cutout on the left side of the tubular housing and can be fixed by means of special transverse cutout.
On the barrel applied screw thread and a sleeve to secure the lock spring arrester or arrangements for firing blank ammunition.
barrel has rifling common configuration. For smoother, more reliable extraction of spent cartridges chamber made with 12 longitudinal grooves on the walls. The valve has a T-shape. Its elongated hollow end placed the return spring. Combat larva with the frame mounted on the axis of the bore. Long bearing surfaces on both sides of the frame along the slide grooves of the receiver box. Two rollers mounted on both sides of combat larvae held inclined front surface of the stem gate playing the role of the so-called "locking parts" (this established term will be used in the future, although, in fact, it is wrong, as the bore in the system not locked in the truest sense of the word - there is only slowing departure gate under recoil). Rollers fit into grooves of the receiver. To avoid the "jump" when chambering a cartridge in the chamber, combat larva with locking piece fixed to the frame by means of the clamping lever.
On early models
housing the trigger was pressed sheet steel, later became used plastic housing USM made Zaedinov with pistol grip and trigger guard. USM body attached to the receiver pin and incomplete disassembly leans down and forward, after separation from the butt plate receiver. If necessary, the trigger body can be easily separated from the weapon for repair or replacement by removing the pin located behind the slot for the store. Himself trigger trigger, translator fire mode and the fuse is located on the left side of the trigger. Staffing has 3 positions - "fuse" - "single" - "turn", but there are also options to trigger an additional mode of fire with cutoff line for 3 rounds.
With folding stock
Flag interpreter fuse located on the left hand on the pistol grip and has three positions: «S» - fuse, «E» - single fire, «F» - continuous fire. The same provisions are marked on the right side of the rifle and indicated mark on the rod translator-fuse - so the shooter or instructor can assess its installation. Controls rifle differ convenient form. Rifle reliable enough. The disadvantage is the presence of small, easily lost parts, separated at partial disassembly.
When the cartridge is
in the chamber, combat larva shutter abuts the bonnet liner and rollers separated the sides and held in the slots of the receiver using the locking parts. While the hammer is cocked and the trigger sear is held. When you press the trigger sear falls in and out of the notch on the trigger, the trigger is rapidly moving forward and hits the firing pin, which in turn passes through the opening and closing parts of the cartridge cap breaks. Powder gas pressure in the chamber pushes back the sleeve and has an impact on the mirror shutter. Before combat larva can move back, rollers should get out of the slots on the receiver and return to the starting position. In an effort to come together, locking casters make the item to move with the frame back. The angle of the inclined surfaces of the locking parts is such that the ratio of the speed of movement and speed of movement of the frame combat the larvae was 4:1. Thus, while the rollers back to its original position, the frame travels a distance of 4 times greater than the mirror shutter, taking over most of the recoil energy.
| HK G3A2 |
While driving back frame clamping lever frees combat larva. When the mirror shutter moves back a distance slightly greater than 1 mm, the rollers completely out of the slots of the receiver. Thereafter, the entire force of the bolt is pushed back residual pressure, while larva combat bolt carrier and to preserve the displacement of 5 mm relative to each other. Bolt carrier cocks and compresses the return spring. Liner held by ejector hits the edge of the reflector cap and thrown to the right side through the window of the receiver. The gate frame reaches its end portion of the shock absorber, and then under the action of the return spring returns ahead. Combat larva extracts from the store and chuck it shall be sent into the chamber.
ejector engages cartridge for circumferential groove sleeves and combat larva stops. The offset of 5 mm between the locking part and the bolt is reduced to zero, the rollers fit into grooves of the receiver. Clamping lever fixes combat larva. The gun is ready for the next shot.
| HK G3A3 |
trigger mechanism, in principle, the same as in the Belgian 7.62mm rifle FN FAL. The spring-loaded sear has an oblong cutout, which includes projections trigger. Seeks to promote the sear spring forward over the trigger. At this time, another spring holds the lugs whispered. Can not make a shot until the bolt carrier does not take the forward position. Only after this safety sear releases the trigger.
When conducting a single lamp trigger held trigger sear. When you press the trigger sear is rotated downward and out of engagement with the trigger. When the trigger is to be fired turns forward, sprung sear also moves forward, it jumps down shank with fixed support. Trigger is pressed and compartmentalized with the trigger sear. Trigger the action turns back the bolt and engages the sear lugs. Hammer spring overcomes the resistance of the spring pushes the sear and sear ago. Self-timer trigger sear is held as long as the shutter will not return to the forward position. Since the trigger is pressed, the next shot will not follow. After the trigger is released, the sear shank rises under the action of the spring moves back and is mounted on a fixed support. For the next shot you need to pull the trigger.
translator fire mode is set in the "continuous fire" shank not sear engages the trigger, and the trigger is held only sear the self-timer. Once the bolt carrier occupies the forward position, the self-timer releases the trigger sear. When a translator fire mode is set to "fuse", whispered upward movement impossible, and thus combat the projection can not come out of engagement with the hammer.
| HK G3A3 |
With modernized forearm
Sights on first versions - G3 and G3A1 were a fly in a ring and toggle namushnike open rear sight in later versions (G3A2, G3A3, G3A4) became diopter rear sight, which included a fly with a ring guard and mounted at the rear edge of the receiver sight. The latter is a sloping hollow rotary drum with a triangular slot for shooting at a distance of 100 meters, and three holes on the dioptric range of 200, 300 and 400 m length of the sighting line - 556 mm. Can also be used optical or night sight bracket, which is mounted on two racks on the receiver. Sight is used for firing at ranges up to 600 m
| HK G3A3 |
Device for firing blank ammunition can be screwed onto the muzzle of the barrel instead of the flame arrester. It has a circlip for reliable installation. Device consists of an open cylinder with a cross-bolt, fully closing the hole. On the surface of the bolt has a cutout. It can be adjusted by turning the amount flowing powder gases for operation automation. Matt chrome finish of this device helps to distinguish it from the flame arrester.
Scheme HK G3A3
gate marked "PT" is used instead of the usual training ammunition when shooting with a plastic bullet. It has rollers slow and therefore can not be used to fire live ammunition. Ammunition loaded with plastic bullet in a regular store. To save ammunition and shooting in shooting galleries has educational piercing device. It consists of a gimp stalk, special shutter and shop. Shooting is patronami.22 LR (5,6 x16) rimfire. Gimp Barrel inserted through the breech rifle and fixed clamping ring. Additionally Barrel fixed bolt that fixes the chamber. Bolt set at the store. The ejector engages with the chamber. Shutter assembly performs the normal functions.
capacity gimp shop, which is inserted into the regular store - 20 rounds.
G3 rifle can fire rifle grenades. To do this, remove the magazine and insert it into the open chamber special blank cartridge (or cartridge with regular bullet, if equipped with a grenade Bullet catcher). Then the gate is locked, and rifle grenade mounted on the flame arrestor to stop with persistent flies.
stock with butt pad attached to the receiver with two pins and removed during disassembly. There are two main options butts - awkward plastic (G3 models and G3A2) and retractable telescopic stamped steel with rubber pad (model G3A1, G3A3).
| HK G3A3 ZF |
At the earliest rifles forend was stamped metal, with holes for cooling the barrel. Later it became a plastic handguard, first as with cooling holes on the latest models - smooth, without holes.
Strap fastens on two swivel - on the front end of the casing above the barrel and back, made flush on the left side of the butt.
Silencer (device silencers) is screwed onto the barrel instead of the flame arrester and can be installed on all rifles company «Heckler & Koch», having guides for rifle grenades. Not recommended for use subsonic ammunition, as they have lower performance and require special sighting devices.
Based G3 assault rifle with fixed butt has developed the following modifications:
- HK G3A1 - basic version with retractable butt,
- HK G3A2 - basic version with modified diopter sight,
- HK G3A3 - the most famous model, the same basic configuration, but with entirely diopter. Handguard two options - standard (whole) and perforated (tn. "Tropical»),
- HK G3A3 ZF - variant with a telescopic sight (Zielfernrohr - Telescope),
- HK G3A4 - variant with folding butt into the receiver,
- HK G3KA4 - variant with folding butt into the receiver and shortened barrel.
In Germany, HK G3 and its modifications were adopted by the armies of more than 50 countries, including Greece, Pakistan, Portugal, Sweden. Norway, Iran and many others. Carbines this family purchased policemen counterterrorism officials and paramilitary organizations a number of states.
The stock closed
HK G3 was made under license in Iran, Pakistan, Greece, Turkey. The firm Heckler & Koch G3 rifle produced until 2001, when they finally disappeared from the catalogs from this company.
G3 assault rifle in various versions of the Bundeswehr was in service from 1959 to 1995, and since 1995 it has come to replace G36 assault rifle, caliber 5.56 mm NATO development company Heckler & Koch.
Especially for the civilian market firm Heckler & Koch produced only autoloading rifle variants G3, first known as HK 41 and then 91 HK. Commercial self-loading rifle HK 91 features for security guards and hunters. The American company "Springfield Armory" offered to the commercial market autoloading rework G3 under the symbol SAR-8 with stock "sport" type and 10-round magazine.
The stock closed
main reason for the high popularity of G3 rifle in comparison with its main competitors on the NATO bloc, such as the Belgian FN FAL rifle and the American M14, steel, in addition to high combat performance, and even a small price to production and maintenance associated with the widespread use of stamping instead costly machining and simple design.
On the basis of the scheme
G3 «Heckler & Koch» has developed one of the most extensive collections of small arms represented in four calibers - submachine guns chambered for the 9x19 Para i.40 S & W, carbines, assault rifles and light machine guns chambered 5.56 and 7.62 x45 x51.
better technology and organization development and production, G3 and her family far surpassed in popularity and prevalence of his Spanish "relatives" and stood in a row with a Belgian FN FAL assault rifle and the Soviet Kalashnikov assault rifle.
| HK G3 || HK G3A1 || HK G3A2 || HK G3A3 || HK G3A3 ZF || HK G3A4 || HK G3KA4 |
| Caliber, mm || 7.62x51 NATO (.308 Win) |
| Length mm || 1025 || 1020/840 || 1025 || 1025 || 1025 || 1020/840 || 885/705 |
| Barrel length мм||450||450||450||450||450||450||315|
|Вес unloaded, кг||4.4||4.8||4.4||4.4||4.9||4.7||4.0|
|Эффективная range, м||400||400||400||400||600||400||300|
|Магазин, count. cartridges || 20 |
| Muzzle velocity, m / s || 800 |
< td> rds / min
| 600 |