Ballistic missile medium-range SM-78/PGM-19A Jupiter



    Surface PU

    management system:

    management software








    2,400 km.

    year development:


    ballistic missile medium-range sm-78/pgm-19a jupiter ballistic missile medium range (MRBM)" Jupiter "is a direct descendant of the rocket" Redstone ", which was created under the direction of Von Braun in "Ordnance Guided Missile Center". "Redstone" had a maximum flight range of about 240km. At that time, as the work on the rocket "Redstone" still deployed, the Office of the U.S. Army Ordnance start production requirements for prospective missile with a range of at least 1600km. Already in 1953, encouraged by the successful implementation of the program "Redstone", Werner von Braun came to the conclusion that the development of longer-range missiles is possible, and appealed to the Office of the Chief of Ordnance for permission to proceed with the development of new means of shock. However, management Army initially showed little interest in the proposal of von Braun, and the program for the development of a new missile was ranked as the number of low priority research programs.

    Everything changed in 1955 after the so-called treatment. Killian Committee to President Eisenhower. The report of the committee stated that, along with the development of ICBMs, the U.S. should immediately begin to develop MRBM with a range of about 2400km. New class of missiles was to be deployed on land (at U.S. bases in Europe) and the sea (the variants of the new missiles based on submarines, as well as special courts). The need to develop a new class of missiles was proved by reference to the intelligence indicates that the USSR has already started to develop their own MRBM. By the end of 1955 Army, Air Force and the U.S. Navy announced the principled readiness to proceed with the development BRSD. However, the beginning of concrete actions hampered by uncertainty about what kind of exactly the agency should be responsible for developing new missiles. In November 1955, Secretary of Defense Charles Wilson announced that the Air Force will be responsible for the development of land-based MRBM, a joint team of Army / Navy will be responsible for the development of sea-based MRBM. In December 1955, President Dwight D. Eisenhower development program has ranked among the programs BRSD highest priority. Given the considerable experience of the Army to develop missiles, Navy leadership agreed to the development and production of prototypes implemented in Redstone Arsenal Army. To guide the new program in February 1956 in Redstone Arsenal was created Army Ballistic Missile Agency ("Army Ballistic Missile Agency").

    However, despite a promising start, the program will develop a new MRBM soon ran into difficulties. In September 1956, the U.S. Navy refused to participate in the program development BRSD, preferring the program "Polaris". In November of the same year, Defense Minister Wilson decided that all missiles with a range of over 320 km will be established and operated only the Air Force. This drastically reduced the interest in the Army program to develop its own MRBM. But in the end it was decided to create a sequel to the Redstone Arsenal "army" BRSD, dubbed "Jupiter" and the designation SM-78. Such a decision analysts explained numerous difficulties faced by the Air Force in developing BRSD - "Thor".

    In September 1955 began test-firing BRSD prototype, dubbed "Jupiter A", with the launch pads Atlantic Missile Proving Ground ("Atlantic Missile Range"). When testing missiles "Jupiter A" emphasis on checking the basic design solutions tested control system and motors. Somewhat later came the missile tests "Jupiter C", which was tested using the nosecone and separation system. From September 1955 to June 1958 was launched 28 missiles "Jupiter A" and "Jupiter C". Launch "Jupiter" in a configuration close to the native, came to the test in 1956. In May 1956. BRSD "Jupiter", started from the Atlantic Missile Test Site flew about 1,850 km. By July 1958 it was launched 10 BRSD "Jupiter".

    success of the program "Jupiter", coupled with the failure of the program "Thor", the army leadership gave hope that the production and deployment will be to choose "their" rocket. However, in the wake of fear caused by the successful launch of the first satellite by the Soviet Union October 4, 1957, President Eisenhower ordered the full-scale production of both BRSD. To the dismay of the Army, in accordance with the previous decision of the Secretary of Defense, the Air Force began a gradual subordination of the whole program "Jupiter" itself - in February 1958, the Air Force opened a permanent office in Redstone Arsenal, and in March of that year, the Air Force created a special department of communication whose main task was to implement the coordination of all activities between the Army and Air Force Commanders relevant. In January 1958, the Air Force was activated in Huntsville 864 th Strategic Missile Squadron to prepare calculations BRSD "Jupiter". In June of the same year in Huntsville were activated 865 I-866 I-strategic missile squadron.

    ballistic missile medium-range sm-78/pgm-19a jupiter


    while the Air Force personnel involved in the preparation for a new MRBM, the U.S. State Department is actively negotiated with a number of European countries to place missiles on their territory "Jupiter". Originally planned to place 45 missiles on the territory of France, but the talks failed. In the end, the agreement on the deployment of missiles on its territory gave Italy and Turkey. Italy agreed to the first - in March 1958 the government gave in principle agreed to the deployment of two squadrons of the missile (MRBM 15 each) on the Italian territory, the final decision was taken in September of the same year, a basic agreement was signed in March 1959. However, instead of Italians want to exercise control over their own missiles, within the organizational structure of their national air forces. Americans do not mind (especially considering that according to the rules in force control thermonuclear warhead was still carry American staff also remained BRSD American property). In May 1959, the first Italian military personnel selected for duty at BRSD "Jupiter", arrived at Lackland AFB (Texas), for training.

    department "Ballistic Missile Division" corporation "Chrysler" - the production of body components and final assembly of the rocket as a whole;

    department "Rocketdyne Division" corporation "North American Aviation" - the production of propulsion;

    company "Ford Instrument" - production management system;

    corporation "General Electric" - the production of military unit.

    In 1962, when the notation in the Air Force, the missile was given a new designation PGM-19A.

    yet solved the production and deployment of a new missile (in November 1959 an agreement was signed between the Air Force and Army, according to which in 1959 the Air Force became fully responsible for the implementation of the program "Jupiter"), the staff of the Strategic Air Command was trained using missiles "Redstone". Later, the program ISWT ("Integrated Weapons System Training") in Redstone Arsenal, training of personnel is carried out directly start using missiles "Jupiter" and equipment for them. Last test launch BRSD "Jupiter" was held in February 1960. First run BRSD "Jupiter" with simulated combat environment by trained personnel SAC Air Force Atlantic Missile test sites was carried out in October 1960. By this time a few months (July 1960) started to become missiles on combat duty in Italy, on the basis of the Italian Air Force Gioia dell Collie. Fully operational readiness of all 30 "Italian" BRSD was reached in June 1961. Base in Italy, received codenamed NATO I. 15 full combat readiness "Turkish" missiles was reached in April 1962 (the first rocket stood on duty in November 1961). Rockets placed on the basis of the Turkish Air Force crucibles, base codenamed designation NATO II. As in the case of Italy, at first rocket served only American personnel, Turkish staff replaced much of the U.S. by May 1962. The first combat-start BRSD Italian staff was completed in April 1961. The first combat-start BRSD Turkish staff was completed in April 1962.

    In December 1960 the assembly lines went last serial BRSD "Jupiter".

    Naturally, deployed BRSD 45 "Jupiter" (to which must be added another 60 MRBM "Thor", deployed in the UK), coupled with the clear superiority of the United States in number of deployed ICBMs and strategic bombers, could not cause acute anxiety in military-political leadership of the USSR. Given the situation, it was decided to expand in response to the Soviet MRBM P-12 and P-14 on. Cuba as part of "Operation Anadyr", which resulted in a well-known crisis in October 1962. Under the agreement signed by the leadership of the USSR and the United States, the Soviet missiles from Cuba displayed in exchange for deactivation missiles "Jupiter" in Italy and Turkey (decision deactivation missiles "Thor" in the UK was made before the crisis in August 1962) . The decision on the deactivation of "Italian" and "Turkish" missiles was announced in January 1963, the same month was performed sixth and final combat training launch BRSD "Jupiter" Italian staff. In February 1963 the Air Force began preparations to remove BRSD alerting within operations Pot Pie I («Italian» rocket) and Pot Pie II («Turkish» rocket). By the end of April 1963 all the missiles were removed from Italy, by the end of July of the same year - from Turkey.


    ballistic missile medium-range sm-78/pgm-19a jupiter BRSD" Jupiter "(see diagram) consisted of two parts, assembled in the field:

    equipment compartment with expander tanks and fuel components;

    Instrument / engine compartment with a docked MS.

    Powerplant BRSD was developed in Redstone Arsenal. Main engine - S3D. Fuel components: fuel - kerosene rocket RP-1 oxidizer - liquid oxygen. The nozzle of the main engine - driven, reject node suspension for missile control pitch and yaw channels. Aerodynamic rudders and stabilizers were missing. The combustion chamber of the engine was separated from the other sites of special heat-resistant wall control. Sheathing the tail of the rocket, which housed the control had a corrugated cladding to improve the strength characteristics. Compartment tanks placed on top of the fuel components and control compartment separated from the last special bulkhead. In turn, the oxidizer tanks (bottom) and fuel (above) also shares a special bulkhead. Special fuel tank bulkhead separated from the instrument compartment. Launch "Jupiter" was supporting structure tanks. Welded from aluminum body panels. Fuel supply pipeline passed through oxidizer tank, there were control cables. Propellants fed into the combustion chamber by means of pumps, which drives a turbine running on the main components of combustion fuel. The exhaust gas was used to control the missile via heel. Aspiration tanks before launch was carried out using a special tank of nitrogen (see layout scheme).

    head part, which had army designation Mk3, equipped with ablation (burn) thermal protection of organic materials and contained a thermonuclear warhead W-49 capacity of 1.44 Mt, allowing confidently hit area targets. The head part was connected with component / engine compartment, which housed the inertial system control unit and solid motors orientation and stabilization. Main (vernier) solid-propellant motor breakdowns 2 seconds after separating warhead assembly / instrument compartment of the instrument compartment (they joined the 6th explosive bolts) and carried out speed control assembly with accuracy ± 0,3 m / s. After passing the assembly apogee trajectory triggered two low-power solid-motor assembly twists to stabilize. After that instrument / engine compartment separated from the MS using detonating cord and then burned up in the atmosphere (see diagram trajectory).

    Rocket "Jupiter" was created as a mobile MRBM, which was carried by road transport. Squadron BRSD "Jupiter" consisted of 15 missiles (5 units 3 MRBM) and about 500 officers and soldiers of the personnel. Each link was located a few kilometers from each other in order to reduce vulnerability to nuclear attack. With the same purpose missiles one link placed at a distance of several hundred meters apart. Directly serviced every link in position five officers and ten soldiers (see diagram starting position).

    equipment and missiles each link was placed about 20 cars and:

    two cars provide electricity;

    providing one machine power distribution;

    two cars with theodolites;

    machine hydraulics and pneumatics;

    ensure oxidizer filling machine;

    machine fuel tank;

    three cars oxidizer tank;

    complex machine control;

    Machine-tank of liquid nitrogen;

    BRSD transportation machines and MS;

    auxiliary machines.

    rocket housed at a special launch pad to which it attaches, then the whole structure was set in a vertical position, and the lower third of the missiles closed special light metal shelter, allows us to serve a rocket in bad weather. Refilling rocket propellants carried out for 15 minutes. The launching of rockets produced by the team managers of the special car crew of officers and two soldiers. Each Squadron perform maintenance on the material part of the special database, which had at its disposal all the necessary materials and plant for the production of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen.


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