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Ballistic missile submarine Trident-2 D5

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    Basing

    :

    Submarine

    management system:

    management software

    Warhead:

    spetsboepripasov

    Application:

    Strategic

    Country:

    U.S.

    Range:

    11000 km.

    year development:

    1990

    ballistic missile submarines trident-2 d5

    in 1990 were completed testing of a new ballistic missile submarines (SLBM) Trident-2 and it was put into service. This SLBMs, as her predecessor Trident-1, is part of the strategic missile system Trident, carriers are nuclear-powered missile submarines (SSBN) type of "Ohio" and "Lafayette". Complex systems that provide missile performance of combat missions anywhere in the world's oceans, including the high Arctic, and accuracy combined with powerful warheads allows missiles effectively engage small-sized hardened targets such as ICBM silo launchers, command centers and other military installations. Inherent in the development of the missile system Trident-2 modernization opportunities, according to U.S. experts, you can save a missile armed naval SNF considerable time.

    Trident-2 complex is much greater than 1 Trident-power nuclear warheads and their quantity, accuracy and firing range. Increasing the power of nuclear weapons and improving shooting accuracy provide Trident-2 SLBMs opportunity to effectively engage heavily protected small targets, including ICBM silo launchers.

    main company involved in the development of SLBM Trident-2:

    Lockheed Missiles and Space (Sunnyvale, Calif.) - the leading developer;

    Hercules u Morton Thiokol (of Magna, Utah) - solid propellant first and second stages;

    Chemical Sistems (branch company United Technologies, San Jose, California) - solid propellant third stage;

    Ford Aerospace (Newport Beach, California) - Manifold engines;

    Atlantic Research (of Gainesville, Virginia) - gasifiers dilution steps;

    General Electric (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) - warhead;

    Draper Laboratory (Cambridge, Massachusetts) - system guidance.

    The flight test was completed in February 1990 and predusmatrivavala holding 20 launches from ground launcher and five on board the SSBN:

    21 mara 1989 After 4 seconds into the flight, while on vysote68 m (225 feet), were eroded missiles. The failure occurred because of mechanical or electronic problems gimbaled nozzle guided missiles. Cause of self-destruction missiles were high angular velocities and overload.

    02.08.89 test was successful

    15.08.89 solid propellant first stage ignited normally, but after starting with 8 and 4 s after the rocket out of the water system worked automatic blasting rockets. Cause detonation rocket damage was thrust vector control system and solid propellant, as a consequence, the deviation from the reference flight path. Damage was also e. cables first stage that initiated self-destruct system on board.

    04.12.89 test was successful

    13.12.89 test was successful

    13.12.89 test was successful. Missile launch was carried out at a depth of 37.5 meters submarine moving at a speed relative to the water in 3-4 knots. The absolute velocity is zero. Rates submarine was 175 degrees, launch azimuth 97 degrees.

    15.12.90 fourth consecutive successful launch from a submerged position.

    16.01.90 test was successful.

    test launch from a submarine identified the need for change in the design of the first stage of the rocket launcher and mines that ultimately led to the delay timing of the missile into service and reducing its range. Designers had to solve the problem of protection from the effects of the nozzle block of the water column, which occurs when the output of SLBMs under water. After completing the tests "Trident-D5» entered service in 1990. Trident-2 is part of the strategic missile complex "Trident", which carrier are nuclear-powered missile submarines (SSBN) type of "Ohio" and "Lafayette".

    Command U.S. Navy expects missile Trident-2, created using the latest technologies and materials, will remain in service in the next 20-30 years with his constant improvement. In particular, for the development of Trident missiles carried maneuverable warheads with which great expectations efficiency to overcome missile defense systems and defeat the enemy glubokoukrytyh under point objects. In particular, Trident-2 SLBMs be equipped with maneuverable warheads Marv (MARV - Maneouverable Re-entry Vehicle) with radar sensors and inertial guidance systems for laser gyro. Pointing accuracy (CEP), according to calculations of American specialists may be 45 and 90 m, respectively. For this warhead developed a nuclear weapon penetrating type.

    Composition

    missile UGM-96A Trident-2 (see diagram) is based on a three-stage scheme. In this third stage is located in the central opening of the instrument compartment and the head. Solid rocket motor (SRM) of all three stages Trident-2 are made of materials with improved characteristics (an aramid fiber, Kevlar-49, as a binder epoxy resin used), and swinging the nozzle have a lightweight construction. Kevlar 49 has a higher specific strength and modulus of elasticity as compared with glass fiber. Selection aramid fiber gave weight gains, and also an increase of the firing range. Engines are loaded with high-energy solid fuel - nitrolan having a density of 1.85 g/cm3 and a specific impulse of 281 kg-s/kg. As the plasticizer used polyurethane rubber. On Trident-2 missile at each stage there is one rocking nozzle ensures pitch control and yaw.

    nozzle made of composite materials (based on graphite) having a lower weight and greater resistance to erosion. Thrust vector control (UHT) at the boost phase in pitch and yaw deviation carried out by the nozzles, and the management of roll on the job site of the main engines are not made. Accumulating during the work RDTT deflection compensated roll during operation propulsion head. Rotation angles UHT nozzles are small and do not exceed 6-7 °. Maximum angle of rotation of the nozzle is determined based on the magnitude of the possible random deviations caused by underwater launch and steer the rocket. The angle of rotation of the nozzle in the separation stages (correction of the trajectory) is typically 2-3 °, and during the rest of the flight - 0,5 °. The first and second stage of the rocket has the same structure UHT system, and the third stage is much smaller. They consist of three main elements: a powder pressure accumulator, which provides gas (1200 ° C) hydraulic unit, a turbine, which drives a centrifugal pump and a hydraulic actuator with pipelines. The operating speed of the turbine and rigidly associated centrifugal pump 100-130 thousand rev / min. UHT system Trident-2 missile unlike Poseidon-NW has no gear reducer connecting the pump and turbine rotation speed is reduced nacoca (up to 6000 rev / min). This resulted in a decrease of their mass and increase reliability. In addition, the system UHT steel hydraulic pipes used rocket Poseidon-NW, replaced teflon. Hydraulic fluid in the centrifugal pump has a working temperature of 200-260 ° C. SRBs all levels SLBM Trident-2 work to complete fuel burn. Application on Trident-2 SLBMs new achievements in the field of microelectronics has reduced the weight of the unit of electronic equipment in the system of guidance and control to sing 50% compared to the same unit on a rocket Poseidon-NW. In particular, the rate of integration of electronic equipment on the missile Polaris-Az was 0.25 conditional elements in 1 cm3 at Poseidon-NW - 1 on Trident-2 - 30 (through the use of thin-film hybrid circuits).

    ballistic missile submarines trident-2 d5 The head of the (MS) includes instrumentation compartment, fighting compartment, the propulsion system and the nose fairing with aerodynamic needle. In the combat compartment Trident-2 is placed to eight grade of warheads power 88 W-475 rt each, or up to 14 grade of warheads W-76 with a capacity of 100 kt arranged circumferentially. Their mass of 2.2 - 2.5 tons Propulsion MS consists of solid-gas generators and control nozzles through which regulated the speed of the head portion, the orientation and stabilization. At Trident-1, it includes two gasifier (powder pressure accumulator - operating temperature to 1650 ° C, with a specific impulse of 236, high pressure 33 kgf/cm2, low pressure kge/sm2 12) and 16 nozzles (four front, four rear eight and stabilization roll). Mass fuel propulsion 193 kg, the maximum time after the separation of the third stage of 7 min. In propulsion rocket warhead Trident-2 uses four solid-gasifier developed by Atlantic research.

    nose fairing is designed to protect the head of the rocket during its movement in the water and the dense layers of the atmosphere. Reset fairing is made at the site of the engine of the second stage. Nasal aerodynamic needle used on Trident-2 missiles in order to reduce drag and increase the firing range with the existing forms of their nose cones. She drowned in the fairing and extends telescopically under the influence of the powder pressure accumulator. Rocket Trident-1 needle has six parts, extends to an altitude of 600m for 100 ms and reduces aerodynamic drag by 50 percent. Aerodynamic needle on Trident-2 SLBM has seven sliding parts.

    In

    instrument compartment housed various systems (control and guidance, data entry at undermining warheads breeding warheads), power supplies and other equipment. Control and guidance system controls the missile flight phases of its main engines and breeding warheads. It generates the commands to enable, disable, office RDTT all three levels, including propulsion MS holding flight trajectory correction maneuvers and SLBM warheads targeting. System control and guidance SLBM Trident-2 type Mk5 includes two electronic units installed at the bottom (back) of the instrument compartment. In the first block (size 0,42 X0, 43X0, 23 m, 30 kg) placed computers, generates control signals, and control circuits. In the second block (diameter 0.355 m, weight 38.5 kg) placed gyro stabilized platform on which the two gyroscopes, three accelerometers, astrodatchik and temperature control equipment. Breeding system provides warheads production teams at maneuvering warhead targeting warheads and their separation. It is installed at the top (front) of the instrument compartment. Data entry system to undermine warheads writes the necessary information during the prelaunch and produces elevation data undermine each warhead.

    Airborne and ground-based computer systems

    missile fire control system is designed for the data input and firing them in a rocket-launch test of the readiness of missile systems to function, process control missile launch and subsequent operations.

    It performs the following tasks:

    Accuracy payment data and putting them into a rocket;

    providing data storage systems and solutions for the SLBM launch pre - and post-launch operations;

    connection SLBMs to ship power sources until the direct start;

    check all systems and ship's missile complex systems involved in the countdown, launch and post-launch operations;

    monitoring compliance with the temporal sequence of actions in the preparation and launching of missiles;

    automatic detection and troubleshooting complex;

    providing training opportunities for the calculation of combat missile firing mode (simulator);

    ensuring permanent registration data characterizing the state of the missile system.

    missile fire control system Mk98 Mod. About includes two main computers, computer peripheral network, remote control missile firing, data lines and accessories. Key elements of the LAS located in the control missile firing and remote control - in the central office SSBN. Basic computer AN/UYK-7 ensure coordination of fire control system with different variants of the action and its centralized computer maintenance. Each computer is available in three racks and includes up to 12 blocks (size 1X0, 8 m). Each contains several hundred standard electronic modules SEM military. The computer has two CPUs, the two adapters and two input-output controller, a memory and a set of interfaces. Any of the processors of each computer has access to all the data stored in the machine. This increases the reliability of the solution of problems on program of missiles and missile complex control. Computer has a shared memory 245 KB (32-bit words) and speed 660 thousand operas. / Sec.

    Network peripheral computer provides additional data processing, storage, display and entry to the main computer. It includes small (weight up to 100 kg) computer AN/UYK-20 (16-bit machine with a speed of 1330 operas. / S and RAM 64KB), two recording subsystem, display, two disk drives and tape. Remote control missile firing is designed to control all stages of preparation and readiness for the launch rocket system rockets, a start command and control post-launch operations. It is equipped with control and signal boards, authorities and lock systems missile system means internal ship communications. SORS missile system Trident-2 has some technical differences from the previous system Mk98 Mod. O (in which, in particular, more sophisticated computers are used AN/UYK-43), but solves problems similar and has the same logic function. It provides a consistent starting SLBMs in both automatic and manual modes series or a single rocket.

    ship's systems to ensure the functioning of the missile system Trident, supplying him with nominal power of 450 V and 60 Hz, 120 V, 400 Hz, 120 V, 60 Hz AC, as well as with hydraulic pressure of 250 kg/cm2 and compressed air.

    Hold

    given depth, pitch and roll during SSBN rockets provided by ship's launch platform stabilization system and save the desired depth for the start, which includes replacement of the drainage system and the mass of missiles, and special machines. Its management is carried out from the control systems of general ship.

    ship's maintenance system and climate control environment provides the necessary air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, radiation control, air composition and other characteristics in SLBMs, and in all office and residential premises of the boat. Control of microclimate parameters is carried out using the placard installed in each compartment.

    SSBN Navigation system provides a constant issue in the missile accurate data on the location, depth and speed of the submarine. It includes autonomous inertial system means optical and visual observation, alarm processing of satellite navigation systems, navigation system receivers and other equipment. Navigation system class SSBNs "Ohio" with missiles Trident-1 includes two inertial Sins Mk2 mod.7, precision block internal correction ESGM, LORAN receiver-RNS-C AN/BRN-5, stacker vychielitelnuyu equipment SNA NAVSTAR and PHC "Omega" MX-1105, sonar navigation AN/BQN-31, reference oscillator frequency, computers, remote controls and accessories. The complex provides performance characteristics specified precision shooting SLBM Trident-1 (CWE 300-450 m) for 100 hours without correction for external navigation systems. Navigation system class SSBNs "Ohio" with missiles Trident-2 provides higher accuracy characteristics firing rockets (CWE 120 m) and supports them for an extended time between updates on external sources of navigation. This was achieved by improving the existing and new systems. So, had the more advanced computers, digital interfaces, navigation and sonar used other innovations. Were introduced navigation inertial system ESGN, apparatus for determining the position and speed progress on underwater sonar SSBN beacons, magnetometric system.

    ballistic missile submarines trident-2 d5 Storage and start-up (see diagram) is designed for storage and maintenance, protection against overloads and shock, accidental release and launch rockets with SSBN located underwater or overwater position. Submarine type "Ohio" this system has a name Mk35 Mod. About (ships with a set of Trident-1) and Mk35 Mod. 1 (for complex Trident-2), and refitted class SSBNs "Lafayette" - Mk24. The structure of systems Mk35 Mod. About comprises 24 silos (PU), the subsystem release SLBM subsystem control and launch control and loading equipment missiles. PU is composed of the shaft, a hydraulically actuated cover, sealing and locking the lid starter cups, diaphragms, two Plug connector, gas mixture supply equipment, control and adjustment of four hatches 11 of electrical, pneumatic or optical sensors.

    Launchers are the most important part of the complex and are designed for storage, maintenance and launch. The main elements of each PU are mine launcher glass hydropnevmosystems, diaphragm valves, plug, steam supply subsystem, the subsystem control and verification of all nodes launcher. Mine is a steel structure, a cylindrical shape and is an integral part of the hull SSBN. Top cover is closed hydraulically, which provides a seal against water and can withstand the same pressure as the robust hull. Between the cap and the neck imeeteya shaft seal. To prevent unauthorized opening of the lid is equipped with a locking device, which also provides a lock-sealingly clamping ring PU cover with opening mechanisms of control and adjustment of the hatches. This prevents the simultaneous opening of PU cover-up and control manholes, except for step loading and unloading missiles.

    Inside

    steel shaft mounted launcher glass. Annular space between the walls of the mine and has a glass seal of elastomeric polymer that performs the role of shock absorbers. In the gap between the inner surface of the beaker and placed missile obtyuriruyuschie cushioning and belt. In SLBM launch glass mounted on a support ring, which ensures its azimuthal exhibition. Ring is fixed to the depreciation of the centering devices and cylinders. Above the starting glass is covered by a membrane that prevents the ingress of seawater into the shaft when the lid is opened. Hard shell membrane thickness 6.3 mm has a dome shape and a diameter of 2.02 m height 0.7 m It is made from a phenolic resin reinforced asbestos. To the inner surface of the membrane is attached a low density polyurethane foam with open cells and cellular material, made in shape of a rocket nose. This provides protection from the rocket power and thermal load at the opening of the membrane using explosive shaped charges are installed on the inner surface of the shell. When opening the shell breaks up into several parts.

    Starting

    glass PU missile system Trident-2, manufactured by "Westinghouse", made of the same grade of steel, and glass that SLBMs Trident-1. However, due to its large diameter rocket by 15% and height 30% more. As sealing material between the duct wall and nozzle along with the neoprene and urethane used. The composition of the composite material and the urethane seal configuration selected based and higher shock loads vibryatsionnyh arising at start SLBMs Trident-2.

    PU equipped with two plug connectors, a new type (pupovichnogo) automatically when the detachable missile launch. Connectors are used to supply the equipment bay rocket power and input the necessary data shooting. Equipment supply gas mixture PU part of the ejection subsystem SLBMs. PU is mounted directly to the supply connection and vapor mixture podraketnaya chamber into which the steam and gas. This equipment is located almost at the bottom of the shaft. PU has four control and adjustment hatch providing access to equipment and nodes missiles and equipment to start their inspection and maintenance. One hatch is located on the first level deck SSBN missile compartment, two - at the level of the second deck (provide access to the instrument compartment SLBMs and connector), one - below the level of the fourth deck (access to podraketnoy camera). Hatch opening mechanism interlocked with PU cover opening mechanism.

    test equipment consists of three blocks, each of which monitors the status and functioning of PU eight, and five blocks, controlling decision logic, signal and test functions of electronic equipment storage and launching SLBMs. All units are installed in the missile compartment SSBN.

    On receipt of the signal-order on missile launching boats commander announces combat anxiety. After authentication, the orders of the commander gives the command to bring the submarine technical readiness ISy, which is the highest degree of readiness. At this command specifies the coordinates of the ship, the speed is reduced to values, ensuring the missile launch, boat podvsplyvaet to a depth of about 30 m On readiness navigation fasting and fasting control subsystem and release missile SSBN commander of mines starting key inserts into the hole remote control shooting , and switches. By this action, he gives the command to the missile bay boats for immediate prelaunch preparation missile system. Before starting the missile silo pressure equalized with outboard, then opens a durable cover mine. Access outboard water only after blocks located beneath a comparatively thin membrane.

    Direct launch next commander warhead weapons (rocket torpedo) with the help of a trigger mechanism with a handle of red color (for training launches - black) that connects to the computer using a special cable. Then turned powder pressure accumulator. It generates gases pass through the chamber with water and partially cooled. The resultant low-temperature steam is supplied into the lower cup portion of the trigger and pushes the shaft of the missile. In Polaris-missile system Az used high-pressure air, which is supplied by the obturator rocket through a system of valves on a strictly defined schedule, accurately maintain special automatic equipment. This ensured that a given mode of the missile in the starting glass and its acceleration with acceleration up to 10g at a rate of exit from the mine to 45-50 m / s. When driving up the rocket breaks membrane and seawater flows freely into the mine. After the rocket cover mine closes automatically, and located in a mine outside water drained into a special tank replacement inside the pressure hull. SSBN missile motion in the starting glass is exposed to significant reactive force, and after its exit from the mine pressure incoming seawater. Tie with special machines that control the gyroscopic stabilizing devices and pumping ballast water, keeps the boat from a depth of failure. After uncontrolled movement in the water rocket reaches the surface. First-stage engine SLBM included a height of 10-30 m above sea level acceleration sensor signal. Together with the missile to the surface pieces are ejected starting glass seal.

    Then

    rocket rises vertically and reaches a certain speed begins to work a given flight program. At the end of the first stage engine at an altitude of about 20 km takes her department and the inclusion of the second-stage, and the body of the first stage is shot. When moving missiles at the boost phase of its flight control at the expense of engine nozzle deflection stages. After separation of the third stage begins breeding stage warheads. Head section with instrument compartment continues to fly on a ballistic trajectory. Trajectory correction made the head of the engine, targeting and shooting warheads. At the head of MIRV type used so-called "principle of the bus": MS, the correction of its location, is aimed at the first target and detonates the warhead, which flies along a ballistic trajectory to the target, then MS ("bus"), having its correction location propulsion system breeding warheads aimed at the second goal and shoots following warhead. Such a procedure is repeated for each warhead. If you want to hit a single target, the warhead laid program that allows you to strike spacing in time (MS-type MRI after the second stage engine targeting performed simultaneous shooting of all warheads). Through 15-40 minutes after the missile launch warheads reach of targets. The flight time depends on the removal area SSBN fire position on the purpose and trajectory of a missile.

    PERFORMANCE

    General Characteristics

    Maximum range, km

    11000

    circular error probable, m

    120

    diameter rockets, m

    2,11

    length rocket assembly, m

    13,42

    curb weight missiles, t

    57,5

    Power charge, rt

    Rm 100 (W76) or 475 Km (W88)

    number of warheads

    14 or 8 W76 W88

    I step

    relative fuel mass, m

    0,616

    Home thrust stage

    2,48

    Weight, kg:
    - Stage full
    - The design control
    - Fuel (charge) with bookings
    - Equipment Control


    37918
    2414
    35505
    37918

    Dimensions, mm:
    - Length
    - Maximum diameter


    6720
    2110

    average particle flow, kg / s

    563,5

    average pressure in the combustion chamber kg/cm2

    115

    Full time control, with

    63

    specific impulse thrust in vacuum, kg

    286,8

    II stage

    relative fuel mass, m

    0,258

    Home thrust stage

    3,22

    Weight, kg:
    - Stage full
    - The design control
    - Fuel (charge) with bookings
    - Equipment Control


    16103
    1248
    14885
    16103

    Dimensions, mm:
    - Length
    - Maximum diameter


    3200
    2110

    average particle flow, kg / s

    323

    average pressure in the combustion chamber kg/cm2

    97

    Full time control, with

    64

    specific impulse thrust in vacuum, kg

    299,1

    III level

    relative fuel mass, m

    0,054

    Home thrust stage

    5,98

    Weight, kg:
    - Stage full
    - The design control
    - Fuel (charge) with bookings
    - Equipment Control


    3432
    281
    3153
    3432

    Dimensions, mm:
    - Length
    - Maximum diameter


    3480
    1110

    average particle flow, kg / s

    70

    average pressure in the combustion chamber kg/cm2

    73

    Full time control, with

    45

    specific impulse thrust in vacuum, kg

    306,3

    speed (about 30 m above sea level), miles / h

    15000





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