Ballistic missile submarines M45




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    6000 km.

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    ballistic missile submarines m45 Ballistic missile consisting currently in service with the French naval strategic nuclear forces ("Force Oceanique Strategique") - SLBM M45 - is the last of the family M4 SLBM, which is the first representative of the rocket, M4A, entered service in the French Navy in 1985.

    Development of a new SLBM

    designed dramatically improve the quality of the combat equipment of the French nuclear missile submarines, began in 1975. Rocket, by using the latest advances in materials science, electronics, chemistry, solid fuels (without exception French SLBMs had rocket engines, solid fuel), as well as the use of thermonuclear weapons of new generation, had to meet the most demanding requirements on the part of the French military . The main innovation of the new design was to be a SLBM MIRV thermonuclear warheads individual guidance on the target (planned to deploy up to six warheads to each missile). With the prospects of development of military equipment, it was decided to equip the new rockets and a new set of tools to overcome missile defense.

    To create a new SLBM launched almost the same group of contractors, when creating the previous French missiles of this class. Scientific management of the French National Laboratory carried out ballistic and aerodynamic research. Branch of "Space and Strategic Systems Division" Company "Aerospatiale" was appointed responsible contractor, the main components and assemblies manufactured rocket factory company in Les Mureaux, a suburb of Paris. Solid engines developed and produced by SNPE in collaboration with the company SNECMA Moteurs. Control system designs and manufactures a consortium SAGEM / EMD. Responsibility for the production of warhead carried division "Direction des Affaires Militaires" civil authorities "Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique". Despite the decades that have passed since the start of works on creation of a new complex, many published data nevertheless remain quite controversial. Some data not published until now.

    tests of prototypes of a new SLBM, which received the designation M4 began in November 1980 in the French missile range "Biscarosse". The first launches rocket is launched from ground launch complex. In March 1982, the first launch of an SLBM M4 on board the towing diesel electric missile submarine "Le Gymnote". In October 1981, under the "military program 1984-1988" was finally approved the decision to increase the number of French SSBNs up to 6, as well as all previously re-built SSBN class "Le Redoutable" new rocket. M4 missile test launches were completed in February 1984, was made just 17 starts. In the same year, began mass production of these missiles. Development of new warheads for missiles began in December 1972, the first test explosion in the development of new warheads began in 1974 on the French test sites in the Pacific Ocean. In 1978 he began the creation of separate units of new warheads, received the name TN-70, and the first combat units with TN-70, made available to the French military in July 1983. In the same year, the development of improved warhead TN-71, differed from its predecessor reduced inertial mass with increasing resistance to effects of a nuclear explosion. Production of advanced warhead began in 1985.

    first submarine, equipped with missile complex M4 - "L'Inflexible" - became part of the French fleet in April 1985, thus becoming the sixth SSBN French Navy and the last class "Le Redoutable". Already in May the same year, "L'Inflexible" took the first combat patrol. M4 complex substantially increased opportunities NSNF French: a sharp increase in the firing range (1.5 times) and shooting accuracy (CEP decreased 2-fold), coupled with the new equipment MIRV missiles allowed compared to the M20 SLBM expand the number and range of targets for defeat in the territory of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (primarily the USSR). Immediately began upgrading previously released SSBN to the level "L'Inflexible" - in 1987-1993 gg. four modified class SSBN "Le Redoutable" again became part of the ships on combat patrols. Modernization of the head of the submarine of this class was abandoned, and in December 1991 it was withdrawn from the Standby Force, and in 1992 and then charged into a museum. All upgraded submarines were armed with advanced missiles family M4, dubbed M4V. M4V missiles with extended range received BB with TN-71 warhead and improved PCB defense. To preserve the accuracy of shooting was the complex of works on the improvement of a number of missile systems. Previously released missiles, which were equipped with BB TN-70 warhead, were named M4A. In the first combat patrol with rockets M4V SSBN "Le Tonnant" was published in December 1987.

    early in the first half of the 80s the French military and political leadership has begun to analyze the prospects for the development NSNF France, which led to the conclusion that the design and construction of a new class SSBNs, which was to replace the existing ratio in the "one to one" . The new submarine was to more fully respond to the threats and challenges, French analysts predicted the last decade of the 20th and the first decade of the 21st century. New nuclear submarines were equipped with advanced SLBMs with increased firing range and more sophisticated BB composed MIRV. However, global political processes, gaining momentum during the second half of the 80s, and ended with the dissolution of ATS combined collapse of the USSR led to a significant reduction in funding the French Armed Forces. Pace of construction perspective SSBN leading shipyard DCN Cherbourg, was sharply reduced (head boat class, received the name "Le Triomphant", was founded in June 1989, the second - only in December 1993). Furthermore, it was decided to limit the construction of only four submarines instead of the planned six. In terms of reduction in funding, given the considerable technical difficulties, it was decided to equip the new SSBN at the initial stage of their operation improved SLBM family M4, research and development of which began in the second half of the 80s (for a variety of data, from 1986, the creation of advanced warhead began in 1987 year). Due to the different scientific and technological achievements the new missile had found a significantly increased performance characteristics compared with SLBMs M4V. Should increase range, accuracy, breeding area warheads, resistance to PFYAV. Planned to increase the probability of overcoming missile defense systems perspective. M45 rocket was supposed to fit into the new French strategic doctrine of "deterrence and containment," voiced in 1994 - planned to provide high degree of flexibility of the new SLBM with advanced power options thermonuclear warhead and a large number of options in the form of undermining ammunition. In addition, planned to provide an opportunity and a wide variation for BB number one rocket - from six to one. Also considered plans to build on the enhanced SLBMs, received the name M45 BRSD new generation of ground-based, designed to replace the S-3 MRBM, standing in service since 1980. Project to develop a new MRBM was closed in 1996, and over the next two years, France has finally got rid of this class of weapons.

    ballistic missile submarines m45

    SSBN "Le Triomphant" was launched in March 1994, and three years later, in March 1997, was officially incorporated into the French fleet. M45 SLBM test program ended in 1996. By this time ended and the last stage of testing a new warhead for the M45, which was designated TN-75. This stage, held in October 1995 - January 1996 Pacific atolls and Fangataufa Moruroa includes 6 underwater thermonuclear explosions and called for a strong international response, after which France acceded to the Treaty banning nuclear tests. In 1995, the company "Centre d'Etudes de Valduc" begun serial production of new warheads, lasted until 2003. After adopting the new SSBN was decided on the withdrawal from the fleet of obsolete submarines. The first submarine - "Le Terrible" - was taken out of Standby Force in July 1996, along with it the end of the same year were retired rocket and M4A. Then from the Standby Force were withdrawn and SSBN "Le Foudroyant" (April 1998) and "Le Tonnant" (December 1999). They were replaced by the latest SSBN "Le Temeraire" (December 1999) and "Le Vigilant" (November 2004). By this time, to enhance the combat capabilities of French SSBNs and greater than their respective new national strategic doctrine (2001) "extended deterrence and flexible response" it was decided to modify SSBN "L'Inflexible" under the M45 rocket. To reduce the financial costs, it was decided to withdraw from the Standby Force One submarine (SSBN stabilizing the number of French at 4 units), as well as to retire SLBM M4V. In 2004, after the completion of the test program, the modified L'Inflexible back in operation. In April 2005 following the withdrawal from the L'Indomptable Standby Force and decommissioned SLBM M4V process of modernization of French SSBNs at this intermediate stage has been completed.

    Further growth opportunities

    their NSNF French government sees the adoption of a 2010 M51 SLBM, which will be placed on board the SSBN "Le Terrible" (fourth and last class boat "Le Triomphant"). The new submarine was taken out of the factory floor in March 2008. The reduction in the number of carriers M45 missiles began in January 2008, when the composition of the Standby Force was withdrawn and sent to disarm old SSBN "L'Inflexible". According to the plans from 2011-2015. new M51 SLBM will be rearmed with the previous three-class SSBN "Le Triomphant", and M45 missiles will be withdrawn from service and family history of French SLBM M4 completely finished. However, at the initial stage (2010-2015 gg.) Deployment will be equipped with the M51 SLBM warheads and missile defense PCB M45.


    second stage sustainer of all missiles family M4 is made of fiberglass by winding impregnated with special resins epoksidopodobnymi. Marking the second-stage rocket M4A/M4V - P402. The stage is equipped with a partially recessed controlled rotary nozzle to swivel hanger, which enables the effective management of the active portion of the rocket trajectory pitch and yaw channels. Main construction material nozzle - titanium alloy special stamps with ablative coating. Fuel second stage - the blending solid, sealed motor housing. Basic design decisions on the second stage, applied early SLBM family M4, M45 SLBMs preserved. Thrust second stage of the M45 in a vacuum of 45 tons, the operating time - 75 seconds, the mass of solid fuel - 7 tons.

    third stage sustainer of all family M4 missiles made of organic fibers aramid (Kevlar-49 type for M4A/M4V) by winding impregnated with special binders. Marking the third stage engine for rockets M4A/M4V - P403. The stage is equipped with a partially recessed controlled rotary nozzle to swivel hanger, which enables the effective management of the active portion of the rocket trajectory pitch and yaw channels. Main construction material nozzle - titanium alloy special stamps with ablative coating. Fuel third stage - the blending solid, sealed motor housing. Stage equipped with special holes, reveals the separation stage dilution with MS, which allows third-stage switch off the engine and take her to the side to prevent the collision. Basic design solutions for the third stage used without significant changes at all SLBMs family. Thrust M45 rocket's third stage in a vacuum of 30 tons, the operating time - 45 seconds, the mass of solid fuel - 1 ton.


    marching steps SLBM family made in the same diameter with each other. Roll-control at the work site sustainer stages is performed using a low-power gas generators. Separation steps performed by the standard method by detonation of detonating cord in connection with the preliminary stages supercharged mezhstupennogo space by gas generators. Cable track displayed on the outer surface of the rocket fairing and covered.

    Rockets family M4 are the first French missiles, which are equipped with multiple warheads, providing personalized guidance warheads. Missile M4A/M4V breeding area of the district combat equipment is more than 50 000 km2 for the M45 rocket - over 60,000 km2. All rockets are up to 6 BB with a thermonuclear warhead: M4A - BB with TN-70 warhead capacity of 150 kt; M4V - BB with TN-71 warhead capacity of 150 kt, improved warhead has a high resistance to PFYAV and less weight, BB missiles to M4V data series is also facilitated with increased resistance to PFYAV and decrease their radar signature. The greatest improvements undergone warhead missiles M45 - Rocket got new lightweight high-speed inconspicuous BB with increased resistance to PFYAV and new TN-75 warhead maximum capacity of 150 kt has not only increased resistance to PFYAV, but also an opportunity to undermine the power of choice. New warhead assembly / B is also characterized by greater flexibility in the choice of options undermining warhead and rocket M45 had the opportunity to significant shifts in the composition of the BB number MIRV (reducing the number of BB to one in the so-called. "Sub-strategic" version of the application increases the firing range missiles M45 7500 km).

    breeding stage at all SLBMs family M4 - solid fuel, contains a compartment, which houses the missile inertial control system with a gyro-stabilized platform and accelerometers, as well as on-board computer. As are all the containers with PCB defense. Warheads covered fairing discharged to the active portion of the flight and uvodimym away by using a low-power solid-propellant engines. The rocket M45 supplemented with computerized control system controls the distribution unit payload, which improves the efficiency of the power plant breeding stage.


    SLBM family M4 are designed to run from a submarine lying at a depth of 30-50 m, depending on the class SSBN. First, the missile could be ready for launch in a time period of 30 to 10 minutes depending on the level of class submarines and electronics (which was modernized in order to reduce time prelaunch), and for the next 20-15 seconds. Rockets fired from launchers parogazovym way. Starting glass walls have several rows obturator rings, and the top is closed dome membrane of phenolic resin reinforced with asbestos. Gas mixture, necessary for the discharge of missiles mines produced padas. They generate gases first pass through the water tank (cooling chamber), mixed with it in certain proportions and form a low temperature steam. This vapor enters the chamber, to form the obturator shaft and the bottom of the missile.


    class SSBN "Le Redoutable" all 16 SLBM launchers placed in the set in the same compartment in two rows. On class SSBN "Le Triomphant" missiles placed in two compartments in two rows (8 SLBMs in each compartment). According to some sources, the French SSBNs are capable of starting their missiles and position of a surface, including the trip home. Automated command and control system installed on SSBNs provides automatic monitoring of missiles in PU, their preparation for the launch, if necessary, re-targeting, and launch. In particular, ASBU SAT, used on class SSBN "Le Redoutable", to control, manage, and run retargeting SLBM used 4 digital computers, information via a common bus in two pairs. Another computer could be used if necessary as a "hot standby».


    M4V (M4A)


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    Starting weight, t



    firing range, km

    5000 (4500)


    CWE, m



    number of warheads, pieces



    Power warhead, ct




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