.

Ballistic missile submarines R-27 (4K10, RSM-25)

BACK NEXT
    Basing

    :

    Submarine

    management system:

    radar seeker, Control

    Warhead:

    spetsboepripasov

    Application:

    anti, Strategy

    Country:

    Russia

    Range:

    3000 km.

    year development:

    1968

    ballistic missile submarines R-27 (4K10, RSM-25) The results obtained in the development of domestic submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), first generation (R-11FM, R- 13 and P-21), and comparing them with American achievements in this area (Polaris A1, Polaris A2) led to the formulation of the need for a qualitative leap in the development of sea-based strategic forces. Were clear and the main directions of development: a multiple increase of ammunition missile submarine, decrease the size of missiles, warheads, launchers (rocket-launching systems) and missile silos, process automation services missiles in storage, prelaunch and burst shooting, tactical round increase technical characteristics and performance of missiles and missile systems, etc. The aim was to develop new systems to ensure the effective development of the second component of the strategic missile forces of the country - the naval strategic nuclear forces. To achieve this, significant progress was needed in domestic sea rocket. Of adopting the national Navy in 1963 R-21 missile complex D-4 with a range of 1,400 km significantly inferior to the basic characteristics of American missiles Polaris A1 (1960, 2200 km) and Polaris A2 (1962, 2800 km). In addition, as noted above, the number of SLBMs on typical American missile submarines significantly exceeded the number of SLBMs typical Soviet missile submarine - 16 to 3. To eliminate the backlog needed to develop as a new missile and a new nuclear submarine.

    April 24, 1962 decree of the Council of Ministers № 386-179 to develop a new R-27 of the D-5 for new nuclear weapons missile submarines of Project 667A. The lead developer and rocket complex was scheduled SKB-385, Chief Designer - VP Makeev missile control system development was entrusted to the SRI-592 (chief designer Semikhatov NA), and the placement of the complex on a submarine project 667A - CDB- 18 (chief designer Kovalev SN).

    However, compared with the potential enemy SLBMs still significant lag - in the U.S. Navy for service are now more advanced SLBMs Polaris A3 (1964, 4600 km, the world's first BR with MIRV scattering type 3BB ) and Poseidon C3 (1971, 4600 km, the world's first SLBM MIRV, 10 BB). In 1968 the naval strategic nuclear forces appeared and Britain - the country's second most powerful NATO adopted SLBM entered Polaris A3T (Polaris A3 variant with increased resistance to PFYAV). In 1971, own SLBM M1 (2600 km) appeared and France, which sought to carry out an independent from the U.S. nuclear policy.

    Under these conditions 10 June 1971 adopted Resolution USSR Council of Ministers on the modernization of the D-5. The goal was to create two versions of a modernized missile. The first option involves equipping warhead missiles with three warheads, while maintaining the maximum firing range of the previous version and the improvement of the accuracy characteristics. In the second variant to have increased firing range while increasing accuracy. In the second variant was created missile with a range of 3000 km and a lightweight monobloc thermonuclear warhead capacity of 1 Mt. Upgraded version of the complex was designated D-5U and missiles - R-27U.

    Ship missile tests P-27U held from September 1972 to August 1973. Was carried out 16 launches, all found to be successful. Rocket R-27U was adopted by January 4, 1974 the Council of Ministers № 8-5. Complex D-5U with rockets equipped with P-27U constructed nuclear submarine project 667A (4 pieces), as well as boat after upgrading project 667A (8 pieces). Overall, the two shipyards (shipyards in the region. Severodvinsk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur) from 1967 to 1972, was commissioned 34 SSBN 667A "Navaga" and 667A "Navaga" (according to some sources, SSBNs, which were built in Severodvinsk, had the designation "Navaga" and Komsomolsk-on-Amur - "burbot"). Missile, built on the latest draft, except improved missiles had reduced noise, upgraded navigation system and communication system, etc. In addition, in 1981, SKB-385 was completed modernization of the D-5, associated with the replacement of a single warhead on monoblock warhead from the complex D-5U, thus increasing the firing range (complex D-5M). With the modernization of the D-5 and R-27 systems, specialized design modifications SSBN systems and missile systems placed on the SSBN ("a missile") was carried out. Corrected algorithms digital computing systems and databases associated with the preparation and operation of the flight mission of a new type warhead. Ground-based equipment is basically similar to that for the complex D-5.

    modifications described above were not the only ones: the original CM Resolution of 24 April 1962 on the establishment of the D-5 is also provided for the establishment of homing missiles with warheads capable of hitting moving ships. Anti-ship version of the missile was designated P-27K (GRAU index 4K18). Testing of the missile R-27K began in December 1970. Cycle of ground tests at Kapustin Yar included 20 starts (16 of them found to be successful). Under carrier rockets for towing project 605 has been refitted diesel-electric submarine - K-102 Project 629, with 4 missile silos on board. The first launch from the submarine was made in December 1972. And in November 1973, tests were completed dvuhraketnym gulp. Total was made 11 starts, 10 of them are considered successful. During the last start-target vessel was struck by a direct hit induced block. In 1974, the missile was accepted into trial operation.

    In the 1990s, the works on creation of rockets based removed from service ballistic missile submarines. On the basis of the P-27 was created booster "Ripple". Rockets were used in research experiments, requiring the creation of microgravity. Period of weightlessness had a duration of 17 to 24 minutes. On suborbital orbit "Ripple" could bring a payload of up to 1.5 m3. Payload weight could reach 650 kg with a maximum height of the orbit of 1800 km or 1000 kg in orbit altitude of 1000 km. Was made three starts. December 1, 1991 was launched module "Sprint", SKB-385 developed in cooperation with NGOs "Composite". The module was designed for testing technologies to produce superconducting materials and carried a 15 exothermic furnaces. December 9, 1992 and December 1, 1993 launched the module "Ether" with biotech equipment "Medusa" 80 kg. Module, developed in conjunction with the Center for Space Research biotechnology intended for purification technology of biological and medical products by electrophoresis in conditions of weightlessness.

    ballistic missile submarines R-27 (4K10, RSM-25) Complex D-5 was operated from 1968 to 1998. Total produced about 1,800 missiles, missile launch holds 492, of which 429 considered successful. Maximum number of starts was in 1971 - 58. This kind of record for Soviet and Russian ballistic missile submarines. The complex also holds the record for the average annual number of starts - 23.4. During operation of the D-5U was made 161 run, 150 of them successful. Recent launches of missiles R-27 and R-27U on combat training plans were made in 1988. After that restart is performed only for research purposes. During the operation twice (once in the Northern and Pacific fleets) were conducted firing 8 rockets in one salvo. All launches were judged successful. Over the entire period of operation was made more than 10,000 landings handling-missile boats armed RSM-25 was carried out 590 combat patrols in various areas of the oceans.

    During the operation, there were several accidents with the destruction of the missiles. 6 people died and lost one SSBN. When loading with impaired process of loading and unloading a rocket from a height of 10 m fell on a dock. Oxidizer tank was destroyed. Two people died of loading games from exposure to unprotected oxidizer vapors inhaled. Thrice destroyed missile boats in the mine, located on duty. In 1973 the boat K-219 located at a depth of 100 m due to false positives irrigation system with the valve open mine drainage and the manual valve on the bridge between the main bilge main boats and mine drainage pipeline occurred message missile silo with seawater. The pressure in the tanks 10 atmospheres destroy the missile. When draining the mine caught fire rocket fuel, but timely triggering automatic irrigation system to prevent the further development of the accident. The boat returned safely to base. On the teachings of "Ocean-76" on the boat K-444 had a prelaunch preparation three missiles. Was the launch of two missiles, and shooting the third rocket was made. Pressure fuel rocket due to a series of human errors were dropped to the ascent of the boat. Pressure seawater tanks destroyed missiles, and the ascent and mine drainage oxidizer leaked into the mine. Thanks to skillful actions of personnel development emergency happened. The third case was also on the boat K-219 October 3, 1986. For unknown reasons after immersion session in missile silos began taking on water. The crew tried to disable automatic drain and supernumerary means. As a result of pressure equal to that first outboard and destroyed tanks missiles. Then, after draining the mine caught fire fuel components. Disabled automatic irrigation did not work, and there was an explosion at a depth of 85 meters. Explosion was foiled missile silo cover (see photo), the fire started in the 4th missile compartment. During the fire and smoke in rocket 4th and 5th compartments 3 people were killed, including the commander CU-2. Extinguish the fire on their own crew failed missile lost energy and stroke. Later, during the procedure of removal of GEM operation killed 1 other person. Trying to organize towing SSBN Cuba have approached using Soviet ships did not succeed. Compartments began to fill seawater and personnel after more than 3 daily heroic struggle for survival was gradually forced to leave the emergency submarine, which sank on October 6 at a depth of 5.65 km in the region of 1000 km north-east of Bermuda. This disaster, considering occurred just 5 months with a little before the Chernobyl radiation disaster and radiation appeared in the world of psychosis caused new serious blow to the international prestige of the USSR. Operating experience RSM-25 has been analyzed and taken into account when designing new systems. As a result of the operation of SLBMs with expander subsequent modifications have been no cases of loss of life.

    First

    667A missile projects are being introduced from the Navy in accordance with the Soviet-American agreement on arms reduction in 1978 in order to maintain the number of carriers BU at a certain level. Part missile submarines have been converted into special purpose (2 units, 09 774 projects and 09780), were transformed into part of the PLA's strategic SLCM "Granat" (3 units, the project 667AT). One missile was modernized under the project with the aim of testing 667M strategic SLCM "Meteorite". Other conservation same conclusion with excision missile compartment and subsequent disposal. Modification of P-27U has been removed from service before the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989. Other modifications were being retired missiles in Russia in the framework of implementation of START-1. According to September 1990 memorandum, in the territory of the USSR on the P-27 was deployed 192 nuclear warheads (192 SLBMs, 16 SSBNs on 3 bases ["Yagelnaya" on CSF, "Fishing" and "Pavlovian" on KTOF]; another 142 SLBMs these same databases stored non-deployed). In addition, 173 non-deployed SLBM RSM-25 were on the 3 paragraphs storage SLBMs ("Roundabout", "Revda" and "Nyonoksa") and object conversion and elimination SLBM "Pashino." As of July 1997, in Russia in the P-27 had 16 deployments (1 SSBN). By 1998, all the R-27 decommissioned.

    relatively small range of Soviet missiles necessitated combat patrol Soviet SSBNs in areas of the powerful forces of the U.S. Navy anti-submarine warfare and NATO (primarily in the East and West coasts of the United States), which significantly reduced the combat stability of Soviet submarines (especially in the 80s years). However, despite some shortcomings, the USSR was able to create a sufficiently effective strategic missile system by which the Soviet SSBNs have reached a qualitatively new stage of development. Appearance in the Navy quite a significant amount of modern SSBNs with a significant number of SLBMs each significantly improved the likelihood of the guaranteed retaliation, especially in view of the accuracy of new missiles, so-called for. "Soft" goals - political, economic and industrial centers. Rocket R-27 was first tested a number of new technical solutions. Using these developments in subsequent missile systems further allowed to completely eliminate the backlog of U.S. weapons in this class, and in some areas (astroinertial management system, SLBMs intercontinental class, etc.) and ahead of the United States.

    Rocket R-27 had a "Western" designation SS-N-6 Serb mod.1, modified P-27U - SS-N-6 Serb mod.3 and mod.2, P-27K - SS-NX- 13. Missile project 667A (AC) had codenamed Yankee.

    Composition

    In developing

    family of R-27 (see diagram) was used a number of innovative solutions for a long time will shape missiles SKB-385:

    maximum use of all the internal volume of the rocket to accommodate the fuel components - the absence of the traditional division into sections, placing the main engine in the fuel tank (the so-called "sunk" scheme), using a common bottom of the tank of fuel and oxidizer, placing the instrument compartment the front bottom missile;

    welded sealed housing wafer shells obtained by the chemical milling of plates, which served as material for aluminum-magnesium alloy AMg-6;

    reduction in air bell due to consecutive start at first start steering engine, and then the main engine ("dynamic bell");

    joint development of missiles and missile components launch system - the rejection of the use of aerodynamic stabilizers and waist rubber shock absorbers;

    original charge ampulizatsiya missiles and fuel components.

    measures allowed to sharply increase the average density layout missiles, thereby reducing its size, and reduce the required volume of mines and tank annulus. So, compared to R-21 missile firing range increased by 1.8 times, the length of the rocket fell by a third, the mass launcher decreased more than 10 times the mass of the rocket - almost one-third the volume of the annular gap - almost 5 times . Load on the boat, per missile (mass missiles, launchers, missile silos and tanks annular gap) decreased three times.

    ballistic missile submarines R-27 (4K10, RSM-25) The R-27 (see diagram) was performed on a single-stage scheme with monobloc detachable warhead. The missile body welded, sealed, was made of "waffle" paintings produced by chemical milling slabs of aluminum-magnesium alloy AMg-6. Initially been reached 5 to 6-fold excess and the original thickness of the sheet metal thickness of the resulting membranes. Subsequently, while applying the mechanical milling, the rate was adjusted to 9. The outer surface of the case protects teplovlagostoykim coating based asbotekstolita.

    The rocket was mounted liquid rocket engine 4D10-2 Design Bureau (later - CB chemical engineering, chief designer Isaev A. M.), consisting of two blocks. Engine propulsion unit consisted of 23 tons of thrust and steering unit of the general thrust of the two chambers of 3 tons. In LRE used hypergolic propellants. As fuel used unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), and as an oxidizer - nitric tetraoxide (AT). In connection with the use of hypergolic propellants to prevent crashes when entering liquid fuel components in the mine at depressurization missiles were automated irrigation system, gas analysis and microclimate in the given parameters. Submission of propellants carried turbopump assembly. Boosters worked on the scheme with afterburning of oxidizer gas. Thrust regulated control fuel consumption. Steering unit has been made under the scheme without afterburner with the gasifier product gas with excess fuel. Link steering unit is controlled by a common line on the oxidant. The world's first engine was placed in the fuel tank - the so-called "sunk" scheme. Motor mounting were used only permanent connections - welding and brazing. Engine became non-performing and unverifiable. The engine is one of the cutter, and the output mode to control their own automation. Swing camera steering engine were installed on the conical bottom of the fuel tank, a 45 ° angle to the plane of the stabilization of the rocket. Fixing steel engine components to the aluminum body is provided with special bimetallic adapters. To reduce unfilled cavities rocket fuel used total bilayer bottom of the fuel and oxidizer tanks. This eliminated intertank compartment. Another innovative solution was to factory fueling followed by "ampulizatsiey" by welding tanks fill and drain valves. Together with the works to improve the corrosion resistance of materials, sealing seams and joints, it is possible to initially establish the service life of missiles Wet 5 years. And later able to bring it to 15 years.

    Elements inertial control system for the first time in the USSR (SLBMs) were placed on a gyro-stabilized platform. Apparatus control system housed in the sealed volume defined by the upper hemispherical bottom of the oxidizer tank. By

    second option would increase the firing range while increasing the accuracy of shooting missiles. In the second variant was created missile with a range of 3,000 km and a lightweight monobloc thermonuclear warhead capacity of 1 Mt (see photo). In both options for the R-27U was achieved CWE 1.3 km.

    antiship missiles R-27K (GRAU index 4K18) was equipped with a second stage liquid rocket engine design KB-2 (chief designer Isaev A. M.). To maintain the size rocket been reduced in size first stage, which eventually led to a decrease in the maximum range of up to 900 km. Nosecone close coupled (see photo), nuclear, power 0.65 Mt. Aiming at the passive phase was carried out using passive radar seeker, with onboard digital signal processing computer system. Initial data for firing issued satellite system "CS" or aviation system "Success-U." Data processing equipment exploration ship "Orca" permitted us to determine the coordinates of a group of ships up to 25 km. According to calculations during prelaunch target location could change up to 150 km, so for the second stage provided by the management of double inclusion of the second stage propulsion system for exoatmospheric flight phase. Initially as an option for an additional trajectory correction for atmospheric plot and equipping missile warhead low power, but later on this option was abandoned in favor of a purely ballistic, with increased power warhead.

    type rocket launch - the so-called. "Wet" from a pre-flooded mine (see photo). At the bottom of the P-27 has been installed an adapter with which join with the starting missile table. In preparing the rocket for launch rockets carried charging tanks. As water enters the mine and the pressure equalized with the outboard. Cover was opened missile silo. To reduce the water hammer occurs when the engine is started in a rocket filled mine, the engine was carried out in a sealed volume formed by the adapter and launching pad. Technology has been developed to create "dynamic bells." In the early start in the adapter formed "gas bell" Runs steering motors. Then, at the beginning of the rocket, launching the main engine and the gradual withdrawal of the operating mode to full thrust. Upon further movement of the rocket at the moment it started to act on the incoming flow of water. Reduce the loads acting on the structure emerging from the mine missiles contributed preliminary charging tanks and located on the very special rocket belt rubber shock absorbers. Daylight horizontal waist elastomeric damping SLBMs with increased "energy intensity" rubber shock absorbers, their speed force characteristic in combination with increasing the allowable congestion on the rocket and placing absorbers rocket slashed the annular gap. In addition, the shock began to serve as guides and guides in conjunction with traditional yoke located on the adapter (not involved in flight), provided only loading and unloading rockets. Exception rocket collision with mine at the start of the incident and compensation for the flow of water from the ground speed SSBN provides the use of gas discharged steering mounted on marching LRE.

    Service and procedures prelaunch and launch missiles were automated. With a single control system everyday and ship-launch missiles service provides remote control and monitoring of systems. With the remote control missiles carried conduct comprehensive operational checks, management prelaunch and launch. Initial data for applications such as missile and torpedo elaborated first domestic combat information and control system "cloud" (chief designer Belsky RR) equipped with a specialized computer (chief designer - Hetagurov YA). In addition, the "cloud" to collect and process information about their surroundings, as well as the navigation solution.

    navigation equipment of the new submarine provides certainty swimming and launching missiles in the polar regions. The rocket is launched from a submerged position only, with no more than 50m depth, boat speed to 4 knots and sea state not more than 5 points. Time prelaunch missiles - 10 minutes. Interval shooting missiles in a single salvo - 8 seconds. Calculations showed that as shooting missiles in a salvo SSBN should gradually emerge, and after the start of the 4th rocket salvo out of the permissible "corridor" starting depths. Originally starting ammo of 16 SLBMs chetyrehraketnymi held four volleys at intervals, between the 1st and 2nd volleys and 3rd and 4th volleys - 3 minutes (to return the ship to its original depth) between the 2nd and 3rd volleys - no more than 35 minutes (for pumping water from the tanks of the annular gap in missile silos, as well as the trim of the ship). Then modified equipment will produce real combat shooting two eight-rocket volley, with the interval between the 1st and 2nd volleys no more than 20 minutes, compared with the previous features significantly less unmasked SSBNs. First in the world was produced by a volley of 19 December 1969 on board the SSBN K-140. The magnitude of sector firing missiles for 667A was 20 °, latitude of the launch should not exceed 85 °.

    PERFORMANCE

    firing range, km

    2500 (F-27U - 3000 with monobloc MS; 2500 MIRV)

    Maximum height, km

    620

    Height

    burnout, km

    120

    speed burnout, km / s

    4.4

    Time

    active site, with

    128.5

    Speed

    meeting for the purpose of MS, km / s

    0.3

    CWE km

    1.9 (27U P - 1.3)

    Dimensions, m:
    - Length
    - Diameter


    8.89
    1.5

    starting weight, t

    14.2

    Massa MS, t

    0.65

    Power MS, MT

    1.0 (R-27U - 1.0 or 3h0.2)

    silos Dimensions, m:
    - Height
    - Diameter


    10.13
    1.7





BACK NEXT TOP

Site is a private collection of materials and is an amateur informational and educational resource. All information is obtained from public sources. The administration does not apply for authorship of the materials used. All rights belong to their owners