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Ballistic missile submarines R-30 3M30 Bulava

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    Basing

    :

    Submarine

    management system:

    management software

    Warhead:

    spetsboepripasov

    Application:

    Strategic

    Country:

    Russia

    Range:

    8000 km.

    year development:

    2010

    ballistic missile submarines 3m30 p-30 mace

    Rocket R-30 "Bulava" (3M30 code START - RSM-56, on the classification of the U.S. DoD and NATO - SS-NX-30 Mace) - a promising solid-Russian ballistic missile to put on submarines. Development of missiles carried by the Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology. Initially developing missiles directed Yu Solomonov, from September 2010 it was replaced by A. Sukhodolskiy. The project is one of the most ambitious scientific and technological programs in the history of modern Russia - according to published data, only the cooperation of producers involved at least 620 enterprises.

    By 1998 there was an unsatisfactory situation in the issue of improving the naval component of the strategic nuclear forces of Russia, threatening to escalate into a catastrophe. Developed since 1986 by KBM (theme "Bark") SLBM 3M91 (R-39UTTH "Thunder"), destined for re-6 existed TARPK CH Project 941 "Akula" (20 SLBMs on each submarine cruiser) and promising weapons ARPK CH Project 955 "Swallow" (the theme of "Northwind", 12 SLBMs on each submarine cruiser) did not meet the customer's negative test results - by 1998, inclusive of 3 tests conducted every third were unsuccessful. In addition, customer dissatisfaction was caused by not only failure to start, but the overall situation, experience all influence how the collapse of the USSR in 1991 (and, accordingly, the current decay has to work on SLBMs 3M65 (R-39) the cooperation of producers) and inadequate funding: According to General Designer SLBMs for full mining complex required for approximately 8 launches from submarines, but due to the high complexity in existing level of funding the construction of a rocket took about three years, which delayed the process of working out and testing complex starts to unacceptably long deadlines. In addition, in 1996 at the Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant was discontinued production of RSM-29RMU, which were equipped with all 7 ARPK CH 667BDRM "Dolphin"; ARPK of 14 CH Project 667BDR "Squid", equipped with RSM-01-29RKU , the beginning of 1998 have already left three cruisers system. Lifetime warranty modification of RSM-39 - RSM-39U - was supposed to end in 2004, which should lead to the conclusion from the existing fleet and submarines of Project 941.

    In 1997, due to the catastrophic underfunding of works on the construction of new nuclear submarines, as well as in connection with a series of unsuccessful test launches new missile R-39UTTH, it was decided to freeze further construction of the head SSBN 955 K-535 "Yuri Dolgoruky" , which was started on the construction of "Sevmash" in Severodvinsk in November 1996. Due to the current situation in the field of naval strategic nuclear forces in November 1997, Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin was sent a letter signed by Minister J. Urinson and Igor Sergeyev, which proposed taking into account the realities of the international and domestic situation, financial and operational capacity to give Russia Moscow Institute of Thermal functions leading organization in developing promising means of strategic nuclear forces, including marine, referring primarily determine the technical appearance of such funds. General Designer MITA Yu Solomon was invited to develop a universal strategic missile for the Navy and the Strategic Missile Forces (on a number of data, preliminary design of such a missile was launched in 1992). Based on the already existing achievements, was supposed to provide in the process of creating such a structure newest SLBM hull nodes, propulsion system, control system and warhead (special grade of fuel, construction materials, multi-functional coatings, special circuit-algorithmic protection equipment, etc.), which provided to rocket high power characteristics and the required resistance to the damaging effects of factors such as nuclear and prospective weapons based on new physical principles. Despite the fact that the earlier development of SLBM not included in the scope of MITA, Institute deservedly won fame leading domestic maker of solid propellant missiles not only after the development and putting into service of a stationary, and then ground with a mobile ICBM complex options "Topol-M" but also the world's first mobile ICBM ground-based "Temp-2C" ICBM "Topol" BRSD mobile ground-based "Pioneer" and "Pioneer UTTH" (known in the West as "Clear Europe"), and well as many non-strategic systems. The current work on promising NSNF RF situation MITA high prestige and high reliability and effectiveness of the developed his earlier complexes led to the fact that a letter addressed to V. Chernomyrdin was later confirmed, and the case was set in motion.

    formal proposal to cease further development of SLBM 3M91 in favor of the development of prospective SLBM was launched in 1998 appointed the Chief of the Russian Navy Admiral Vladimir Kuroyedov after three consecutive failed test runs completed by 73% of the complex strategic weapon "Bark" (head submarine project 941 TK-208 to this point are converted under complex "Bark" in the modernization project 941U with a degree of readiness 84% under the same complex was designed and SSBN 955). The proposal was put to the Security Council of the Russian Federation with regard to the content of the letters in 1997. As a result, the Security Council of the Russian Federation refused to further develop the draft Miassky KBM them. VP Makeev (developer of Soviet SLBMs, except did not become mass R-11FM and P-31). As a result, in September 1998, further development of the missile system "Bark" was stopped, and for arming ships of Project 955 was a competition for the development of advanced solid rocket complex under the designation "Bulava". According to the results of this contest, which was attended by SRC them. VP Makeev the project BR "Bulava-45" (sometimes designated "Bulava-47") Chief Designer Yu Kaverina and Moscow Institute of Heat with a missile "Bulava-30" winner was MIT (see comparison chart) . Voiced the part of MIT reports that competition in violation of all rules, held twice and both times MIT emerged victorious. At the same time were searching possibilities for further construction of the head boats in the absence of adequate funding, equipment and even counterparty vessel steel. Redesign for the new missile RK conducted in haste and was completed in the first half of 1999. In 2000, work on the completion of the cruiser were resumed. One consequence of the redesign was to increase primary weapon ammunition aboard the submarine with 12 SLBMs to the "classic" 16 missiles.

    Following approval of the 28th Research Institute of Ministry of Defense, primarily provides scientific and technical support for the development and testing of strategic missile systems of sea-based, was suspended from work and its functions transferred to the 4th Central Research Institute of the Russian Defense Ministry, done this before. Development of strategic missile systems for the Navy and the Strategic Missile Forces were in varying degrees removed sectoral research institutes Roskosmos TsNIIMash, Institute of Thermal Processes, Mechanical Engineering Technology Research Institute, Central Research Institute of Materials. When creating SLBMs and testing it was decided to abandon the "classical" use underwater stands for working underwater launch and use for this purpose starts with a modified project 941UM and used as a "floating stand" TARPK CH TK-208 "Dmitry Don ". This solution may cause the missile will never be tested at extreme values of the perturbation. However, they experience MSC. VP Makeev, as well as the organization itself, were largely brought to work on the project "Bulava-30" - according to published data, in December 1998 in the State Rocket Center them. VP Makeev (new name MSC) were working on the design of communication systems and complex equipment in cooperation with MIT. Draft project SLBM 3M30, according to published reports, was protected in 2000

    Decision on the transfer of the development of new SLBM Mitu as the events that followed, it was far from straightforward, and he found many opponents. They pointed out (and point) for doubtful pluses of unification (in early December 2010 Yu Solomon reiterated that it is possible to use a unified missile "Bulava" and comprising ground missiles) that could potentially lead to a reduction of TTX missiles , the lack of experience in creating MITA sea-based missiles, the need to rework the project 955, including the ship under construction, under the new complex, etc., etc.

    however difficult situation of domestic NSNF also led to the urgent adoption of a number of decisions that had to somewhat stabilize the situation in the near future and, in part, the medium term - in 1999 the production of RSM-29RMU on "Krasmash" was renewed (at reactivation of the equipment from the state budget was spent 160 million rubles.) in 2002 was adopted by its modification P-29RMU1 (RSM-29RMU with OCD developed under "Station" advanced combat equipment; refinement missiles apparently made by Usually in such cases the scheme - without removing them from the silos), and in 2007 adopted the domestic fleet entered already significantly improved RSM-29RMU2 (rocket was developed under the theme of "Blue" and is available on the "Krasmash" standard instead of R-29RMU; new SLBM carries and new combat equipment, developed by the OCD "Station", the serial production of new missiles planned until 2012). All remaining six submarines in service 667BDRM "Dolphin" from December 1999 have already passed (5 units) or are currently undergoing repairs and modernization average (up to the end of 2010 through this procedure must pass and sixth and final part of the project SSBN) that will allow these ships, according to the Russian decision-makers, to be in service for many years. To maintain technical condition 667BDRM missile at an acceptable level, it was decided to hold the next stage of modernization of submarines, combined with factory repair, since August 2010, when the shipyard "Zvezdochka" newly arrived SSBN K-51 "Verkhoturye" passed through the first stage of modernization in late 1999. Regular repair and modernization of ships, along with work on the modernization of DBK SLBM RSM-54 and increase the service life of SSBNs will support this at the appropriate level of domestic component NSNF "until the 2020s." Also, to maximize the use of remaining in the Navy missile project 667BDR "Squid" was upgraded and their missile system - in 2006 adopted adopted advanced RSM-29RKU-02 (missile received a new combat equipment, developed by the ROC "Station 2", according to some, this is an adaptation of combat equipment of the combat equipment of OCD "Station" under another, older, DBK, which allowed within unification reduce the range of warheads). As of 12.2010 in the fleet were 4 cruisers 667BDR project, which apparently leave the fleet after the start of admission to arming ships with the new SLBM "Bulava", ie, up to about 2015 when the last remaining ships Project 667BDR finally worn down physically and morally obsolete. For all modernized complexes failed to fully implement adaptive modular properties when missiles can be applied to any SSBN their respective craft projects combined (eg, cruiser 667BDRM - RSM-and P-29RMU1 29RMU2 one ammunition).

    Originally

    "the throwing" starts (see Example frame shooting) overall weight and dimensions of the new layout of RSM-30 (the prototype stage solid propellant I, who had fuel charge for a few seconds of work) carried out a prototype shaft PU landfill Special Design Bureau of Machine Building (Yelizavetinka Leningrad Oblast). After completion of this stage it was decided to proceed to the second, where it was used modernized TRPKSN "Dmitry Donskoy". According to some sources, the first TRPKSN "Dmitry Donskoy" was used as a floating platform for testing SLBM "Bulava" December 11, 2003, when his side was successfully "throwing" start weight and dimensional layout of freeboard SLBM situation. In the media this trigger is considered "zero" and to offset the total number of starts is not taken; complete rocket experiment did not participate. Serial mass production of advanced missile "Bulava" plan to deploy at FSUE "Votkinsk plant" missile-producing "Topol-M". According to the developers, the structural elements of both missiles (as well as a modified version of an ICBM "Topol-M" - the new SS-24 MIRV created Mitomo) highly standardized. The process of working out a new set of components even before the ICBM test was not smooth - According to media reports, May 24, 2004 at Votkinsk Machine Building Plant, which is part of MITA Corporation, during testing of the solid propellant explosion. However, despite the difficulties that arise naturally in the development of each new product, the work moved forward. In March 2004, in Severodvinsk was built a second ship of Project 955, named "Alexander Nevsky".

    ballistic missile submarines 3m30 p-30 mace

    September 23, 2004 on board the submarine TK-208 "Dmitry Donskoy", based on the "Sevmash" in Severodvinsk, was successfully "throwing" start weight and dimensional layout missile "Bulava" submarine of the state. The test was conducted to test the feasibility of its use in submarines. In this run media often regarded as the first, although there was only performed SLBM launch weight and size layout. Second test run (or the first full-scale launch of the product) was successfully performed 27 September 2005. The rocket, launched from the White Sea to TARPK CH "Dmitry Donskoy" freeboard provisions of the Kura test site in Kamchatka, about 14 minutes overcame more than 5.5 thousand kilometers, and then the rocket warheads successfully hit their designated targets on the range. The third test launch was made December 21, 2005 with TARPK CH "Dmitry Donskoy". Start already done from a submerged position on the Kura test site, the missile successfully hit the target.

    Successful start testing contributed to the emergence optimistic mood among participants work in March 2006 in Severodvinsk was built a third ship of Project 955, named "Vladimir Monomakh" (for a variety of data, this ship belongs to the project 955A - noted that this project differs from Project 955, primarily to the fact that when it is not used construction backlog of unfinished submarines of Project 971U. All hull designs are made from scratch. Moreover, an attempt was made exceptions counterparty supplies from neighboring countries. hulls have undergone minor changes several optimized NVH characteristics, etc.), but in the future this optimism has been subjected to the most severe test.

    fourth test launch on board the submarine "Dmitry Donskoy" September 7, 2006 ended in failure. Start SLBM was produced from a submerged position in the direction of the field of combat in Kamchatka. Flying start after a few minutes, the rocket off course and fell into the sea. The fifth test launch from aboard submarine "Dmitry Donskoy", held October 25, 2006, also ended unsuccessfully. After a few minutes of flight, "Bulava" off course and self-destructed, debris fell into the White Sea. SLBM creators made desperate efforts to identify the causes of failed launches and eliminate them, hoping to complete a successful launch year, but hope was not destined to come true. Sixth test launch was made December 24, 2006 on board the CH TARPK "Dmitry Donskoy" provisions of the freeboard and again ended unsuccessfully. Engine failure rocket's third stage led to its self-destruction on a 3-4th minute flight.

    Seventh test launch took place on 28 June 2007. Running made in the White Sea on board the submarine "Dmitry Donskoy" of submerged and partially completed successfully - one of the warheads did not reach the goal. After tests June 29, 2007 it was decided to mass production waste sites and most parts of the missile. Carrying out the next start was supposed to fall in 2007, however, no official information about the tests in this period is not. Eighth launch was done September 18, 2008. According to media reports, carried TARPK CH launch "Bulava" from a submerged position. Teaching units reached the target in the area of combat field Kura test site. Soon, however, the media was spread about that launch was only partly successful - the active part of the trajectory the rocket went smoothly, got in a predetermined area, the head part separated cleanly, but breeding stage warheads failed to secure their offices. It is worth noting that from any other official comments in connection with the initial rumors Defense Ministry abstained.

    ballistic missile submarines 3m30 p-30 mace The ninth start, held November 28, 2008 on board the nuclear strategic submarine" Dmitry Donskoy "from a submerged position in the framework of public flight test complex , was completely in the normal mode, the warheads successfully arrived at the Kura test site in Kamchatka. According to a source in the Russian Defense Ministry stated that the program is first carried out missile tests completely, which raised doubts about the veracity of previous reports of "successful launch" № 2 and number 3, held in 2005. Skeptics doubt partially confirmed after the tenth launch. It was produced by 23 December 2008 and from the nuclear submarine "Dmitry Donskoy". After working first and second stage rocket started a freelance operation, deviated from the planned trajectory and self-destructed, exploding in the air. Thus, the launch of the fourth (subject only partially successful - sixth) unsuccessful on account of the nine conducted. In addition, by December 2008, and was designated the question of degree of harmonization perspective SLBM "Bulava" with ICBM "Topol-M", as the consequence of all kinds of improvements and dovodok during pilot testing of common parts has declined steadily. Unsuccessful

    December launch of a special commission investigating the Defense Ministry and representatives of the MIC. The results of this commission inspired optimism and military industry and led to the decision to resume testing, said a source close to the commission. According to him, it turned out that the cause of the accident was the failure mechanism thrust control solid propellant production Permian NGOs "Spark". This information was confirmed by a source in the Defense Ministry. Receive comments on the "Spark" the media failed. According to the military, which means that it was a purely production, ie fixable defect, and not fundamental error in the design. Therefore, it makes sense to continue to work on a missile, which (excluding work on the project ARPK CH 955, each of which is worth, according to various sources 0.75-1.0 billion dollars) has already cost the country "several tens of billions of rubles" . However SRC them. VP Makeev, encouraged by the successful results achieved in the framework of activities "Station", "Station-2" and "Blue", led to the adoption of the respective products by the Navy of the Russian Federation, according to media reports, offered to review the results of having code "The blue-2" - in this work drafted liquid RSM-29RMU3 adapted for use on prospective Project 955 missile carriers. Nevertheless, according to the Chief of the Navy Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky RF, nuclear submarines of Project 955 boats will not rearm this ballistic missile. However, the results of work of the State Commission, it was decided to resume testing SLBM, since August 2010, although the start date of a particular repeatedly postponed. According to statements of the Defence Minister, was prepared for tests 3 missile is identical to each other, including the terms of assembly and used materials and technologies, which would allow a high degree of probability to identify deficiencies, both constructive and build quality. In September 2010, the project management has undergone another major change - at MIT was abolished single post of the designer. Position was divided into two: 1) General Designer land-based ICBMs (it took Yu Solomon), 2) General Designer solid sea-based missiles (it took A. Sukhodolskiy). All this time, continued research and development on the complex - in 2007-2009, the city SRC them. VP Makeev using its unique experimental base conducted research work on the topic of B-30, in particular the test units and aggregates products in vacuum-dynamic stand.

    Domestic

    authors often criticized developed missile "Bulava" for a large percentage of failed tests. But, according to a former general designer MIT and SLBMs "Bulava" J. Solomon: "In the conduct flight tests (as it is a closed issue, the construction techniques I can not speak) is what we encountered, it was impossible to predict - who would not say that the possibility of such prediction. In order to understand what are the values in terms of quantitative assessments in question, I can say that the events that took place during which contingencies with appliances, valued thousandths of a second, while the events are completely random. And when we were on the information that we were able to "extract" in the analysis of telemetry data to ground conditions reproduced happened in flight, to understand the nature of these phenomena, we needed to spend more than a dozen tests. This once again shows how, on the one hand, the complex pattern of occurrence of individual processes, and on the other - how difficult it is predictable in terms of the ability to play in ground conditions. " According to Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov, the causes of failures were due to the fact that "the lack of attention paid to ground testing of products." According to chief designer of submarines of Project 941 "Akula" SN Kovalev is due to the lack of stands. According to an unnamed representative of the defense industry, the main cause of failure was the lack of quality and workmanship, it was suggested that this indicates a problem with the serial production of "Bulava". However, multiple failures in tests of a new missile is not something unique. For example, the RSM-39, which were armed with nuclear submarine of project 941 "Shark" in the period 1983-2004., Of the first 15 starts (in the period 1980-1982.) Were completely unsuccessful 8. But after appropriate modifications SLBM has been tested yet 20 starts in 1982-1983. (All have been completely or partially successful, another rocket at start did not come out of the mine) and was adopted by the Soviet Navy in 1983.

    ballistic missile submarines 3m30 p-30 mace First Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Vice Admiral O. Bourtsev about the new SLBM in July 2009 said:" We are doomed to what she still fly. Especially that the testing program is not yet fully implemented. "Bulava" - a new missile, with its trials to face various obstacles, nothing new right does not go. " And later Chief of the Navy Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky Russian Federation acknowledged that the situation with the development of advanced weapons for a new generation of submarines is difficult, but not hopeless, and linked to the crisis in the development of technologies in Russia. Senior Researcher, Institute of World Economy and International Relations Major General V. Dvorkin believes that testing should continue. According to him, "failure to start - it is a sad event, but to abandon the missile is not: an alternative" Bulava "(based on the number already invested in the program funding) not." However, a number of domestic observers believe certainly alarming fact that the statements of Russian officials of various ranks on the "Bulava" often slip some "notes of doom" and mentions that "there is no alternative." It should be recognized that, given the large funds already invested in the program and complete uncertainty about its prospects (5 years of tests do not allow to give any predictions about the critical date of receipt of the missile into service - even in case of further successful tests adoption complex is planned to be adopted "before 2011" and the previously projected timeline has repeatedly changed upwards), the overall picture of what is happening looks quite disturbing. However, in March 2010 it was announced that the second submarine of Project 955 - K-550 "Alexander Nevsky" - "will be almost ready for the conclusion of the workshop in November 2010," followed by completion, launch and testing. The lead ship of the project - K-535 "Yuri Dolgoruky" - in July 2010, has graduated from the passage as a whole test run further tests are planned in conjunction with already the main armament of the ship, sea missile systems "Bulava". In early December 2010 the second nuclear missile submarine of Project 955 - K-550 "Alexander Nevsky" - was removed from the shop. According to unconfirmed reports, is being manufactured SSBN fourth nodes, named after "St. Nicholas" that allows soon expect his official bookmarks.

    According to the plans

    trials in 2010 with TRPKSN "Dmitry Donskoy" was originally scheduled to perform two SLBM launch "Bulava", reported in the General Staff of the Navy of Russia. "If these triggers" Bulava "will be successful, then in the same year, the test will continue on board its" support staff "- nuclear submarine" Yury Dolgoruky ", - said the General Staff of the Navy. More tests of ballistic missile "Bulava" started according to plan - the fall of 2010. Repeatedly postponed the launch of SLBM "Bulava", thirteenth, held October 7, 2010 on board the missile submarine "Dmitry Donskoy" in the White Sea. According to Navy officials, the start was made from a submerged position, combat units achieved their goals in the area of Kura test site. According to official statements, start program was fully implemented, the launch was successful. Fourteenth launch SLBMs on 29 October 2010, the board TRPKSN "Dmitry Donskoy" from a submerged position. According to Navy officials, the warheads reached their goals in the area of Kura test site. Start program was fully implemented, the launch was successful. According to the plans of the Navy, after a comprehensive review of past launch preparations began for the new, which is scheduled for December 2010. Until the end of 2010 was planned to make another start SLBM "Bulava" - a staff already on board the carrier, the PKK CH "Yury Dolgoruky". According to an agreed solution of the Navy and developers SLBMs, first start with a new board SSBNs had to be made from the above-water position, ie, the test program will have elements in common with the test program on board "Dmitry Donskoy". However, in December 2010, the launch did not take place - the official reason was the difficult ice conditions in the White Sea. Launch was postponed by particulars whilst decision-makers from the Ministry of Defense and development organizations of the complex, "spring-summer 2011." However, for a variety of data, state the reason for postponement was SSBN "Yury Dolgoruky", which, after a series of intensive tests in 2010 came to renovate on "Sevmash" (Severodvinsk).
    ballistic missile submarines 3m30 p-30 mace

    the present time (January 2011) made 14 test launches, "Bulava" (taking into account the weight and dimensional layout Shot from underwater position), and seven of them are considered fully or partially successful. Series starts in 2010 on board the "Dmitry Donskoy" have been completely in the normal mode, which is a testament to the effectiveness of measures taken earlier to improve the quality of manufacturing SLBMs. The Navy has made it clear that the board first with K-535 will pass a single launch (originally planned in December 2010, is now rescheduled for spring-summer 2011), and then, if successful, will probably be done salvo launch ( rocket start one after the other every few seconds). In all likelihood, in a salvo will not be used for more than two missiles, one of which will be aimed at the Kura testing ground on the Kamchatka Peninsula, and the second will be launched at maximum range in the Pacific Ocean (area "Water area"). According to statements from the sources of the Navy, subject to a successful series of launches in 2010, and in the case of non-randomness demonstrate that success starts SLBM in 2011, already in 2011 will decide on the acceptance of SLBM "Bulava" adopt fleet. According to statements by officials and designers, all in 2011 will be held 5-6 startups if they are successful. In addition, statements were heard that by the beginning of December 2010 thermonuclear charge for BB SLBM "Bulava" already fulfilled, the time of receipt missiles into service is scheduled to work fully and warheads. Total, according to the number of domestic workers, planned to make standard "up to 150 new SLBM." According to announced plans, with the first missile SLBM "Bulava" will be introduced in the Pacific Fleet (Kamchatka Peninsula, Vilyuchinsk, 16th squadron of submarines) - the first time in the history of the domestic fleet: previously the head to learn the newest nuclear missile submarines was the North fleet. According to data published in the media, training infrastructure for the new ships to the Pacific Fleet comes to an end. According to statements by J. Solomon, a complex with SLBMs "Bulava" will be able to provide strategic stability "at least until the year 2050».

    Composition

    ballistic missile submarines 3m30 p-30 mace

    missile 3M30 (see the alleged scheme) has three solid propulsion stages and stage of breeding warheads. Some publications indicate that the level of dilution is liquid that is likely untrue, since previously created at MIT ICBMs and traditionally equipped with solid-propellant MRBM combat stage. Dilution stage, thus apparently is solid-with adjustable thrust. Stage of breeding, as is typical for the latest ICBMs and SLBMs, presumably breeding has logic that provides optimal redistribution of energy resources among a range area and the area of separation of military equipment, which, along with the already traditional for Russian SLBMs choice between circular or freeform breeding zone fighting equipment, raises the possibility of combat use by more rational planning and target designation, increasing the reach goals that extend the capabilities of combat patrol areas of SSBNs.

    According to various published reports, the main contractor for the development of solid fuel charge, control towers and powder pressure accumulators for SLBM "Bulava" are FTSDT "Soyuz" (Lyubertsy), NGO "Iskra" (Perm ) and FSUE "FNPTS" Altai "(Biysk). According to media reports, developed and applied industrial development of large domestic manufacturing technology with high fuel charges energomassovoy efficiency of fuels fifth generation in active nitroefiruretanovom binder with high enthalpy and skeletal cyclic nitramines.

    Cases SLBMs

    steps - such as "cocoon" of a polymer composite material based on aramid fibers with a high specific strength, that allows to increase the working pressure level in the combustion chamber and reduce the size and weight of the nozzle units, thus achieving a higher degree of expansion obtaining higher specific impulse. When creating a modern solid-fueled SLBMs, including the "Bulava", increased rates of volume filling fuel engine cases by improving the physical and mechanical characteristics of the fuel composition and structure of charges. Housings likely produced by a continuous winding. Onboard cable network missiles, presumably in accordance with the current level of technology, "wrapped in" motor housing - ribbon cables passing cable network installed in the motor housing during their manufacture (between the "pods" winding). According to published data RDTT I stage housing and nozzle blocks all grades developed and manufactured NGOs "Sparkle" body RDTT II stage RDTT Stage III and stage dilution - developed and manufactured FTSDT "Soyuz".

    Branch fairing SLBMs carried out after leaving the area of high-altitude nuclear explosion blocking. Mortar rocket stage separation is ensured by gas pressurization of the powder pressure accumulator mezhstupennogo volume and the subsequent cross-coupling compartment division elongated shaped charge. This design ensures bumpless separation stages and provides maximum density mezhstupennoy layout of the rocket, which is especially important for SLBMs (for this purpose in the design of engine propulsion rocket stages used partially recessed into the combustion chamber rotary control nozzle (with double telescopic shifted bell nozzles on the upper levels) , thus increasing the degree of expansion of the nozzle and, accordingly, the specific impulse, without increasing the overall size of the missile).

    According to media reports, the missile is equipped with MIRV, which includes up to 6 (according to information published by "Roskosmos" - "6 to 10"), new high-precision high-speed small combat units of the new generation of conical shape with a small half-angle and small radius of blunting with small signatures in various spectral bands EMP equipped with new power charges a small class of about 150 kt development VNIIEF (Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region), as well as the latest IRT PRO corresponding level of possible threats. According to some sources, the creation of combat equipment and the team was involved VNIITF. Zababakhin (Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk region). BB spetszaryady and have an upper level of resistance to PFYAV.

    ballistic missile submarines 3m30 p-30 mace Also, it should be noted that solid-fuel missiles, which include" Bulava ", yielding several missiles with liquid fuel in some of its dynamic characteristics (with which, in Specifically, due to reduction in throw-weight) significantly outperform them processability and storage conditions. There are cases of repeated accidents and disasters on domestic submarine fleet, it is caused by abnormalities in treatment technologies liquid-fuel rockets. It should also be borne in mind that in modern liquid rockets as an oxidant used nitrogen tetroxide and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine as fuel hypergolic when connecting (and, moreover, are extremely toxic by themselves). Depressurization tank liquid rocket is one of the most serious threats to the operation and had once led to the death of the Soviet ARPK CH K-219 Project 667A "Navaga" and 4 crew members in October 1986 in the Atlantic. In addition, the process of preparing to launch SLBMs liquid takes much longer compared with solid and SLBM force arising noise strongly unmasks SSBNs, which is especially important today, when funds tracking submerged SSBN achieved a high degree of perfection. The need to accommodate on board liquid SLBMs also greatly complicates the design of submarine.

    Battle Ship Launch Complex (KBSK) SLBMs "Bulava" SRC developed them. VP Makeev (Miass, 149th Division KB SRC-2). Designing control systems, power supplies, computing facilities and the centralized management of the complex was carried 147th Division 2 KB-GRC. Geodetic survey and sighting complex designed 50th Division KB SRC-2, and the complex system of protection - 127th Division 2 KB-GRC. In 2007, the beginning of April kit launch equipment for regular media - Project 955 nuclear submarines - produced in SRC them. VP Makeev and allied enterprises and put on "Sevmash" for mounting on the cruiser "Yury Dolgoruky". Complex ground storage equipment 3F30 includes Angara-warehouse truck 3F30-3 (KB development "Motor", Moscow, CDB "Titan", Volgograd), tractor 3F30-4 (CDB "Titan", g . Volgograd), transport and cargo handling unit 3F30-9 (CDB "Titan", Volgograd), and other equipment.

    Control System: astroradioinertsialnaya (based ODCC, gyro-stabilized platform, electro-optical equipment 3N30 celestial flight path by measuring the coordinates of navigation equipment and radio correction stars on the results of the exchange of information with navigation satellites GLONASS Earth) set of instruments control system has improved precision characteristics, new ODCC provide improved performance, the system has a high resistance to PFYAV. Provided on high alert, accuracy and continuous operation of onboard equipment. When creating rockets used electronics domestic element base with the new generation, which allows the use of new BB improve accuracy to the level of the existing domestic intercontinental ballistic missiles, ground-based (with the value of CWE not exceeding 200 m). Control system is developed and produced jointly FSUE "NPO Automation them. Acad. NA Semikhatova ", FSUE" NPC Automation and Instrumentation them. NA Pilyugina ", JSC" NPP "Geophysics-Space" and JSC "RKRKPIS." Celestial system includes products 35I and 36I. Manufacturing capabilities in systems astrocorrection 3N30 SLBMs for 2007-2008, the city accounted for 25 pcs. / Year. The cost of preparation of production (in 2008) 3N30 units - 18.1 million rubles. In 2007, the NPP "Geophysics-Space" with funding from the Investment Fund of the federal budget FSUE "MIT" began training capacities, and in 2008 started the preparation for the production of blocks 3N30 1st production batch SLBM "Bulava". In 2008, the "Enterprise" Geophysics-Space "also started production units astrocorrection 3N30 for 1st production batch of missiles 3M30. Probably, the control system also uses SLBM Sc. adaptive flight control method, ie, the principle of adaptation of the flight program to the actual conditions by taking into account the perturbations introduced deviations from the nominal parameters of solid propellant. The control system also, as in previous SLBMs shall be capable of shooting from the high Arctic, with a circular field of fire purposes and flat trajectory with a small flight time. Antenna-feeder devices, as well as hardware and software systems telemetric information processing complex designed and manufactured by SRC them. VP Makeev.

    management system development SLBM "Bulava" allowed a new level reliably implement the following provisions:

    use in flight trajectory correction by measuring the coordinates of navigation stars (celestial), which allows to offset the impact on accuracy for specific major factors SLBMs;

    correction of the trajectory based on the results of navigational measurements relative motion BR artificial satellites belonging to a single space navigation system;

    introduction of a so-called direct methods for determining the in-flight missile current projected miss, based on the calculation of prolonged trajectory to the point of impact, thus reducing the methodological errors of management and reduce the amount of calculations in prelaunch;

    use of terminal (boundary) control methods, where the final conditions BR management, along with traditional criteria (deviation from the target point drop), specify additional conditions (complete fuel burn, flight time, the angle of entry into the atmosphere, and so n).

    introduction calibrations accuracy parameters of the complex SU command devices with constant leverage them or periodic inclusions, thus reducing the impact on the accuracy of the PAC parameter changes during operation SLBMs and increase accuracy in all modes SU;

    Use statistics optimal systems to handle all the navigation information, as in prelaunch, and during the flight;

    adoption of special measures to enhance shooting accuracy in inertial mode (IR) of SU, as the most protected from internal and external disturbing factors specific.

    Rocket, for some applications, is created as a ship's missile system, unified for the two types of missile strategic submarine cruisers:

    modernized project 941UM "Shark" (in service and in reserve fleet are 3 potential carrier complex - TK-208 "Dmitry Donskoy" TK-17 "Arkhangelsk" TK-20 "Severstal" ). Statement by the responsible persons of the Navy, these ships will be maintained in the fleet "until 2020." However, according to some analysts, the likelihood of their use as carriers of SLBM "Bulava" is small - the last two ships owned since 2004 in the reserve require costly upgrades and repairs average modeled head TARPK CH. Therefore, most likely after the SLBM "Bulava" will begin "to gain statistics" successful launches, TK-17 and TK-20 will be excluded from the fleet. Head TK-208, which went into operation back in 1981, also is likely to be excluded from the Navy after the program flight tests of RSM-30;

    Project 955 "Swallow" (the lead ship of the K-535 "Yuri Dolgoruky" tested, two ships (K-550 "Alexander Nevsky" and "Vladimir Monomakh") are constructed, started making parts for the fourth cruiser "St. Nicholas." Total 2017 plans to build eight submarines of Project 955. first two (Project 955) and third (Project 955A) will carry 16 solid rocket "Bulava", for a number of media reports, subsequent missile (starting with "St. Nicholas," project 955U) will probably carry on board for 20 missiles. missile submarines of Project 955 are built using the most advanced technologies and domestic, as noted by the media, according to their performance characteristics are at the advanced level of the domestic and international nuclear submarine .

    SLBM launch method: from the transport and launch container placed in submarine mine, using powder pressure accumulator and the team to start the engine of the first stage is fed at the time of the rocket of the WPK. When not starting the first stage engine after exiting the water rocket to ensure the safety of the underwater missile cruiser sidetrack. Start all the ammunition carried in one gulp, with a minimum interval between missile launches. There is also the opportunity to launch one or more missiles of ammunition missiles can be launched from a depth without restrictions due to weather conditions on the sea surface, as well as provisions of the freeboard. Prospective evaluation of opportunities for industry batch production of new missiles - up to 25 pcs. / Year.

    PERFORMANCE

    Number of stages: 3

    (3 + combat propulsion stage)

    Maximum range, km

    8000

    starting weight, t

    36.8

    throws weight, t

    1.15

    type warhead

    MIRV 6 BB (stated number)

    Weapon Accuracy (CWE), m

    About 250 (supposedly)

    Dimensions, m:
    - The length of an assembled missile without a warhead
    - Length of the rocket in TPK (the head part)
    - Maximum body diameter (excluding protrusions)
    - Diameter of the WPK (excluding protrusions)


    11.5
    12.1
    2
    2.1

    first stage:
    - Length
    - Diameter
    - Curb Weight stage, t


    3.8
    2
    18.6

    ballistic missile submarines Polaris A-3TK - ChevalineBazirovanie:

    Submarine

    management system:

    management software

    Warhead:

    spetsboepripasov

    Application:

    Strategic

    Country:

    UK

    Range:

    3710 km.

    year development:

    1982

    ballistic missile submarines 3m30 p-30 mace History SLBM" Polaris-A3TK "dates back to 1964, when the British, concerned work on missile defense, carried out in the Soviet Union, launched a research program HR169 to address a possible reduction in the effectiveness of promising British naval strategic nuclear forces. In June 1967, to equip prospective SSBN "Resolution" British Navy was selected American SLBM "Polaris-A3T". A year later, UK Ministry of Defense has begun to explore the data obtained in the course of the American project "Antelope". Under this program, SLBMs "Polaris-A3T" by reducing the number of warheads from three to two planned to equip the complex decoys (PCB ABM) and improved resistant to effects of a nuclear explosion (PFYAV) control system. Despite a significant increase in the basic characteristics of the sample range modernized decreased from 4630km to 3710 km. In the future, the United States abandoned the program "Antelope" in favor of a more perfect SLBM "Poseidon-C3". The British have decided to act differently in the years 1968-1970 research program carried out "Super Antelope". The main emphasis in these developments has been made on improving the sustainability of additional missiles "Polaris-A3T", warheads and parts PFYAV. The rocket was supposed to get an advanced PCB defense. Construction was planned to carry out combat orders via breeding stage, equipped with a combined liquid-solid-fuel power plant and providing guidance two warheads on individual goals. New thermonuclear warhead was to have an increased capacity. Work on the creation of improved missiles began in 1970 under the program KH793 "Artificer".

    However, the basic idea of the program "Super Antelope" from the very beginning had a strong opposition from the British military, which has since 1965 offered to re-elect U.S. missile SSBN promising "Poseidon-C3" and other options:

    "Mini-Poseidon" - equipment SLBM "Polaris-A3T" stage dilution SLBM "Poseidon-C3" with six BB (1971);

    "Hybrid" ("Stag") - version of SLBM "Poseidon-C3", equipped with PCB missile developed in the framework of the program "Super Antelope" (1972г.);

    "Option M" - version of SLBM "Poseidon-C3" without the possibility of targeting warheads to individual targets (1973).

    All variants have been consistently rejected by British politicians, and in March 1974 it was announced transformation program KH793 "Artificer" in the program "Chevaline", immediate construction work which commenced in January 1975. The main contractors were Research Centre at Aldermaston nuclear weapons ("Atomic Weapons Establishment" - AWE), Royal Aeronautical Research Centre in Farnborough ("Royal Aircraft Establishment" - RAE), the company "Hunting Engineering" and " Sperry Gyroscope ". Test BB PCB defense and some critical parts were performed on Missile Woomera in Australia ("Woomera Missile Range"). The works were attracted numerous U.S. contractors, the main of which is a corporation "Lockheed Aerospace". By the end of 1979, the program has invested more than £ 1 billion.

    Flight tests

    modernized program "Chevaline" missiles "Polaris-A3TK" began in September 1977. Launches were conducted with the test stand LC29A Eastern Test Rocket Range (Patrick AFB, FL). Prior to May 1980 was carried out 11 launches, all fully or partially successful. From May 1974. to April 1980. at the Nevada Test Site (USA) was carried out 6 underground thermonuclear explosions, during which tested a new warhead and its elements.

    ballistic missile submarines 3m30 p-30 mace

    second phase of testing took place in the waters of the Eastern test missile test site in November 1980, on board the SSBN "Renown" class "Resolution" was made two starts (both - successful). After finishing upgrading SSBN "Renown" in January 1982 began the third phase of flight tests. In the first part of this phase until June 1985 produced partionnye missile launches from aboard SSBN modified, combined with tests of advanced control systems. 1982-1985 was only produced 13 runs, three of them - unsuccessfully, remaining totally or partially successful. At launch, the second part of the third stage from July 1986 to May 1987 were tested rocket boosters steps which have been modified by a special upgrading program which started in 1981 and equipped the new solid fuel. These launches have been combined with partionnymi missile launch from aboard SSBN modified. In 1986-1987 he produced eight runs, one of them - unsuccessfully, remaining totally or partially successful. In addition, from October 1980 to April 1982 at the test site in pieces. Nevada was held 4 underground thermonuclear explosion on the program "Chevaline" for testing warhead. In the period 1979 to 1982 he. 100 SLBM warheads ET.317 British "Polaris-A3T" were finalized version to TK-100 (the first "stage" thermonuclear warhead device ET.317, bearing the name "Jennie", was replaced by a new "stage» "Harriet" , the second "stage» - "Reggie", remained unchanged). Was increased resistance to PFYAV warhead, improved security arrangements, power warhead TK-100 increased to 225 kt. Formed by reducing the number of required BB "surplus" nodes ET.317 warhead was used by the British to create tactical aviation thermonuclear gravity bombs WE.177C (decommissioned by March 1998).

    first SSBN "Renown" class "Resolution" with SLBMs "Polaris-A3TK" went on combat patrols in mid-1982, the last (fourth) SSBN "Revenge" of the same class - in 1988. British evaluated advanced rocket quite high, since all ammo volley one SSBN (16 SLBMs) for creating a missile defense system in the Moscow region (100 missiles) unsolvable problem - almost simultaneously in space proved deployed 32 relatively subtle and resistant PFYAV BB and heavy as 64 and not less than 368 light inflatable decoys along with 16 stages of breeding (fragments which also had to play the role of heavy decoys) fields and chaff. Due to a sharp increase in accuracy or increase the power of each CU BB advanced SLBMs acquired the possibility of defeat, not only large area targets, but also the "point" of small targets with a low degree of protection. During the period

    1988 to 1994. program of combat training launches was made 10 starts SLBM "Polaris-A3TK" (all - completely or partially successful). Thus, for the period 1977-1994 inclusive years in total were carried out 44 SLBM launch "Polaris-A3TK" under the flight tests (later combined with partionnymi starts) and combat training launches. Completely failed launches were 4.

    Estimating project

    Chevaline in general, you will notice that the main task, becoming engineers and scientists before the work was done - with the support of the British Americans succeeded so modify existing missile complex "Polaris-A3T", that he was able to guaranteed task, putting in the time before the SNF UK - task of destroying the most important strategic goals of the Moscow region of the USSR with the application of the maximum possible loss of life. It fit into confessing in the United Kingdom until the mid 80's strategy of "assured retaliation". However, after the second half of the 80s the British agreed with the American strategy of limited nuclear war with the selective use of nuclear weapons, it became clear that the concept, which was created as part of the missile "Polaris-A3TK", no longer meets the requirements of the time . Prior to arming SLBM "Trident-II" D5 in the UK Navy had no means to react to conflicts outside of Europe with the participation of potential owners of nuclear weapons.

    Composition

    ballistic missile submarines 3m30 p-30 mace Ballistic missile" Polaris-A3TK "inherited the basic design features of its prototype - SLBM" Polaris-A3T ". two-stage rocket is made with a serial connection stages, with shells made of fiberglass-wound fiberglass epoxy sizing. Under a special program, held since 1981, the first stage march SLBM "Polaris-A3TK" with SRBs A3P, developed by "Aerojet General", has been modified - replaced liner filled new solid fuel instead of the old, the replacement of a number of nodes, taken steps to improve the sustainability to PFYAV. All missiles "Polaris-A3TK" were modified under this program during 1986-1987. First stage solid propellant sustainer had four rotary nozzle. Nozzles made of aluminum alloy with special coatings. For thrust vector control on the motor of the first stage are applied annular baffles installed in each of the nozzles and articulated with the respective hydraulic actuators. Tests have shown high effectiveness of this type of steering apparatus, and in particular, the ability to display the trajectory of the rocket even when a significant deviation of the vertical at the moment when the first stage engine. The system allows you to control the missile via pitch, yaw and roll. Engine includes an electromechanical device and powerful primer, with the tail tube nozzle protects the motor against ingress of water when submerged during a rocket pushes working gas pressure at the time of the motor.

    At the second stage rocket engine X-260, developed by "Hercules Powder" found four fixed nozzle. Control forces created by the injection of Freon in the supercritical part of the nozzle. Supply of Freon stored in a toroidal tank, which was filled at the factory. This system allows you to control the missile pitch and yaw channels. The second stage of "Polaris-A3TK" was also modified. Complex actions taken was about the same as for the first stage of the march. Steps connected with an adapter made of aluminum alloy. For separation sustainer stages used fire method. In front of the adapter was attached charge, works at the moment of separation.

    equipment control system is located in the detachable part of the instrument compartment, which is located in front of the body to the second stage of the rocket sustainer. It housed platform with accelerometers and gyroscopes high block, automatic flight control software, the unit auxiliary electrical equipment, on-board computer, power supplies, etc. During the program "Chevaline" equipment management system has been significantly modified, primarily to improve shooting accuracy and resistance to PFYAV. Through the application of a new element base has been reduced mass of the system. When carrying out work to improve the sustainability and BB warhead system "Chevaline" PFYAV widely used to results obtained in the course of an extensive research project R-1, dedicated to this topic.

    ballistic missile submarines 3m30 p-30 mace

    most interesting part of the project "Chevaline" became the head part with breeding stage - simply because that degree of originality (often simply inexplicable) embedded in it, the system of technical solutions, to our knowledge, unique in the world had. Dilution step was made of aluminum alloy with the inclusion of critical components places the steel parts. Most of the surface outside the breeding stage had specific coatings to reduce thermal loads from small solid propellant rocket fairing at the time of withdrawal. Nose piece stage, which accounts for the main thermodynamic load at the moment of the fairing, was closed by a thermal shield made of organic materials, which shot back a few seconds after the disposal of fairing. Breeding stage had its own electronic control unit "Electronic Control Assembly" (ECA), which provided: the process of initiating systems and breeding stage MS, issuing commands propulsion stage for orientation in space, the power level of all systems, etc. The unit includes a source Power on the thermopile (duration of 9 minutes with a possible extension of up to 20 minutes), the onboard computer control system of breeding stage (which was performed on the radiation-resistant electronics EEPROM-type) and a set of auxiliary equipment. All systems were placed in block titanium alloy and had a screening of PFYAV. Stage breeding unit was equipped with orientation in space "Space Reference Unit" (SRU), which consisted of a set of gyroscopes and accelerometers. The unit provides digital computer data on angular deviations of breeding stage and accelerations.

    important part of the breeding stage propulsion unit was "Bus Propulsion Unit" (BPU). Unit includes liquid boosters, who worked on storable hypergolic propellants (inhibited red fuming nitric acid as the oxidant IRFNA and hydrazine MAF-1 as a fuel). Thrust average - 6.3 kN, the total momentum - 77.5 kNs. Fuel - 2.5 kg / s. BPU provided breeding stage speed change by up to 200 m / s with an accuracy of 0.1 m / s. Displacement components of the fuel tanks was due to excess pressure of nitrogen is pumped into the tanks. The engine has a system of two unguided nozzles which can operate alternately or simultaneously. Working together with two packages of solid gas generators of various capacities (each generator had a block of four nozzles), this powerplant provides guidance in breeding stage space and provides construction and combat orders BB PCB missile with high accuracy. (See chart 1, chart 2)

    ballistic missile submarines 3m30 p-30 mace In order to separate from the second stage dilution sustainer stage used two solid engine thrust of 24kN, reported stage relative speed of about 30m / s. Besides BB breeding stage bore the IRT PRO, placed in special tubular containers. IRT PRO included heavy and light inflatable decoys and chaff in separate containers. BB surface was covered with a special radar-absorbing coating that reduces visibility to BB radar early warning system. This coating, known as 3-Dimensional Quartz Phenolic (3DQP), was a British "know-how". Technical documentation on the cover was later acquired by the British American corporations AVCO and General Electric. This coating consists of a seamless kvartsesoderzhaschuyu woven fabric impregnated with a solution based on the phenol-aldehyde resin, and then subjected to hot pressing. The coating is very well machined, while being dense and non-combustible. Coverage is also well protected from BB PFYAV primarily from neutron radiation. BB themselves SLBMs Polaris A-3TK, developed and manufactured by AVCO, is a modification of the BB Mk2 SLBM Polaris A-3T - improving touched, above all, improved stability of the new BB to PFYAV.

    For a variety of data after the formation of combat formations of BB and PCB ABM undermined breeding stage for the formation of the additional mass of randomly rotating heavy decoys. Originality British concept stage dilution was that the degree of dilution carried directly to afford only one BB. The second was attached to a special adapter mounted on the second stage of the march, and separated from the second stage almost simultaneously with step dilution with his solid engine. Thus, guidance BB was realized on the basis of so-called. "Partially independently targetable." Weight seasoned stage dilution without PCB defense and BB - 318 kg Curb Weight dilution stage with BB PCB ABM heat shield - 735 kg.

    missile compartment and control system of the missile firing class SSBN "Resolution" were completely borrowed from the American class SSBN "Lafayette". In the missile compartment are 16 launchers Mk7. Each of them consists of a mine, cover with hydraulic lid seals, steel trigger glass membrane and equipment supply of low-temperature gas mixture generated by the gas generator for each individual PU. To access the system on a rocket launcher equipped housing five hatches. Subsystem provides a missile launching missile launch Mk122. Emissions from the rocket starting glasses implemented through the use of low-temperature-pressure gas mixture. The system provides a release of SLBMs depth not exceeding 40 m at a height of about 10 m above the water surface. All 16 missiles could be fired in 16 minutes. Start only underwater.

    PERFORMANCE

    Missile length

    9,86

    diameter rockets, m

    1.37

    curb weight SLBMs, t

    16,6

    weight of military equipment (stage dilution IRT PRO, 2 BB), t

    0,988

    Range, km

    3610

    circular error probable, m

    450

    Number

    BB piece

    2

    Power

    BB, ct

    225

    Thrust Stage 1 at sea level, kN

    356

    apogee trajectory MS, km

    1000





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