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Ballistic missile submarines R-39 (SS-N-52)

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    Basing

    :

    Submarine

    management system:

    management software

    Warhead:

    spetsboepripasov

    Application:

    Strategic

    Country:

    Russia

    Range:

    8300 km.

    year development:

    1983

    ballistic missile submarines R-39 (SS-N-52) Strategic missile complex D-19" Typhoon ", comprising 20 three-stage solid-fuel intercontinental ballistic missile R-39 (3M65, RSM- 52) with multiple warheads, was designed in KB "Engineering" (now the State Rocket Center (SRC) to them. Academician VP Makeev) in the period from 1971 to 1983, and adopted by the heavy nuclear cruisers " Akula "Project 941).

    Testing began with throwing missiles test starts with a full-scale mock-ups plavstenda and experimental submarine K-153 Project 629, a converted project 619 with one shaft. Total running plavstenda 9 missiles and submarine-7. These tests allowed to work underwater and surface-launch of the "dry" powder of the mine under a pressure accumulator. At the joint flight test with ground stand 17 missiles were launched. More than half of launches were unsuccessful due to defects engines of the first and second stages. After deficiencies began missile launches from the head of the submarine type "Shark": eleven out of thirteen starts were found to be successful.

    After the joint flight test complex D-19 missile R-39 and head cruiser TK-208 Project 941 was subjected to intensive exploitation by the positive results which the complex D-19 in 1984 was adopted for.

    parallel with the creation of RK D-19 and construction of the submarine was being prepared in the Northern Fleet ships basing point and technical base (TRB) storing missiles from the factory to the fleet comes fully assembled. Due to the considerable weight and size characteristics of missiles at TRB stored and fed to a loading dock on the railway track. For loading missiles on ships designed a special crane over 100 tonnes. Manufactured had two crane mounted respectively on the quays of Severodvinsk and the basing submarines. For sea transport and loading of R-39 was built a special raketovoz loader ("Alexander Brikin" - project 11570) with a full displacement of 11,440 tons, has 16 containers of R-39 and equipped with a 125-ton crane. Serious work has been carried out to improve the command and control.

    tests, past the Northern Fleet in 1998, confirmed the high reliability of the D-19, when the submarine "Typhoon" produced simultaneously successful launch of all its 20 RSM-52.

    System "Typhoon" is the most powerful in the Navy, but also the most expensive. Suffice it to say that the development of RK D-19 PCM-52 has cost three times more than the cost of RK-D 9RM with RSM-54. Similar relations also took place on other components of the system.

    System "Typhoon" martial characteristics not inferior to U.S. strategic system "Trident-1." However, she conceded "Trident-2", especially on a rocket: by weight in half, power three warheads and accuracy hitting the target twice. Therefore, after the adoption of the RK-19 D into service immediately was assigned work on further improvement, the development of an improved D-19UTTH Kazakhstan (hereinafter - the "Bark"). At the same time provided for the deployment of this complex in the six SSBNs and refitting them during regular repairs. In the process of shaping the image of the complex was determined by the prospect of further development of marine BL. Head developer - CB "Engineering" and the Institute proposed the creation of naval weapons by the end of the twentieth century. two solid-fuel rockets, one of which was equipped with RGCHIN (code "East"), the second - monobloc controlled in flight warhead (code "West"). These intentions are reflected in the draft program of weapons (MF) fleet in 1991-2000., Which provided for the design and construction of new submarines. "Bark" has a range of more than 10,000 kilometers and carries a 10 average nuclear units. The design of the missile system provides special pass through the ice, providing start-up from under the ice cap in northern latitudes. Also, the "Bark" could be used as the regular trajectory, and on-trajectory. In the first case, the rocket flies from the Barents Sea to Kamchatka in 30 minutes, while the second - 17 minutes.

    Care in 1985 in the life of General Designer VP Makeev seriously affected the timing and quality of work on this complex. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent sharp collapse of funding defense orders of the complex stalled that, quite naturally, led to a reduction of processing and completeness of trial failures. In 1998, the government's decision to create RK Dr 19UTTH was discontinued, re-suspended one missile. In 1994, it was announced that the tab on the stocks of SMP fourth generation submarine Project 955 "Yuri Dolgoruky", which was originally planned to place Dr. RK 19UTTH and construct a series of such ships. After the cessation of work on a range of D-19UTTH this missile was reoriented to adopt a new set with a solid propellant missile "Bulava".

    the west complex D-19 was designated SS-N-20 "Sturgeon".

    Composition

    ballistic missile submarines R-39 (SS-N-52) The R-39 includes a three-stage solid-fuel vehicle, depreciation missile launching system (APCC) and multiple warheads (MIRV) .

    Instrument compartment is located in the nose of the missile and is joined to the housing stage dilution through a flanged joint, together they form a MIRV. Instrument module consists of two pressurized separated by an intermediate bottom sections: section with threefold gyrostabilizer astroviziruyuschim device discharged to a closed canopy flight, and cut control devices posted on amortized frame. Breeding stage holds 10 warheads, each with a capacity of 100kt. On its body mounted dual-mode liquid propulsion breeding, providing personalized guidance warheads on target and detachable third stage motor. Control system - inertial, equipped with equipment astrocorrection that provides CWE points fall 500m worse when firing at maximum range (see chart trajectory).

    Marching rocket motors have low elongation with minimal amounts of interstage compartments. Motor housing made of composite material by winding strands of "cocoon" kitted firmly bonded solid propellant charges. Power shell casing control stage 1 - 3D65 made from high organovolokna SVM to the bottom of the fitting members used titanium alloy VTV-1. The design of the first-stage engine was used stationary nozzle with eight pairs in a plane stabilize injection valves that provide manageability for all control channels. System "blowing" provide high dynamic performance of the rocket. Composite propellant charge with an internal channel starburst development NGOs "Altai" programmed provide traction during recession 17c, allowing successfully solve the problem of controllability of the rocket before separation steps. In control 3D65 were used and other design decisions due to the specifics of its use in the sea-based missiles - a complete sealing of control to prevent it in sea water, air prelaunch supercharging internal cavity of the engine to compensate for acting on the outer surface of the outer hull hydrodynamic loads during launch . To minimize the size of the R-39 for the first time in the practice of domestic and global rocket engines for the second and third stages used nozzle units with sliding telescopic sockets as well as a series of progressive technical solutions for thrust vector control system.

    problem of creating minimal weight thrust vector control systems, in particular, the steering gear for government plays an important role in the development of solid-propellant rockets. For power steering gear in solid rocket requires, as a rule, self-contained power supply (energy), so that the steering gear, solid rocket harder for approximately 2-fold compared with the same for liquid rocket. Also significant weight and dimensions, complicating placement drive in the limited dimensions of the compartments missile systems with conventional steering apparatus there is a problem to provide the required level of dynamic characteristics of steering gear - a nozzle associated with a significant influence on them of element stiffness engine design, most steering apparatus and the working fluid involved in the kinematic chain of transmission of force. Design and exploratory research to improve the thrust vector control of rocket R-39 revealed that the most effective way to achieve high mass perfection and reliability of such systems is the use of multifunctional energy systems, combined with the power supply on the basis of gas-hydraulic steering gears.

    For complex

    D-19 created the original starting system with accommodation of virtually all elements of the launcher to the rocket itself. In the mine, the P-39 is in limbo, relying special depreciation rocket launch system (APCC) on the support ring, located in the upper part of the shaft. APCC provides cushioning rockets, mines and seal cavity security for submarine missiles, allows the submarine dive with the lid open mine to a considerable depth. All power elements missiles necessary for its operation on the ground and facilities on the ship, except for the mid reference zones are available on the ARMA and the tail section body dumped in the initial part of the flight after the rocket out of the water. The launch is from the "dry" mine using powder pressure accumulator, located on the bottom of the mine in the first stage engine nozzle. At the start of a special powder charges located on the APCC create around the rocket gas cavity is significantly reduced hydrodynamic loads on the underwater portion of the movement. After exiting the water is separated from the rocket APCC using a special motor and moves away to a safe distance from the submarine. Command to start the engine of the first stage is applied at the rocket out of the mine. When not starting the first stage engine after exiting the water rocket to ensure the safety of the submarine moves away.

    ballistic missile submarines R-39 (SS-N-52)

    Start

    all ammunition in two volleys, with minimum intervals between missile launches. Missiles can be launched from a depth of 55m (with no restrictions on the weather conditions at the sea surface), as well as provisions of the freeboard.

    New technical solutions implemented in the rocket:

    rocket engines on the high-energy solid fuel using new construction materials;

    control system that uses the principle of generalized celestial;

    high-speed small warheads increased specific power;

    Suspension missile launching system that provides storage, transportation and launch;

    aggregates ground technological equipment for rail-mounted (Ros missiles overload) and their means of complex loading, ensure safe operation of missiles.

    PERFORMANCE



    Starting weight, t

    90

    firing range, km

    8300 (10000)

    Maximum

    throws weight, kg

    2550

    Number of steps

    3

    Missile length

    16

    diameter of the first and second stages of the rocket, m

    2.4

    intercontinental ballistic missile XMGM-134A MidgetmanBazirovanie:

    chassis

    management system:

    management software

    Warhead:

    spetsboepripasov

    Application:

    Strategic

    Country:

    U.S.

    Range:

    11000 km.

    year development:

    1992

    ballistic missile submarines R-39 (SS-N-52) In January 1983. for the outlook on the U.S. ICBM SAC United States Air Force until the end of the XX century was President Reagan established an independent commission chaired by Lieutenant-General B. Scowcroft. Commission verdict was announced in April 1983. One outcome of the commission's work was concluded that to meet the needs of the Air Force in SAH promising, relatively cheap ICBM with a high degree of survivability is necessary to develop a "small, solid-, and high-precision monoblock mobile ground-based ICBMs." Proposed study and other deployment options for that ICBM. A few days after the results of President Reagan endorsed the findings of the commission Scowcroft. In May of the same year the commission's findings were approved by the Senate and the House of Representatives. In August 1983. Minister of Defense Weinberger decided to immediately begin developing specific engineering requirements SICBM ("Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile") - under this acronym was encrypted new project. Work on the formation of the future shape of the rocket had already started in January 1984 and were led by the Staff of the ballistic missile BMOH ("Ballistic Missile Organization", Headquarters of), Norton Air Force Base (California). In the same year, Hill AFB (Utah), in Ogden Center Logistics Air Force began work on creating specialized experimental facilities for testing missiles SICBM. From the outset, it was decided to apply when creating a new rocket only promising structural materials, high-energy types of solid fuels and cutting-edge electronics. It was decided to maximize "unload" missile by eliminating breeding stage, facilitate PCB defense. According to specialists, the future rocket mass should not exceed 15.42 m

    But in October 1985 it became clear that the implementation of the revaluation calculation was made of the solid state of the U.S. missile base at the time, and in March 1986 the Air Force General Headquarters SAC issued updated requirements for a prospective missile. In December of the same year, President Reagan approved a full-scale development of prospective ground-based mobile ICBMs SICBM weight 16.78 tons new missile received preliminary index XMGM-134A, her name stuck "Midgetman". As of locations planned use of existing air bases, which were deployed ICBMs "Minuteman" (Malmstrom, Ellsworth, Minot, Whiteman, Grand Forks), allowing in part the use of existing infrastructure and to reduce financial costs. The first rockets were to reach the state of readiness in December 1992. By 2000, it was planned to deploy at least 500 ICBMs XMGM-134A, which had to change ICBM LGM-30F "Minuteman-II" and LGM-30G "Minuteman-III" and supplement ICBM LGM-118A "Peacekeeper", which planned full-scale drill at that time.

    In December 1986, the prime contractor was selected corporation "Martin Marietta", Corporation "Thiokol", "Aerojet", "Aerospace Production Group" awarded contracts for the development of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd stages respectively. Warhead developed corporation "General Electric", warhead - "Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory", and the full integration of the combat equipment involved in the company AVCO. Office is developing an inertial separation "Electronics Division" corporation "Northrop", a digital computer - the company "Hewlett-Packard". To reduce costs (only in 1986 appropriation for the program SICBM were increased by 136% compared with the previous, 1985) and reduce the proportion of technically risky decisions maximum use of available scientific and technical experience gained during the work on the program MX.

    ballistic missile submarines R-39 (SS-N-52)

    initial contract to develop a mobile launcher on a competitive basis, the corporation received "Martin Marietta" and "Boeing". Experienced prototype installations HML ("Hardened Mobile Launcher" - secure mobile launch pad) made by these firms profit for the passage of comparative tests on Malmstrom AFB in February 1987 (see photo prototype mobile launchers corporations Martin Marietta and Boeing). The trials were set to (see photo), the department developed "Aerospace & Electronics" corporation "Voeing." Subcontractors "Aerospace & Electronics" were - office "Defense Systems Division" Company "Loral", as well as company "Rolls-Royce Perkins". Modified version of this setup (ETU - Engineering Test Unit), which had its own name "Phoenix", arrived at Malmstrom AFB for further testing in December 1988. First "Phoenix" was tested independently, later on it was placed elektromaket transport ICBMs.

    Testing "mortar" launch was held in 1987. Throwing in the ICBM test layout on a special stand polygon "Nevada Test Site". According to the flight test program was initially planned to make 16 starts. The first test launch of the new missile was made from ground launch canister on Vandenberg Air Force Base (CA) in May 1989 and ended (in the terminology of American specialists) "partial failure" - the rocket has successfully exited the container has started and worked the allotted time the engine of the first stage, after which separated the first step in the normal mode, there was the launch of the second stage engine. However, at the site of the second stage of the rocket began to experience longitudinal oscillations with increasing amplitude. The rocket was liquidated by ground command in the terminal phase of the second stage shortly before her office. Problems, according to published data, were caused by incorrect operation of the engine of the second stage and the problems with the control system. On completion rocket took almost two years - the next run (accidentally turned and last) was held in April 1991. Running was completely successful, and combat unit was in a predetermined area of the Pacific Ocean (Kwajalein Atoll).

    By the spring of 1991 due to a fundamental change in the geopolitical situation in the world has been questioned on the further implementation of previously planned programs to improve the strategic nuclear missile weapons by the U.S. (primarily "Midgetman" and "Peacekeeper Rail Garrison"). START-1 Treaty was signed in July 1991, and in September of the same year, President George HW Bush called a halt to further financial resources for the implementation of a number of military programs, including a mobile version of ICBMs "Midgetman", after which they were terminated prototype test HML Malmstrom AFB. Some time, work continued on the stationary variant organize ICBM XMGM-134A in modified ICBM silos "Minuteman" (with a term to achieve the primary alerting system - December 1997.). But in January 1992. program was closed completely, and gained in its implementation of the scientific and technical potential is conserved.

    should be noted that for a number of observed (1988-1991 financial year) years reduction of funds allocated to the program, calls into question the ability and, above all, the United States really want to deploy this system. For example, in December 1988 U.S. Department of Energy has stopped production of combat units W-87-0. In all there were 525 assemblies that was enough for completing all 50 planned to deploy ICBMs "Peacekeeper", but it was totally inadequate for completing more promising and 500 ICBMs "Midgetman". We can assume that the program SICBM was one of those military and scientific and technical programs, which the United States over the years provoked the USSR to develop similar expensive weapons systems. However, implementation of even a limited scale of such programs give the U.S., in addition to funds military and political pressure, the ability to finance a wide variety of scientific and technical programs Sc. "Distant prospects».

    Composition

    ballistic missile submarines R-39 (SS-N-52) ICBM XMGM-134A" Midgetman "is a three-stage rocket solid fuel, steps which are connected by longitudinal scheme. All three marching steps were made of grafitoepoksidnogo (promised a substantial reduction of the inertial mass RDTT compared with the same engine, made of material kevlaroepoksidnogo), low specific weight and high specific strength, material and method of winding had on the outer surface of a multifunctional coating is black, defended rocket from the action PFYAV and aerodynamic heating. The design IDB (particularly in a design control section) instead of aluminum alloys, aluminum-lithium used also ensure a reduction in inertial mass. Each stage had one central, partially recessed into the combustion chamber, divergent nozzle that allows you to control a rocket to pitch and yaw channels. Nozzles made of special material kevlaroepoksidnogo, high-purity material necks served pyrographite. Nozzles second and third stages were equipped with retractable propulsion conical nozzle on the nozzle body. To nominate a special nozzle used Pneumatic drive. This solution allows to provide the desired degree of expansion of the nozzle (and thus maximum thrust of the engine), while reducing the overall dimensions of the rocket. To control the missile via heel on job sites sustainer stages used gas generating self-contained units, attached to the nozzle block steps (this was dictated by the need and lack of breeding stage, the work of the propulsion system which can compensate for the accumulated time error sustainer stages of roll). At all stages of propulsion uses the latest high-energy solid fuel "detonating type» (Class 1.1), created on the basis of solid fuel NEPE, applied on SLBM "Trident-II" D5 and partly on ICBMs LGM-118A "Peacekeeper". Separation steps carried supercharged mezhstupennogo space with a special gas generator and subsequent stages of the longitudinal division by using the compound of the elongated tapered charge. Breeding stage rocket was missing in order to save weight. Combat unit (BB) was separated from the set on the third stage of the launch platform to which it was attached by a special trip "gas cartridge" (designed for ICBM LGM-118A) - it allows you to separate the BB platform with minimal disturbance to achieve high accuracy. This process has been fraught with the opening of the third stage nozzles protivotyagi that wilderness solid propellant stages and leads her away from the breakaway BB, as well as triggering mechanisms of special containers, which housed the PCB components defense. According to some reports, some time after the construction of order of battle of the BB and the main PCB in the third stage missile triggered special charges, undermining her what form the extra large size, a cloud of decoys.

    Inertial control NS-50A with a gyro-stabilized platform AIRS ("Advanced Inertial Reference Sphere") and onboard digital computer complex (ODCC) LC5400 type "Meca" was located in a compartment of the inertial control system, made of special aluminum alloys addition of lithium had increased strength and decreased specific gravity. Outside compartment had multifunction black finish, protect from PFYAV and aerodynamic heating. Compartment connected to the body of the third stage of the march, and in addition the equipment management system, contained several special containers, which housed the PCB components ABM missiles - on a range of information, chaff and infrared aerosols. PCB mass missile reached 90 kg. At the top of the control module were provided mountings for the platform, which is attached to the BB Mk21, complementing warhead W-87-0 power 300kt. Camouflaged combat equipment to shoot at the top end portion of the 2nd stage trikonicheskim titanium fairing. During missile flight control section of the third stage of the rocket was not separated. ODCC provide flight control at the boost phase, at the stage of breeding fighting equipment, as well as during combat duty and in preparation for the launch. High quality fixtures ISU NS-50A, accounting errors and the use of new algorithms provided high accuracy. Drift ISU NS-50A is less than 1.5x10-5 degrees per hour. To create the required temperature of the flight control system is cooled by Freon. Electronics rocket performed on radiation-semiconductor electronics RAM-type. The control system provides high precision missile (CWE ~ 90m). Currently, after the de-alerting of ICBMs "Peacekeeper", this system is used on the modified ICBMs "Minuteman-III".

    ballistic missile submarines R-39 (SS-N-52)

    To ensure the launching XMGM-134A American designers have used the so-called. "Mortar" scheme. ICBM launch complexes "Midgetman" had to be a four-tractor with triaxial semitrailer, which was placed in a horizontal position, closed doors of special steel armor, transport and launch container made of organic fibers of the new generation. In tests prototype mobile launcher - "Phoenix" showed speed 48km / h on rough terrain and to 97km / h on the highway. Powerplant - turbocharged diesel engine capacity of 1200 liters. with., mission - electro. Upon receiving the command to launch a rocket, tractor stayed unloaded semitrailer with TPK to the ground and pulled him forward. Due to the special device plugopodobnogo semi samozakapyvalsya, providing additional protection from the damaging effects of nuclear explosion (see diagram). Further casement opened and semi-trailer transport and launch container was set in a vertical position. Solid gas generator placed at the bottom of the container, when triggered threw a rocket to a height of 30m from the upper edge of the WPK, and then turned on the first stage boosters. To reduce errors in determining the coordinates of the starting position BGRK had supplied satellite navigation systems.

    Rocket fixed in transport and launch container with eight rows of special polyurethane tiles (see photo) covered teflonopodobnym material. They performed amortiziruyusche-obtyuriruyuschie functions and automatically withdrawn after the rocket out of the container. When test launches missile launch was carried out from a special launch canister mounted on the Earth's surface in an upright position.

    PERFORMANCE


    Firing range, km


    11 000


    Rocket mass home, t


    16,78


    Weight warheads, t


    0.3 (BB + IRT PRO)


    Length of the rocket assembly, m


    14,02


    The diameter of the missile, m


    1,17


    Link 1st stage at sea level, kN


    979


    Warhead type


    close coupled fusion


    Power warhead, CT


    300


    CWE, m


    90


    Weight BGRK (ETU) assembly, t


    108,41


    Maximum load BGRK (ETU), t


    36,29


    Length BGRK (ETU), m


    34





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