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Ballistic missile submarines UGM-27A Polaris A-1

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    Basing

    :

    Submarine

    management system:

    management software

    Warhead:

    spetsboepripasov

    Application:

    Strategic

    Country:

    U.S.

    Range:

    2220 km.

    year development:

    1960

    ballistic missile submarines ugm-27a polaris a-1 In early 1956, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved the plans for the establishment of marine strategic nuclear missile system. It is envisaged that the implementation of the program will be carried out in several stages with increased combat capabilities as missiles and their carriers.

    Originally

    missile for submarines would be based on BRSD "Jupiter", on which work is conducted while underway, but without apparent success. This could disrupt the timely implementation of the first phase of plans. In addition, experts felt the presence of the fleet on the boat rockets with explosive components of liquid fuel excessive risk. Therefore, the leadership of the Ministry of the Navy turned to the U.S. Department of Defense for permission to independently develop a missile for the Navy. Given the complexity of the development in general and for the LRE missile submarines in particular, made a bet once on solid propellant rocket engine (SRBs), manufacturing technology which by 1957 had already been worked out. In parallel, work on the project went nuclear submarine - the carrier of nuclear missiles.

    In 1956, contracts were signed with the company "Lockheed Martin" for the preliminary design and the creation of rocket motors for her - with a firm "Aerojet-General". By the end of this year were developed tactical and technical requirements for the system, the optimal size of a submarine missile compartment and its rockets.

    In September 1958, on the East Proving Grounds began flight tests of the missile, which received the designation UGM-27A "Polaris A-1." The first launches were unsuccessful. April 20, 1959 the next (fifth) start was successful. The whole year was spent practicing missile systems and warhead. Rounding out the program starts with the board the nuclear submarine missile boat "J. Washington ", transferred to the Navy in the same year. April 14, 1960 has been executed successfully launched from a boat, which was on the surface near the shore of the island of San Clemente, California. After three months, was launched from a submerged position. There were performed in 42 test run. November 15, 1960 missile system "Polaris A-1" was adopted by.

    Bearers of these missiles became five class SSBNs "John Washington". Armed with SLBMs UGM-27A "Polaris A-1" consisted of just five years to mid 60s.

    Composition

    ballistic missile submarines ugm-27a polaris a-1 SLBM UGM-27A - two-stage missile with tandem staging. Welded housing made of high rocket vanadium heat-resistant stainless steel AMW-256 with a yield strength of 160-170 kg/mm2.

    as engines for both solid propellant rocket stages used. First-stage engine with a thrust of 45 tons runs on polyurethane doped with aluminum and ammonium perchlorate. Additive aluminum used to increase the stability of combustion of fuel and to increase the specific impulse 245-250 sec * kg / kg (theoretical impulse 266 sec * kg / kg). The temperature in the chamber first stage engine reaches 2700 ° C. The second stage engine has a thrust of nine tonnes (according to other sources - 4 m) and runs on a mixture of polyurethane copolymer with polybutadiene-acrylic acid has thrust cutoff device that allows you to reach different distances flight .

    Each engine is equipped with four nozzles. For thrust vector control motor on both stage rocket used circular vents are installed on each of the nozzles and articulated with the respective hydraulic actuators. Tests have shown high effectiveness of this type of steering apparatus, and in particular, the ability to missiles with its output via a trajectory missiles even if vertical deflection at the moment when the first stage engine at the 40 °. Engines include an electromechanical device and powerful primer, with the tail tube nozzle protects the motor against ingress of water when submerged during rocket ejected working pressure gases released at the time of starting the engine. Special experiments it was found that the rocket engine serial "Polaris" normally triggered after 1.5-year storage in a warehouse in a special container with a microclimate native launcher submarine mine.

    missile is equipped with a separating in flight single warhead W-47 capacity of 600 kt.

    for storage and launching missiles submarine missile carrier has 16 silos, located in the middle part of the ship's hull. Mines cover extending beyond the main hull, closed light streamlined superstructure, the length of which type submarine "George Washington" is 40 m

    Before

    missile launch silo pressure equalized with outboard, and then opens a durable cover and access shaft outboard water blocks only relatively thin diaphragm plastikatovaya located under the durable cover mine. Then under the chopper rocket through a system of valves supplied with compressed air by a strictly defined schedule, accurately maintain special automatic equipment that provides a given mode of the missile in the mine. When driving up the rocket breaks the diaphragm and seawater flows freely into the mine. Special automatic purge system provides replacement ballast water to compensate for the excess weight that occurs when filling the mine water. After missile launch durable cover automatically closes mines and mine located in sea water is discharged into a special tank placed inside the boat.

    Start

    acceleration of the rocket about 10 g at the rate of escape from the mine to 45 m / sec and negative acceleration itself submarine approximately 0.02 g. Found that a similar acceleration of the rocket does not have any significant impact on the on-board equipment, sensing mechanisms and devices missiles.

    ballistic missile submarines ugm-27a polaris a-1

    After

    uncontrolled motion in the missile leaves the water column to the surface speed of about 50 m / s. First-stage engine automatically included in the job when the rocket to an altitude of 10 m from the surface of the water. At an altitude of about 20,000 m, it is separated from the rocket, and at the same time is the automatic inclusion of the engine of the second stage. Separation of the second stage of the missile and a motor stop is at the command of an inertial guidance system at a given point of the trajectory calculation. Interval between missile launches up to 1 min.

    Flight missiles carried on a predetermined program trajectory without any further adjustments-missile submarine that has high requirements for navigation and guidance binding complex. Applied in complex autonomous inertial control system provides output missiles on the desired trajectory, stabilize its flight engine shutdown and the second stage of the rocket when it reaches a given initial velocity. Its on-board equipment is located in the instrument compartment, which is located in the middle of the rocket body. This is the place stabilized platform with accelerometers, automatic flight control software, the unit auxiliary electrical equipment, consisting mainly of servo amplifiers and servo motors, digital resolver machine, power supplies and other devices. Weight onboard guidance equipment about 90 kg.

    order to monitor the technical condition of the missiles and objective assessment of the possibility of their use in combat submarine equipped with a special automatic OAT1SO, switchboard which serves all units each of 16 rockets and can do the following:

    continuous check on all major units since its launch on the ship loading;

    periodic experimental test systems start and missile control,

    full scan nodes rocket during prelaunch.

    OAT1SO system consists of a program block with the reader, scan system, switching unit program selector, clock generator, the comparator unit and display unit with the printer.

    Before the start

    missiles onboard equipment is connected to the ship's system control devices missile firing (DRSP) type Mk-80, applied for the first time in eleven submarines such as "George Washington" and "Ethan Allen". In this case, the control equipment continuously begin to do data specifying coordinates of the trajectory and magnitude of the velocity of the rocket at the end of the active site. Simultaneously the orientation and promotion of gyroscopes, etc.

    DRSP

    equipment consists of a computer with memory units that store information on possible ways and opto-electrical device, used to control the orientation of the stabilized platform.

    Using computer DRSP solves the following main tasks:

    calculated the trajectory of the rocket;

    determined by the local and vertical orientation produced stabilized platform missiles onboard equipment; the onboard control system entered the value of necessary speed of the rocket at the end of the active portion of the trajectory;

    fixed bias accelerometer scale factors;

    carried out continuous monitoring of the onboard equipment DRSP and willingness to launch rockets.

    Onboard DRSP associated with the navigation system SINS, from which data is received on the current coordinates of the vehicle and other parameters characterizing its motion, as well as information about the provisions of the true meridian and the ship itself to the vertical during pitching.

    In navigation

    post missile submarine placed the following components and devices:

    three sets of SINS, mounted on a stabilized platform;

    stabilized periscope for use in celestial navigation from a submerged position;

    navigation system;

    two special computers like "Navdak"

    Optical

    automatic star tracker has its own analog-digital computer "Stardak", which serves to generate data providing system stabilization. "Stardak" receives and processes the raw data characterizing the motion of a submarine periscope and as a result the system is constantly astronavigatsionnoy induced on a particular star, selected as a guide. In addition, with the help of machines "Stardak" calculates the coordinates of the ship itself, which are then transferred to another type of computing machine "Navdak".

    All three sets of SINS navigation system operate independently and in parallel. Their simultaneous use to minimize errors in determining the true position of the ship, because the incoming data with their outputs are mutually adjusted to each other. Data from the navigation system and periscopes also input to the computer, and data entered in order to advance the blocks memory computer flight control system of the missile. Thus, the data generated by all elements of the control system, is continuously compared and analyzed. In the case of unacceptable deviations in magnitude of a parameter than the specified work joins computer "Navdak", and computes an amendment introducing the corrected value of this parameter in the appropriate device management system. The navigation system also includes a set of stabilizers submarine with gyro weighing about 23 tons

    ballistic missile submarines ugm-27a polaris a-1

    Given the importance and value of the extraordinary complexity of the complex "Polaris A-1", much attention was paid to the development of means of transport complex. For transport aircraft missiles created special shock-proof sealed containers. Worked as a means of transportation by rail missiles on open platforms and on highways with special vehicles, and for the transportation of missiles on the waterway barge designed catamaran type with a special hangar, capable of carrying missiles weighing up to 200 tons

    missiles and warheads to them to the parking-missile submarines are delivered in containers, which are then mounted with a crane missiles in silos submarine. Missiles in containers can also be loaded on special transport ships or floating base (for example, type "Hanley") for delivery to the submarines that are on the high seas.

    PERFORMANCE

    number of steps

    2

    Starting weight, t

    12.7

    Missile length

    8.53

    diameter rockets, m

    1.37

    Range, km

    2220

    circular error probable, m

    1800

    chamber pressure stage of the engine 1 kg/cm2

    70

    pressure in the chamber 2 steps. kg/cm2

    35

    Thrust 1stupeni t

    45

    Thrust stage 2, t

    9 (4)

    1stupeni engine run time, with

    54

    2stupeni engine run time, with

    70

    maximum flight speed, M

    10





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