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Ballistic missile submarines UGM-27B Polaris-A2

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    Basing

    :

    Submarine

    management system:

    management software

    Warhead:

    spetsboepripasov

    Application:

    Strategic

    Country:

    U.S.

    Range:

    2800 km.

    year development:

    1962

    ballistic missile submarines ugm-27b polaris-a2 Ballistic missile UGM-27B" Polaris A-2 "was originally created in order to develop promising technologies construction SLBMs. It was designed to equip nuclear missile submarines - class "Ethan Allen". These were the first in the U.S. nuclear submarines, specially built for missile strikes from the water. Despite the superficial similarity, structurally they were much more advanced than its predecessors - class SSBN "George Washington". Development UGM-27B "Polaris A-2" bylaporuchenakorporatsii "Lockheed Missile Systems". The creators of the new missile was originally task was to improve its tactical and technical characteristics of missiles provided maximum continuity with SLBMs "Polaris-A1" - it can significantly reduce the technical risks associated with the development of the new complex.

    new complex went on trial in November 1960 on the East missile range (Eastern Missile Range), Patrick AFB, Florida. Starts at first carried out with the ground launch pads LC-25A and LC-29A. In addition, individual nodes advanced SLBM (a modified first stage of traction, improved electronics and assembly BB / BSc) were tested using a modified SLBM "Polaris-A1". By December 1962 the main test program has been completed. In the same year the trials and combat training launches have been held and the waters of Western missile range ("Western Missile Range"), Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Total test was performed 32 SLBM launch "Polaris-A2", 9 of them failed. Total time for testing and active operation SLBM "Polaris-A2" from November 1960 to November 1971 was made 227 runs, of which 15 were unsuccessful.

    Despite the setbacks, since May 1962 have been initiated and combat training launches of SLBM "Polaris-A2". In May 1962 a rocket "Polaris-A2" took part in a unique experiment - Operation "Frigate Bird". During her atomic submarine "Ethan Allen" launched from a submerged position SLBM "Polaris-A2" in the standard equipment of a thermonuclear warhead W-47 capacity of 600kt. The launch was carried out from the Pacific Ocean in the district of Christmas Island and ended up undermining the munition at a height of about 3 km, approximately 25 km from the proposed point of defeat.

    All

    missile class "Ethan Allen" in the period from late 1962 until the summer of 1963 were introduced in the 14th Squadron (base - Holy Loch, UK). As a combat patrol areas was selected waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Given the range of rocket fire, it can be concluded that as possible targets for these SSBNs were chosen strategically important area features of the Ukrainian SSR, the Caucasus, southern Urals and Central Asia.

    Initial plans to deploy missile UGM-27B only five class missile carriers "Ethan Allen" have been adjusted in the direction of a significant expansion - new missiles were deployed and built the first eight (of 31) class nuclear submarine "Lafayette". This was associated with a significant lag in time with the preparation of the main rocket for this class of ships - the newest SLBM "Polaris-A3". In order not to delay the introduction of submarines in operation, it was decided to equip them less modern, but already spent SLBMs. However, in September 1964 the first class missile "Ethan Allen" embarked on modernization and in 1965-1966 were equipped with a new set of "Polaris-A3". Rearmament eight class submarines "Lafayette" was delayed due to the success in developing SLBMs with MIRV MIRV "Poseidon-C3" - the military saw no reason to spend funds for rearmament these submarines on "Polaris-A3". Rearmament last class submarines "Lafayette" with SLBMs "Polaris-A2" SLBMs "Poseidon-C3" was completed only in 1974.

    In 1971, already under the curtain of his career, SLBMs "Polaris-A2" was used as a target missile at working zonal American missile defense system "Safeguard". Launch "Polaris-A2" imitated Soviet SLBM R-21 and R-27. Until November 1971 this program was made 4 starts. Then next year rocket "Polaris-A2" was finally decommissioned U.S. Navy and the last class of missile equipped with its "Lafayette" embarked on re SLBM "Poseidon-C3".

    Composition

    ballistic missile submarines ugm-27b polaris-a2 Ballistic missile UGM-27B partially inherited structural features of its predecessor - SLBM UGM-27A" Polaris-A1 ". Performed a two-stage missile with a serial connection speed.

    first stage solid propellant sustainer A2P, traditionally developed by "Aerojet General", had four rotary nozzle. Nozzles made of aluminum alloy with special coatings. For thrust vector control motor for the first stage of the rocket used circular vents are installed on each of the nozzles and articulated with the corresponding hydraulic drive (this system has proven its viability SLBMs UGM-27A). Tests have shown high effectiveness of this type of steering apparatus, and in particular, the ability to display the trajectory of the rocket even when a significant deviation of the vertical at the moment when the first stage engine. The system allows you to control the missile via pitch, yaw and roll. Engine includes an electromechanical device and powerful primer, with plug nozzle protects the motor against ingress of water when submerged during a rocket pushes working gas pressure at the time of the motor. Compared with the first stage rocket A1P UGM-27A A2P stage has been extended by a special insertion length 7.62m. As stage A1P, stage A2P performed welded high-strength heat-resistant stainless steel vanadium AMW-256 with a yield strength of 160-170 kg/mm2. Fuel first stage engine has remained unchanged - polyurethane doped aluminum and ammonium perchlorate. Additive aluminum used to increase the stability of fuel combustion and increase the specific impulse.

    At the second stage rocket engine DDT-70, developed by "Hercules Powder", with broad participation Branches systems "Polaris" Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University ("The Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory", "Polaris Division" ;), Allegheny Ballistics Laboratory ("Allegany Ballistics Laboratory") and corporations "Cleveland Pneumatic Industries", installed four rotary nozzle, also made of aluminum alloy with special coatings. Mechanism for creating control efforts to turn the nozzle was improved compared with the same mechanism of the first stage, thus reducing the inertial mass steps and simplify it with a simultaneous increase in the reliability and efficiency (see diagram). This system allows you to confidently manage a rocket at the site of the second stage on all channels. The main innovation, applied to the second stage of the march - The material of construction of the housing stage. First in the world managed to create a marching step SLBM of organic materials - by winding strands of glass fiber impregnated with epoxy composition. This step will significantly reduce the inertial mass of the second stage. Technical challenge proved accommodation in front of the body of the second stage cutoff rod assembly with six holes, cuts through the elongated detonating charges in the power stage design, made of organic materials. Cutoff device propulsion engine thrust second stage allows you to vary the missile range. The second stage was used more sophisticated solid fuel compared with the second stage SLBMs "Polaris A-1".

    steps connected with an adapter made of aluminum alloy. For separation sustainer stages used fire method. In front of the adapter was attached charge, works at the moment of separation. This method has been used and is used in almost all U.S. SLBMs.

    Flying rocket launcher after exiting the mine SSBN implemented according to a preset program uncorrected-missile submarine, which places high demands on the systems of navigation and guidance binding complex. Applied in complex autonomous inertial control system provides a conclusion on the desired trajectory missiles, stabilizing its flight engine shutdown and the second stage of the rocket when it reaches a predetermined speed. Equipment management system is located in the detachable part of the instrument compartment, which was located in front of the body to the second stage of the rocket sustainer. It housed platform with accelerometers and gyroscopes high block, automatic flight control software, the unit auxiliary electrical equipment, computers, power supplies, etc. The control system was developed by "General Electric" and "Hughes" with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( "Massachusetts Institute of Technology"). Compared to its predecessor management system SLBM "Polaris-A2" was modified slightly, allowing it to maintain accuracy SLBM "Polaris-A1" while increasing the effective range of the new SLBM.

    missile was equipped with a separating in flight single warhead, consisting of warhead Mk1 (modification B) and thermonuclear warhead W-47 capacity of 600 kt mod.2 (or, alternatively, a more severe thermonuclear warhead W-47 mod .3 capacity to 800 kt). Tolerated if necessary and install instead of regular warhead warhead missiles from UGM-27A - warhead Mk1 (modification A) and thermonuclear warhead W-47 mod.1 capacity of 600 kt. Arming SLBM "Polaris-A2" allowed to strike to vulnerable area targets (primarily large cities that fit into what was then the American doctrine of "mutual assured destruction»).

    In addition, the SLBM has become historically the first SLBM received IRT PRO. The program for the development of complex, dubbed "PX-1", began in 1961 and was carried out by Lockheed. In 1962 he was made 12 test launches of the complex on board. In the period from July 1963 to July 1964 the U.S. Navy received 221 kit "PX-1" to deploy SLBMs "Polaris A-2", already adopted by the time for service. According to published reports, the complex consisted of 6 light decoys and chaff for use in exoatmospheric and transition region of the descending branch trajectory warhead missiles. Also for use in the above sections as well as the initial part of the atmospheric portion intended jamming oscillators. However, large-scale deployment of this complex has not happened - it was equipped with only one ammunition SLBM SSBN number of carrier rockets "Polaris A-2" (all data were deployed SLBM SSBN 13).

    American officials called the incident the following reasons:

    unreliable generators active interference problems encountered with training and service missiles, lowering firing range missiles equipped with PCB ABM;

    revaluation Americans level the work on missile defense in the USSR (which is to last "a hand" the public security organs of the USSR, has successfully implemented a massive disinformation likely opponent), whereby at the beginning of the deployment of missile defense PCB "PX-1" Americans have found it "inconsistent with the level of threat of the moment".

    In each SSBN missile compartment, equipped with missiles "Polaris-A2", were installed 16 launchers. Each of them had a classic design - was out of the mine, cover with hydraulic lid seals, steel trigger glass membrane and equipment supply of low-temperature gas mixture generated by the gas generator for each individual PU. The system provides a release of SLBMs from depth of 30-40 m (depending on the class SSBN) to a height of about 10 m above the water surface. All 16 missiles could be fired in 16 minutes. SLBM launch method - underwater, but successful experiments were conducted for the SLBM launch UGM-27B and the provisions of the freeboard.

    PERFORMANCE

    Missile length

    9.45

    diameter rockets, m

    1.37

    curb weight, t

    13.6

    weight assembly BB + MS, t

    0.50

    Power MS, MT

    0.8

    maximum firing range, km

    2800

    circular error probable, m

    3700

    Thrust Stage 1 at sea level, kN

    311

    apogee trajectory MS, km

    1000





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