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Battleship Royal Soverin

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    Country

    England

    type

    Battleship

    General characteristics

    Length (m):

    115,8

    Width (m):

    22,9

    Displacement (tons):

    14200

    Speed (knots):

    16,5

    Draft (m):

    8,4

    Crew:

    712

    Vooruzhenie

    guns:

    4 343 mm
    10 152 mm
    28 40 mm

    torpedo tubes:

    7 456 mm

    battleship Royal Soverin

    Alarmed by the rapid growth

    fleets of other powers, and aware that the welfare of Britain and even its very existence depends on sea power, marine specialists and all the newspapers unanimously repeated one phrase: "England has risen thanks to its fleet and the destruction it would perish." In the Admiralty also wasted no time: Navy submitted a report which highlighted the need to create a fleet capable of waging war against Russia and France at the same time. Was recommended extensive shipbuilding program.

    battleship Royal Soverin

    Despite the fact that the British government until then reluctantly accepted the failure of the fleet, it changed its course, as it had done in 1884 by the liberals. Lord Salisbury, as he himself admitted displeasure in November, was compelled to force the UK to take part in the race with other powers in the field of naval armaments. In March 1889 the Parliament Act was introduced naval defense. This bill includes the construction of April 1, 1889 to April 1, 1894 8 battleships of the first class, two second class battleships, cruisers, 9 first class, 29 second-class cruisers, four cruisers and 18 third-class torpedo gunboats - worth $ 21,500 000 pounds Sterling.

    battleship Royal Soverin

    In late May 1889 the British Parliament passed the law, and the budget of the Admiralty approved shortly before it increased by another 25%. Increased naval budget was accompanied by a strong statement. The text of the law says that Britain should now have a fleet stronger than the combined fleets of the two largest naval powers after it. Thus was first formulated the doctrine of "standard two powers", which subsequently determined for a long time the UK maritime policy.

    battleship Royal Soverin

    In August 1888 White was forced to interrupt his vacation, as he was summoned to a meeting of the Board of Admiralty, conducted on August 17 Devonportskoy shipyard. The meeting discussed the main elements and dimensions of a new type of battleships, which should be ordered by the program in 1889.

    After careful consideration of the available data on the advantages and disadvantages of other ships, taking into account mainly important elements warship as speed, coal, guns height above the waterline, the main and auxiliary artillery, and much debate all participants adopted the following:

    1. The battleship should be four heavy guns in two protected areas farther away from each other. Each pair should have guns sector of fire at least 260 degrees (130 degrees on either side of the center plane), and both couples should be able to shoot simultaneously on each side of the ship. After great debate decided that these tools should have the caliber of 343 mm, which will enable them to finish building one group while the latest battleships and guns installed themselves in the bow and stern.

    2. Medium-caliber artillery shall consist of ten 152-mm guns, most of which should be placed in a long side of the central battery units located between major caliber artillery, and have, if possible, easy protection. The remaining medium-caliber guns should place above the deck to almost every one of them had the opportunity to shoot, without interfering with the other because of the action of muzzle propellant gases and thereby reduce the risk of disabling several guns at one successful hit an enemy shell (due to great progress in area of high explosives and rapid-fire medium-caliber guns considered desirable place a medium-caliber guns as far as possible from each other).

    battleship Royal Soverin

    3. The ratio of the main armor belt to the length of the ship to keep the same as on the type of "Trafalgar". The thickness of the main belt defined in 457 mm and 127 mm of the upper belt (later reduced to 102 mm) with a 76mm armor deck.

    Council meeting Whyte asked to prepare a number of projects improved "Trafalgar", having a height of 3.51 m freeboard Artillery main fire remained, as in the prototype, but with instruments located at 0.61 m above and in deeper (0.61 m) towers. Supporting artillery was to consist of ten 6 "guns and the greatest possible number 47-mm guns and machine guns. Armor according to required thickness and location such as in "Trafalgar". The rate, nevertheless, considered it necessary to raise up to 17 knots.

    battleship Royal Soverin

    This ship would represent perfect battleship, not taking into account its size and cost. Simultaneously with the execution of these instructions White also presented alternative designs and a memorandum in which he criticized as "Trafalgar", and that its improved version. Lastly, he estimated that "Trafalgar" will be 12 500 tons (hereinafter refers to British tons or 1016 kg) with 900 tons of coal on board at the maximum draft 8.84 m, with an average draft of 8.69 m . For minor improvements would have to pay dearly large displacement.

    When allocating contracts, decided that the first batch of orders should get the shipyard where detailed questions could be resolved without delay and experienced builders worked out in consultation with the officers of the Navy.

    Seven battleships type "Royal Soverin" ordered by an Act (Act) naval defense in 1889, three of which are State-owned shipyards and the rest private. They were the biggest series of battleships built for one project since the appearance of battleships and initiated a decade of uniformity in the British navy, which again had the opportunity to form a homogeneous combat squadron.

    battleship Royal Soverin

    Hood

    During construction, there have been some changes in the project implemented by the ships. These included increasing the height of chimneys, which added 13 tons of weight, increase combat Marsi (add 4 tons) and increased thickness of boiler tubes (add 20 tons). The crew also increased (by adding an additional 10 tons), and installed three 47-mm (3-pounder) rapid-fire guns and increased the number of boats. This, together with various other smaller additions gave when calculating the total weight of 137.5 tons, which is covered by the reserve tonnage.

    ships entered service in 1892-1894, respectively, and were soon recognized as very successful. They were one of the best ships in the world. Their "elegant and expressive" appearance allowed them to easily identify the two stacks is delivered across the ship, high freeboard and an open top Barbet. All those who took part in their design and construction, were more than happy with the result of their labors.

    Armadillos this type ships were excellent, durable and well built, with excellent habitability and a simple but effective plan. They could fight with more chances to win with any of his contemporaries, and for several years had a reputation for impeccable warships, but further development of artillery and soon they passed a merciless verdict.

    Royal Soverin1892/1913

    When his descent attended Queen Victoria herself, that was a very rare event. At this point, it was the biggest ship ever built up to this for the British Navy. Joined the Navy January 14, 1892.

    In 1897-1902 gg. as part of the Mediterranean Fleet.

    In November 1901 during firing exercises near Malta explosion 152-mm gun as a result of a spontaneous shot when not fully closed gate, 6 dead (1 officer and five sailors), 19 wounded.

    In 1911 placed in the list of vehicles to be sold for scrap.

    Empress Of Indiya1893/1913

    September 11, 1893 joined the Navy, joining the Navy Channel (La Manche) as the second flagship until December 1895.

    1897-1898 gg.: as part of the international squadron in Crete in connection with the Armenian crisis.

    put in reserve in 1905, April 30, 1906 at Plymouth Bay collided with a submarine "A10".

    In 1912 placed in the list of vehicles available for sale. Immobilized and then used as a ship-target. November 4, 1913: after the shelling sank near Cape Portland.

    Remillies1893/1913

    October 17, 1893 joined the Navy in Portsmouth for service in the Mediterranean Fleet (flagship), where he stayed until October 1903.

    Decommissioned in 1913

    Rizolyushen1893/1913

    5 December 1893 joined the Navy in Portsmouth.

    June 15, 1906 encounter with "Remillies" followed by repair in Chatham.

    In August 1911 decommissioned and towed to Mavebenk where March 5, 1912 has been damaged, the ship faced with special status "Seapoint". October 7, 1913 sold for scrapping in Denmark.

    Ripalz1894/1911

    April 21, 1894 d: joined the Navy.

    December 24, 1895: coal gas explosion in a pit left side as a result of attempts to descend into it with a flashlight having an open fire.

    8 July 1896 encounter with "Rizolyushen".

    Decommissioned in 1911

    Rivendzh1894/1919

    March 22, 1894 came into operation.

    January 7, 1896 in England, decided to create a special-purpose fleet - "flying squadron", "ready to go anywhere and do any job that from it might require the empire." It consisted of two battleships of the first class, two second class battleships, 2 cruisers and 6 second-class counter-destroyers. January 14, 1896 "Rivendzh" joined the Navy as the flagship of the fleet, where he stayed until November 1896.

    Had

    collision: January 7, 1908 with the ship special status "Bengore Head" and January 7, 1912 with "Orion" in Portsmouth Harbour.

    After the war "Rivendzh" equipped as a vehicle for the shelling of the coast. As such, it was used for shelling the northern tip of the western front on the Belgian coast.

    May 1915: Renamed "Redoubtable". Caliber guns of the main caliber reduced to 305 mm by inserting new liners. On the foremast established special Marsi for fire control, and in March 1915, in the period of the construction of new battleships and aircraft boule below the waterline as mine protection. In 1915, the Germans began to pay more and more attention to the actions of submarines, so defense coast of Flanders acquired importance to them, as it is here based submarines. On the coast between the front line and the Belgian-Dutch border (50 km) was created "sea station", the defense of which was assigned to the Marine Corps and the shore batteries. Corps commander and "station" Vice Admiral Schroeder. By March 1915 the Germans established on the coast 13 of 49 coastal batteries of guns from 105 to 280 mm. The British took steps to reduce defense Flanders coast. German coastal batteries opposed them. Since May 7 was sunk by coastal artillery of landmines in Zeebrugge English destroyer. A few days later "Rivendzh" from a distance of 70 cable shelled road between Middelkerke and Westende. To adjust his shooting British used platform whose base is a tripod of rail height of 14 m and a weight of 5 tons These tripod sank to the bottom, and on the platform is a group of observers. Evening of September 6 simultaneously with the firing port facilities Ostend "Rivendzh" and gunboats "Exellent" and "Bostardo" fired on the battery in Westende. In "Rivendzh" got two 150-mm projectile. Minor damage to their accompanying light cruiser "Ettentiv" bomb caused the aircraft. One shell landed on a tripod. Thereafter, the British refused from further use of tripods, believing that their purpose is disclosed by the adversary, which in reality was not. December 15, 1915 "Rivendzh" with "Majestic", coming from Dover, trying to detect a German artillery battery, but without success, and on 16 December he continued alone bombing, but was heavily damaged by fire 210-mm guns of the German shore batteries. Received two holes (one of them below the waterline), the ship left for docking. With more rain, he was not the right vehicle for operations in coastal waters, which was characterized by shallow water and minefields. When entered into service specifically designed for this monitor, "Rivendzh" no longer applied. But later it turned out to be very useful for experienced shooting on the Thames.

    Royal Ok1894/1913

    From June 12, 1894 in reserve at Portsmouth. January 14, 1896 joined the Navy for service in the squadron for special purposes, in which he remained until November-December 1896, and then was renovated in Portsmouth.

    December 1911 in reserve at the shipyard, towed to Mavebenk. In 1911 placed in the list of vehicles to be sold for scrap.

    Hud1895/1914

    Except for mounting the main caliber guns in the towers set in deference to the wishes expressed by the First Sea Lord Admiral Hood, and low freeboard fore and aft, "Hood", the eighth in a series of battleship essentially was a one same project. Besides the already mentioned, it was still a few other minor differences, including thicker longitudinal bulkheads, which together with 432-mm turret armor provides better protection for him, though, and still had to sacrifice seaworthiness. Compared with the "cousins" brothers on its share fell very modest success. In justification of its construction can be said that he unequivocally resolved doubts about the superiority barbetnyh ships tower above. British could afford such an expensive experiment.

    battleship Royal Soverin

    Hood

    With

    freeboard only 3.35 m his guns were able to accommodate only 5.8 m above the waterline 7,01 m against the remaining ships.





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