In a combat situation with buttstock
In 1973, the USSR was opened developmental work on "Modern" to create a compact 5.45-mm machine designed for weapons grenade, artillery calculations, the crews of armored vehicles, technical units, etc., t . servicemen which is automatic is a weapon of self-defense.
MA in the stowed position with folded butt
(Model with a modified form forearm
And forearm pad with plastic namushnike)
In accordance with the tactical and technical requirements of compact machine should provide the capability of automatic and single fire, have a mass of not more than 2.2 kg, length buttstock with less than 750 mm with folded butt - not more than 450 mm, aiming range of up to 500 m
work to establish a new weapon on a competitive basis started Soviet weapons designer Mikhail Kalashnikov, SG Simonov, SI Koshkarov, A. Konstantinov, I. Ya Stechkin.
in 1975 to develop a compact 5.45mm machine started and creator of the famous SVD sniper rifle Evgeniy Fedorovich Dragunov. Weapons, develop Dragunov under maloimpulsnogo patron 5.45h39 mm working title MA (small machine).
One of the requirements specification has been widely used in the construction of plastic parts. At that time, when work began on the MA in the department of the chief designer of "Izhmash" has conducted work on the production of some models of the AK-74 from the injection plastic - glass fiber reinforced polyamide. As a result, automatic received, in addition to plastic and store the pistol grip, new stock, handguard and handguard.
peculiarity machine Dragunov, which consisted of two parts, was his original arrangement. The upper part of the structure consists of the barrel to the receiver and hanging on her mobile automation system (bolt to the gate and return mechanism). To front liner receiver attached hinged plastic bed with a pistol grip fire control (significantly affect the relief arms to 2.5 kg with empty magazine). In the box is mounted trigger mechanism.
MA in the stowed position with folded butt
(Model with a modified form of a flame arrester and forearm)
the rear of the lodge is located on top of the receiver folding metal stock with a folding back of the head, to significantly reduce the size of MA (total length - 735 mm in length with folded butt - 500 mm Barrel length - 212 mm). Form details worked out so that the folding butt transverse dimension of the automaton is not increased, and the butt does not interfere with the aiming. Latch locking butt in the firing position, located in the rear of the lodge. Fixing the stock in the folded position is carried to the second latch located on the butt so that pressing the latch and reclining butt could make a single movement.
The gate frame with shutter MA
As if suspended in the receiver
first samples had a handguard machine, consisting of the left and right halves (similar SVD). In further work on the construction site has been changed. In subsequent samples, it consists of a spring-loaded pad and forearm.
When assembling the bed fixed with respect to the receiver-return mechanism. For this box is filled only reinforcing piece with a hole under the lip of the return mechanism.
Lodge, sprung handguard and handguard are made of glass fiber reinforced polyamide AG-4V.
The operating principle of automation
MA - outlet propellant gases. Locking - turning the bolt on the three lugs.
In order to reduce the height of the receiver and make disassembly more comfortable design separate pusher machine applied to the bolt. Gas chamber through the hole, and the role of the front wall plug performs while being lock arrester.
flame arrestor first modification machine MA in design similar to the flame arrester AKS74U. Subsequently, to enhance the damping muzzle flash and create a compensating effect in front of the flame arrester were introduced asymmetrically opposed slots.
View latch locking butt in combat position
(Located behind the pistol grip in the rear of the box)
Trigger trigger mechanism provides a single management and automatic firing. Traditionally made Dragunov trigger separate assembly. It is secured in the bed of the protruding ends and trigger axis pins bearing the mainspring. The mechanism is made on the circuit with a change in direction of action of the mainspring torque, colloquially called for short circuit with "obstruction trigger." As the mainspring used spring working in compression. When cocking the direction of action of the mainspring effort goes through the rotation axis and the trigger spring starts pressing the trigger of the bolt. Trigger goes "dead point" and ceases to interact with moving parts, thus eliminating friction between the hammer and the frame at the end of the rollback and reel. At arrival in the forward position bolt carrier pushes the self-timer and displays the trigger because of the "dead spots". A similar scheme of the trigger mechanism has been previously used in sub-machine gun PP-71 (later submachine gun "CEDAR»).
View fuse interpreter modes of fire
In a combat situation (top)
And when disassembling the machine (bottom)
gunpoint diopter. It has two plants firing range - 300 and 500 m Base sight rotates relative to the receiver, acting as the latch return mechanism. When disassembling the machine to move forward and return mechanism to separate receiver box with a stock, the base of the sight must be rotated by 90 °. This design minimized the possibility of incorrect assembly, as if the ground is not the sight into place, aiming a machine impossible.
first tests have shown the viability of the machine design, but the individual parts and assemblies required improvements. When tested in difficult conditions trigger mechanism misfire. This was due to the lack of progress in the self-timer can not be guaranteed due to the withdrawal of the trigger "dead spots." To eliminate the delay required to produce rebuild mechanism. It should be noted that the scheme with "obstruction trigger" was what is called a "double-edged sword." On the one hand, the bolt is eliminated inhibition of the trigger, but on the other hand, when the arrival of a frame to the front position in order to bring the hammer due to the "dead point" is necessary to overcome the compression force of the mainspring that causes significant energy losses in moving parts After rolling. Had several times to change the design and size of the pusher assembly in the gas. Because of lower-than-pusher SVD length he lost elasticity and began to buckle at work.
plastic serious claims were not. However, during the official test strength drops the pistol grip machine behaved unusually. Plastic Boxes amortized when they hit the concrete, and the machine, like a ball bouncing almost a meter.
According to the accuracy of fire
single and automatic fire from various positions courier showed virtually the same results as the AKS-74U. How many types of weapons under short-powerful cartridge, the automaton AI was somewhat increased scatter hits vertically, but to solve the tasks assigned to it by shooting accuracy was sufficient.
| Caliber, mm || 5.45h39 |
| Length, |
- Butt decomposed
- The stock closed
| Barrel length, mm || 212 |
| Weight empty, kg || 2.5 |
| store count. cartridges || 30 |
| rds / min || 800 |
| Sighting range, m || 500 |
MA One of the advantages was the top position of the stock. Sample turned flat, protruding (except handle reloading) parts. This provided the ease of carrying the machine on a belt in all positions.
Estimated complexity of manufacturing machine AI was comparable to the complexity of manufacturing the AK-74.
But by the time the final design of the existing machine "MA" in the late 1970s, the Ministry of Defense of the USSR has already been approved decision on adoption of a AKS-74U. In this regard, further work on AI were stopped, and the machine was in the discharge of prototypes.
was made a limited number of experimental models of small-sized machine Dragunov. Automaton itself AI was the last major work of the famous Soviet arms designer EF Dragunov he held from blueprints to assembly and testing of prototypes.
Partial disassembly compact machine design MA EF Dragunov:
1 - Boxes to the receiver, barrel and butt, 2 - bolt carrier;
3 - Gate 4 - trigger mechanism 5 - return mechanism;
6 - pusher 7 - tube gas chamber 8 - foregrip 9 - forearm pad;
10 - front stop forearm 11 - arrestor, 12 - store.