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Complex defense Cactus

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    Basing

    :

    Armoured

    management system:

    Office for radio

    Warhead:

    high-explosive/fragmentation/incendiary

    Application:

    Antiaircraft

    Country:

    France

    Range:

    10 km.

    year development:

    1972

    complex defense cactus In 1964, South Africa signed a contract with the French company" Thomson-Houston "(later renamed" Thomson-CSF ") to create a mobile all-weather air defense complex, designed to destroy targets flying at low and extremely low altitudes. After tests conducted in 1971, the first complexes have received the name "Cactus", was for two years put South Africa.

    In 1972

    complex called "Crotale" was adopted by the French Air Force. After adopting the complex repeatedly modernized. First variants SAM "Crotale" made under the code "1000 series". Since 1973, the production received "2000 series" identification system fitted gosprinadlezhnosti goals and TV camera. "Series 3000", has the automatic target tracking using TV cameras started to be issued in 1978. and is armed only with the French Air Force. "4000 Series" is produced since 1983. - In this variant appeared radiocommunications equipment, ensures the exchange of information between the command and control points at a range of up to 10km and 3km between the point of command and control and launcher. Fighting machine "5000 series" equipped with an additional two missiles "Mistral" (1985). Finally, since 1994. It is released an upgraded version of the complex - "Improved Crotale", can be combined with new radar phased array.

    Currently, proposed a set of potential buyers "Crotale-NG", has better performance characteristics and noise immunity.

    Complex Distributed in Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, South Africa, South Korea, Pakistan and other countries.

    In 1975, Saudi Arabia ordered a modernized version of the complex crawler AMX-30, received the name "Shanine". In addition, Saudi Arabia and bought the basic version of the complex "Crotale", and in 1990. - And an upgraded version of the complex to protect its airbases.

    On

    1996. produced about 275 complexes (25 of them are sea-based) and more than 7,000 missiles.

    Composition

    complex defense cactus Martial machine complex" Crotale "(see photo 1, photo 2, photo 3) mounted on an armored wheeled P4R (wheel formula 4x4), a typical platoon consists of command and control points (ACU) and 2-3 launchers. V battery (Division) includes two platoons. The driver's seat is located in front of the machine operator position and all the equipment - the center, the engine compartment - behind. Crew - 3 people. Engine - carburetor Hotchkiss, of the cars delivered in the UAE and Qatar, are equipped with diesel Badouin's 6F11 ST. Transmission - electromechanical, suspension - hydropneumatic. In a combat situation launcher hung on three hydraulic jacks, two of which are located behind the front wheels - one in the rear of the machine. The machine is equipped with air conditioning. Weight launcher - 14950kg, command and control points - 12620kg.

    complex can not conduct combat operations in the motion, but once you stop it takes less than 5 minutes to bring combat ready. After detecting and tracking the target lock on missile can be launched through 6.5.

    complex defense cactus Paragraph command and control (see photo) review airspace, target detection, recognition of her nationality and recognition of its type. Pulse-Doppler radar detection "Mirador-IV" E-band mounted on top of chassis ground, the antenna rotation speed is 60 r / min and is capable of detecting low-flying targets at a distance of 18.5km, with flight speed in the range of 35m / s to 400 m / s and altitude - from several dozen to 4500m. The equipment item command and control include: computer SN 1050, a real-time, the panel with displays and communication equipment, transmitting information in a digital code for launchers. The radar can detect up to 30 targets with the release of 12 of the most dangerous of them for automatic tracking. Once a target is detected, the state made its recognition accessory: Information that goal - a stranger plane is displayed. Target data using the communication equipment are transmitted to one of the launchers, missiles where there is combat ready.

    In complexes

    "Crotale" "Series 1000/2000/3000" after the march need cable docking points battle management and launchers, the maximum cable length is 800 m thus time to bring the complex into the firing position was significant value. Complexes "4000 series" feature - a radio communication equipment LIVH (Liaison Inter Vehicule Hertzienne) and mast device. Also significant reduction in time to bring the complex to combat readiness and increase the distance between the point of command and control and launchers increased its immunity. The complex had the opportunity to conduct combat operation without emitting radar - with a thermal imager, performing target tracking and missile both day and night conditions.

    complex defense cactus

    launcher mounted on monopulse radar missile guidance J-band (12-18 GHz) with the far boundary of the detection zone up to 17 km and 4 containers for missiles (two on each side) (see photo 1, photo 2, photo 3). Radar guidance can accompany one goal and direct it to two missiles simultaneously. Missiles launched at intervals of 2.5 s after 6.5s after target detection, captured on the support beam capture radar beamwidth 1.1 ° and IR tracking system. Range IR tracking system - 14km. Command transmitter aboard the missile operates in the I-band.

    All chassis are combined using a kind of radio network and can transmit information to the launcher not only command and control points, but on the other launcher.

    At launch

    chassis no ammunition missiles, so spare missiles are transported on a special car and reloading is done with a light tap for 2 minutes.

    Launch R440 resides in the transport and launch container. The total weight of the rocket with the WPK is 100kg. Fragmentation warhead directed action is in the central part of the missile body. Hitting radius of fragments is 8m, and the expansion velocity reaches 2.3 km / s. Warhead being undermined. IR non-contact or contact backup fuse. Since 1985, the missile complex "Crotale" model is equipped with an upgraded fuse FPE company "Thomson-CSF". Dual-mode solid rocket motor (see diagram) from "Bayern-chemie protac" 20550N provides traction on the starting phase of the trajectory within 1.75s and 17550N - by marching within 2.3s at a pressure in the combustion chamber and 120atm 90atm, respectively. Weight charges - 16.1kg and 19kg. Rocket reaches its maximum speed of 750m / s for 2.8s flight.

    Marine version of the complex "Crotale Naval" equips modified "rocket R440N.

    range hitting the target with RCS 1m2 moving with zero parameter at a speed of 50m / c is 0.5-10km at a speed of 250 m / c - 0.5-9.5km. Range of defeats the purpose of a nonzero parameter and velocity of 50m / s - 0.5-9.7km, at a speed of 250 m / c - 2.0-5.5km. The maximum range at which a complex "Crotale" can destroy targets with low radial velocity (eg, helicopter) is 14.6km. Probability of hitting one rocket is 0.8 and increases to 0.96 when firing two missiles at a target.

    In early 1987, tested a new warhead for the missile complex "Crotale". It used technology of space-time to create a convergence area of fragments in the form of a belt 40 cm in diameter, formed at a distance of 5-8 meters from the target, depending on the values of slip missiles. Warhead allows punching steel plate thickness up to 10 mm.

    PERFORMANCE

    height of defeats the purpose, km

    0.015 - 5

    Range, km

    0.5-10

    rocket length, mm

    2890

    Diameter, mm

    150

    Wingspan mm

    540

    Mass

    rocket kg

    84

    Warhead type

    Fragmentation

    directional

    Warhead weight, kg

    15

    maximum speed, m / s

    750

    Features rocket R440 overload:

    Range, km

    overload magnitude, g

    Flight Time from

    5.0

    27

    10

    6.0

    18

    13

    10.0

    8

    28

    13

    3

    46

    fighting vehicle

    Length, m

    6.22

    Width, m

    2.72

    Height, m

    1.93

    Clearance m

    0.450

    speed, km / h

    70

    Range, km

    600

    Gradeability at 2 km / h

    40%

    Gradeability at a speed of 25 km / h

    10%





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