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Cruise missile COP1 Comet

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    Basing

    :

    Plane

    management system:

    Office for radio

    Warhead:

    -explosive

    Application:

    anti

    Country:

    Russia

    Range:

    130 km.

    year development:

    1953

    cruise missile ks-1 comet

    September 8, 1947 issued a decree USSR № 3140-1028, according to which proposed to set up anti-aircraft missiles "Comet" with a range of 100 km.

    Caters to work on guided missiles had established a special office number 1 (SB-1) subject to the Third Chief Directorate of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Director of SC-1 was assigned PN Kukseenko and chief engineer - SL Beria. In August 1951, SB-1 was renamed the Ministry of KB-1 weapons. Development of this missile complex, which received the designation "Comet-3" (K-III) initially entrusted OKB-155 Mikoyan. OKB-155 airplane direction parallel to the normal subjects was opened 'B' Unmanned technology under the guidance of M. Gurevich. However, OKB-155 was highly loaded main "fighter" theme and, in order to establish work on aircraft missiles, construction and development of a pilot batch production, in accordance with the Resolution of the USSR Council of September 1, 1951, these tasks were transferred to a factory near Moscow number 1 in Ivankovo (now Dubna).

    first flight performed analogue test pilot Amet-Khan Sultan from an airfield in the Air Force Institute Chkalov January 4, 1951, then moved to the testing ground Crimean Air Force. From May began air starts with analog side of Tu-4. Trials included only four aircraft "K", which Amet-Khan, S. Anokhin, F. Bourtsev, V. Pavlov and P. Kaz'min completed 150 flights. With the transition to working out starts on the real target was adjusted guidance and control system "Comet" - similar relief after going to the target, like a rocket battle, and only in the terminal phase homing pilot shut off, took it over and returned to the airfield. All flights went smoothly, although the pilots considered them very uneasy. In one such flight analogue Amet-Khan escaped suspension with an inoperative engine, which is able to run only at the water in the other - from turning off the autopilot Burceva and he hardly overpowering servos, barely able to turn away from the target ship. In flights were able to identify another problem - the icing rocket engine, especially in flight over the sea, where the crust of frost in the combustion chamber made it impossible to run. Yield was the introduction of electric-engine suspension.

    First launch made over the Sea of Azov in Arabatskaya arrows in May 1952 by the crew of Captain VA Nikolsky, ended in failure - due to an error with the installation of rudders rocket "failed", passing the radar beam, and fell into the sea. During further testing and operation of the system was adjusted, measures were taken to improve the stabilization of the rocket, which suffered instability roll. In one of the rocket launches after exit from the suspension came under media screws, damaging him once two motors and traction control killing another. We manned analogue of such a trend was not, but the cause could not catch. As aerodynamically rocket differed only by the absence of the analog cockpit, it was decided to restore imitate duralumin cap. As such, the "Comet" even went to the series, and only later defect caused by the specifics of the swept wing was finally eliminated setting autopilot.

    State tests

    system passed from July 1952 to January 1953 with positive outcomes in general, and a number of results achieved superior set. In their course of 12 rockets launched eight hit the target - a former Guards cruiser "Red Caucasus", the conclusions in the sea and plying after removal crew of Feodosia. Avoiding excessive damage to target missiles used without warhead, but two-ton "Comet" at speeds close to the sound, and without charge punched side of the ship, leaving holes in 5-10m2. Usually after hitting the board remained in a large round hole on the rocket body and a pair of small - from the wing cargo themselves wings were cut like scissors. When one of the rocket attacks hit the tower with a direct hit cruiser, but patched once again the ship remained afloat.

    November 21, 1952 the crew performed Nikolsky start "Comets" with the standard warhead. Goal, marching with 18 knots of speed was found to range of 120 km, with the removal of 80 km when the abeam Yalta crew made starting with a direct hit sent the ship to the bottom of the goal.

    In 1953 missile system "Comet" was adopted by. decree dated February 3, 1953 of its creators were awarded the Stalin Prize.

    After Stalin's death and the arrest of Beria, his son and other executives of KB-1 were removed from cases. Leading roles in the "Comet" has gradually shifted to near Moscow branch of OKB-155 headed by A. Ya Bereznyak where unfolded serial production of missiles. June 2, 1953 Plant number 1 was reassigned MAP received number 256 (later software "Rainbow"). For mass production also joined the Smolensk plant number 475 (according to the Order of MAP from 25 April 1955). Kazan aircraft factory number 22 in the media has converted several dozen Tu-4.

    for development "Comet" in naval aviation in June 1953 in the Crimea at the airport Guards formed a special educational training part number 27 under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Leonov. In December 1953, the crew was made a ceremonial first launch of "KS" on purpose - Transport "Kursk". Over the next two years military training pilots of the produced 18 starts, hitting targets in 14 of them. Staff on the basis of the lessons learned counsel was prepared for combat operations Tu-4KS.

    Missiles Naval Aviation gave new opportunities - instructors characterized "Comet" as "a long cudgel" our fleet. Directive from the Navy General Staff August 30, 1955 on the basis of the curriculum as part of the Black Sea Fleet Aviation was formed 124th TBASP long range (from October 1957 - MTAP dd). It includes, in addition to 12 Tu-4KS and 8 Tu-4, there were also special aircraft simulators KFOR-5 based on the MiG-17, outfitted with equipment guidance "K-1". They were used instead of combat missiles for training crews carriers. A similar rocket attack equipment allowed to work in virtually all modes, including homing, allowing to save fighting "Comets" and enabled the analysis of the complex according to the ACA board aircraft simulator. Later, there were more advanced aircraft KFOR and KFOR-7-15 for the same purpose.

    cruise missile ks-1 comet Further development of the" Comet "was air-missile Tu-16KS. To do this, on the Tu-16 missile guidance equipment installed, the spent on the Tu-4KS. Improved the wing by uploading beamed holders DB-187 missiles and fuel system. Because space in the pressurized cabin of the aircraft operator for missile guidance is not found, then his cubicle with a life support system positioned in the cargo bay, securing on a beam. Range Tu-16KS with two missiles at maximum takeoff weight 72000kg not exceed 3135-3560km. Flight altitude carrier and its speed at start of the COP was initially within 4000-4500m (hereinafter referred to 7000m) and 370-420 km / h Media radar to detect targets at a distance of 140-180km, and the launch was carried out at a distance of 90-70km. In late 1950, after completion of launch range was increased to 130km.

    Tests Tu-16KS began in 1954. The following year, the new complex was accepted for service. First TU-16KS entered the Naval Aviation at the end of 1957, in the 124th Regiment mine and torpedo (MTAP) Black Sea Fleet. In the battle of the 124th MTAP including 12 Tu-16KS, six tankers 16ZSCH Tu-Tu and jammer-16PS. Then on the Tu-16KS missile re-equipped 5th MTAP BSF, and in 1958 began to arrive on the complexes Northern and Pacific fleets. By the end of 1950 five armed MTAP complexes consisted of 90 Tu-16KS.

    In 1957-58, the city conducted a series of improvements missile system. Fuel reserve "KS" increased by increasing the range of up to 130 km, have a safe start to the height of 7000 m by raising the fuel pressure to the injectors, and able to perform the launch to an altitude of 10,000 m Altimeter Aneroid added more accurate altimeter. For easy storage and transport wing made foldable. According to the results of operation implemented heating units and waveguides guidance system, eliminate condensation, freezing and failures for this reason. Optimizing the trajectory of a missile, finalized autopilot, providing the opportunity to start with a low altitude - 2000 m

    was possible to launch two rockets salvo one carrier by their serial input into the beam and simultaneous radar guidance (the first such launch performed at the beginning of 1958 the crew commander of the 5th MTAP V. Dubina). Increasing the number of missiles in the attack, worked guidance of three aircraft with missiles one starts from the order of battle "column" detachment Tu-16KS. Launches were performed at intervals of 15-20 seconds. Converges team-leading missiles were taken for the maintenance of its operator.

    Tall launches were tactically disadvantageous - the plane while coming out of the attack too close to the target, running the risk of injury defense. By calculation, when starting with the removal of 90 km and an altitude of 10,000 m at the time the plane was in a missile strike 24 km from the target, whereas starting with the same range, but with a height of 2000 m Tu-16 coming out of the attack, 43 km from the target . Low-altitude launch raised tactical surprise, providing access to the secretive attack and kill probability when starting from 2000 m yielded normal results - 2/3 missile hit the target (ie, a pair of rockets launch guaranteed solution to the problem).

    serious opposition could provide EW equipment opponent that prompted the new system refinements. Since 1961, the missiles were equipped IMMUNITY equipment units, which not only increased their protection against electronic warfare, but also reduced the sensitivity of the radar interference problems of their own aircraft, pluck synchronization of K-1M. To test conducted eight starts COP-1 aircraft station which worked on the same frequency, and 6 missiles accurately hit the target. Positive results were obtained in group attack submarines from six different directions, firing less than a minute. All this enabled the group to master the use of missiles, by massaging them and inflicting "star shot" from different angles.

    Five rockets were collected in a complete set with a heat seeker "Sputnik 2", but on arms were not accepted - the ship as a heat-radiating object was feeble purpose, and direction of development is not received.

    In naval aviation successful and highly developed missile "Comet" remained in service nearly a dozen years - until the end of the 60s, when it replaced a more modern system. Were in the ranks of Tu-16KS were converted to new complexes so since 1962 65 cars passed under revision missile system K-11-16.

    Tu-16KS supplied Indonesia, where in the summer of 1961 arrived 25 aircraft, as well as Egypt, where they have equipped two squadrons. On any combat use cases there "Comet" reliable information is available, although the emergence of Indonesian missile noted near the British military base in Singapore.

    Tu-16KS did not take part in actual combat, but some of them were delivered to Indonesia and the UAR.

    Composition

    cruise missile ks-1 comet doodlebug" COP "an all-metal monoplane mainly riveted construction (see layout scheme, the projection of 1, 2 projection). wing with a sweep of 55 °, was Dvuhlonzheronnoe design with conventional aileron roll control. Empennage carried elevators and turning. Fuselage on constructive force scheme and layout almost repeated the MiG-15, differing by the presence of bulky compartment of control and warhead instead of the cockpit. The main materials are steel and duralumin D16T 30 HGSD in responsible butt nodes radioparent fairings molded foam.

    4G52 explosive action warhead weighing 1015 kg carrying half a ton of TNT and was equipped with a contact fuze. Warhead was set in place with a large sunroof (dictated by the ability to remove the alleged nuclear charge, removable for routine maintenance, but such equipment "COP" was not implemented).

    compartment for CU held the fuel tank, which could hold 330 liters of kerosene. Antenna units of "K-1" located in the tail at the top of the keel (oriented whip antenna pointing back along the line) and in the nose of the air intake (parabolic antenna semiactive homing coordinator purpose).

    sailing from the frontal air intake channels converge before RD-500K, korotkoresursnym one thrust turbojet unregulated. At first manned rocket conventional aircraft engines, have been reported after using the resource and bulkheads. With the growth of industry has mastered the manufacture of missiles special version of RD-500K, which contrasted with the use of cheaper components and materials sufficient for a short stint engine. Easy and lightweight RD-500K was single-mode. Since it took off part of the adjustment system automation, instead of launching an electric starter ensured pyrotechnic unit. Compared with the original engine weight has been reduced by 100 kg - 581 to 481 kg. Besides which produced RD-500 number 500 factories in Moscow and number 16 in Kazan, especially for cruise missiles launched from 1958 issue of RD-500K factory number 478 in Kiev, which gave 595 engines.

    The method of application

    missile system as follows (see diagram) using radar aircraft carrier detects the target, after which the station was converted to automatic tracking. With the release of the line starting with the removal of 70-90 km at a speed not exceeding 360 km / h and an altitude of 3000-4000 m (under the terms of the launch of the rocket engine) produced start. When withdrawing from the carrier rocket squander, losing altitude, so as not to offend the media and overclocking went forward, getting into the radio beam and directs it to the target. Flight altitude with barometric altimeter controlled, preventing excessive loss of grazing and over hurdles.

    At a distance of 20-30 km from the target, when the reflected radar signal from it became strong enough to capture sustainable GOS switched her guidance. Plane after the start was reduced to 320 km / h speed behind the rocket and continuing to highlight the target before its defeat. By the time of the meeting for the purpose of carrier rocket was at a distance of 40-50 km, and could get out of the attack, staying far beyond the reach of anti-aircraft fire.

    PERFORMANCE

    firing range, km

    80-90 (130-150)

    cruising flight altitude, m

    400

    flight speed, km / h

    1060-1200

    Dimensions, m
    Length
    Height
    maximum body diameter
    wingspan
    sweepback angle


    8,29-8,44
    2,457
    1,2
    4,722 (4,8-4,9)
    57,5

    Starting weight, kg

    2,735-2,737 (2,750)

    Engine

    TRD RD-500K

    Thrust, kg

    1490-1500

    Weight, kg

    481

    Weight

    fuel (kerosene, T-1), kg

    165

    Weight

    oils kg

    110

    type holder

    Beam DB-KS (Tu-4KS) and DB-187 (Tu-16KS)

    warhead

    high-explosive/fragmentation/incendiary, K-450 (hereinafter 4G52)

    warhead weight, kg

    933-980 (1015)

    Weight

    explosive kg

    500

    control system

    radio command from IIM-K PARLGSN

    Range GOS km

    10-20

    Autopilot

    APK-5B (AP-5)

    Speed carrier km / h

    370-420

    Height start

    km

    3000-5000

    aircraft carrier

    4KS Tu-Tu-16KS





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