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Cruise missile K-10C (complex K-10 Comet-10)

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    Basing

    :

    Plane

    management system:

    Office for radio

    Warhead:

    Concussive-cumulative

    Application:

    anti

    Country:

    Russia

    Range:

    325 km.

    year development:

    1960

    cruise missile to-10c (set to 10-comet-10) Creating a missile system" air-land "K-10 (" Comet-10 ") was conducted in accordance with the Government Decision February 3, 1955 and a more detailed document of 16 November of the same year. Leading organizations to assign Tupolev OKB-256, which ought to March 1, 1957 to submit a converted aircraft carrier Tu-16K-10, DB-155 is the lead on the rocket K-10C, which was the chief designer Mikhail Gurevich. Management system K-10U, which included the airborne radar and missile systems, develops Minvooruzheniya KB-1 under the leadership of SF Matveevsky.

    purpose system was to destroy ground and surface targets within the range of 1600-2000 km. Hardware support was to ensure the detection of targets with 180-250 km, and the rocket is launched from a distance of 200 km from the heights of 5-11 km. It is planned to use as a carrier aircraft supersonic aircraft "105" (Tu-22) are scheduled for production in Kazan.

    Launch K-10C was supposed to reach a speed of 1700-2000 km / h Her starting weight should not exceed 4400 kg, warhead weight of 1000 kg and 350 kg of the control equipment. Also stipulated the weight of aircraft equipment, limited to 1200 kg.

    parallel was set as the creation version of the ship, the designation P-40 Designed for nuclear cruiser. In accordance with the decision of 17 and 25 August 1956 63 cruiser project had to carry 12-16 aircraft missiles S-40. Missile system developers appointed Mikoyan Design Bureau and the Ministry of NII-10 shipbuilding but from the ambitious project was soon abandoned in favor of a successful real ships and sea-based cruise missiles P-6 DB-52.

    aircraft missile system for K-10 government decree establishes deadlines for execution in the 4th quarter of 1958, including the completion of joint flight tests. However, a large amount of new developments tightened its creation, and the first Tu-16K-10 (№ 7203805) was prepared in November 1957, following (№ 7203806) - in December. By this time, the pilot production of OKB-155 presented and first K-10C.

    cruise missile to-10c (set to 10-comet-10) The aircraft was equipped with a powerful dual-channel radar detection equipment and guidance. Instead cabin mate and former "bomber" radar "Rubidium" in voluminous nose cone placed antenna and equipment target channel (see photo), providing detection and tracking of large target from a distance of up to 400 km in the ventral fairing was antenna channel missiles, serves to her guidance and correction of the initial phase of flight. Workplace operator station was equipped with a special pressurized cabin in the cargo bay (just as it was done on the Tu-16KS). To organize K-10 missile itself gruzootsekah lengthened and equipped with beamed holder DB-238, and was dismantled in the fuselage tank number 3. The aircraft received a more powerful power supply required to operate the radar systems and equipment onboard the rocket. The first flight of the prototype Tu-16K-10 was held January 4, 1958.

    first missile K-10C entered the trial in October 1957, but the problems and defects delayed start of flight testing, and the first launch was carried out only May 28, 1958, still in the "throwing mode" without the guidance system. Until the end, followed by another 5 starts at a distance of up to 96 km in the next year - 12, but due to numerous failures both the hardware and rocket propulsion, only 6 of them were successful. Meanwhile in Kazan began mass production of the Tu -16K-10 (the first such aircraft number 8,204,010 was issued in April 1958).

    joint state tests of K-10 began in the Air Force Institute November 21, 1958, followed by a September 1959 to November 1960 was followed by the test starts with tactical warships in the Black Sea and real - of written-off tanker "Chkalov" displacement Tanker 9100 tons length 110 m in dimension imitated goal of the "cruiser", and for its similarity with the silhouette nizkobortnym developed superstructures over the ship's hull pulled the metal net height of 13m, evaluating holes in it as defeating the purpose. Tests were used for two Tu-16K-10, a pair of SM-K analogues and 34 missiles, two of which - in the combat performance with the standard warhead. Later produced another 10 launches K-10C equipped with telemetry equipment, allowing to control parameters on the trajectory (kinoteodolitnaya shooting did not give the full picture, and rely on the safety records after the missile had not). During joint flight tests produced 184 Tu-16 and 62 - SM-K analogues. Large ships were detected at maximum range of 400 km, corresponding to the theoretical radio horizon, the radar provided them with a firm grip and auto tracking.

    became notable progress at one of the launches of the result when K-10C, having missed the target, overcame 245 km, stayed in the air 610sek., and at the time of the fall in fuel consumption had margin. However, the reliability of the system left much to be desired - because of the frequent failure was only half successful launches, and the target were only 10 of the 20 credits missiles. All five starts with a distance limit were unsuccessful, and claims are made not only to the quality of the system, but also to the conditions of work, to create problems to the crew: the operator had to work in complete isolation from the rest of the crew in the crush of the pressurized cabin at 40-degree temperatures, and the navigator, is on the Tu-16K-10 behind the pilots, was deprived of the normal review (to remedy the situation had to equip it for the viewing windows on the sides of the fuselage).

    Misses distributed as follows: one rocket was lost due to crew errors, the other brought to swim in the sea ice floe. Four launches were thwarted due to failures in the airborne radar, three - the fault of the missiles on-board equipment and in one case the engine failed.

    Military

    considered failures starts the fault system nezachetnymi and evaluate progress in the probability of hitting .624, which is clearly not up to the set. Developers also include a number of failures to structural defects in the removable improvements, and proposed not to include them in the assessment, which gave a very reasonable value of the probability of damage to 0,714. Later, representatives of the industry have corrected this value based on combat training launches in 1961, presenting in the final act of the GOP "refined" value of 0.8, fully consistent with the agreed government document. Representing naval aviation committee chairman Lieutenant General II Borzov evaluated result skeptical and did not hurry with the signing of the act, indicating that the achieved range combat use K-practically does not exceed 10C COP-1, and endorsed the document in March 1961. < / p>

    meantime changed conditions and in the GKAT. For aircraft "105" (Tu-22) was conducted to provide an improved K-10P missiles with increased range up to 300 km and a speed of the order of 2700-3000 km / h Missile to be equipped with a more powerful engine 5-KR-26 thrust 4000 kg and swept delta wing instead. Modernization has gone so far that it was decided to establish a new aviation-missile system K-22 based on the perspective of the Tu-22K. Therefore, the planned launch of a series of missile carriers Tu-22K-10 (two they should have build in 1959) refused, and with the general trend in the transition to a purely missile weapons systems, K-10 prospects did not look in the best way.

    Rescuing

    position 6 June 1958 the Council of Ministers deputy chairmen DF Ustinov VM Ryabikov, chairman GKAT PV Dement'ev and Air Force Commander Vershinin appealed to the Central Committee with a letter, which indicated available at the apparent lack of missile-carrying fleets groups with a total of 90 Tu-16KS, and the weakness of her arms. Based on this issue Tu-16K-10 was maintained until the end of 1963 factories in Kazan and Kuibyshev produced more than 200 submarines.

    Decision on deployment of serial production of C-10 was made in the period of the beginning of its tests - December 31, 1958. Issue experienced pariah missiles and fine-tuning the technology implemented by the Moscow region number 256, serial production was entrusted to the Tbilisi plant number 31. Given the test series K-10C changes undergone engine nacelle and air intake to improve the dynamic parameters of aileron deflection angles increased from 12 ° to 17 °. TsAGI proposed use shovels supersonic air intake, but did not change the design because of the weakness of the study solutions.

    cruise missile to-10c (set to 10-comet-10) A government decree on August 12, 1961 K-10 system was adopted by the Navy aviation. Given identified during testing of the system reserves the same decree instructed in the three months to submit the draft K-10 increased up to 300-350 km range, which was implemented by 1966 in a complex Tu-16K-10D missile with K-10SD. The plane was equipped with a more powerful radar detection range of up to 450 km, and an upgraded missile carried increased by 200 liters fuel capacity (due to installation of a lightweight warhead).

    parallel development of low-altitude modification K-10SN for the Tu-16K-10N. The carrier has received the modernized radar, and the system allows you to perform an attack from low altitudes 500-600m in secret mode. On the second stage, a stabilized final height was reduced from 1200 to 600 m, with a rocket on its way to the goal was just 90-150 meters above the water. Another option, uniting distant and low-altitude performance, became K-10SDV with better control and guidance, provide opportunities launches wide range of altitudes 1500-11000 m (above a lower limit of 5000 m). Missile under these systems were rework on Remzavod AVMF.

    From August 1959 on the basis of K-10 K-designed version 14 for myasischevskih 3MD aircraft, but due to the closure KB Myasishcheva prospects for this topic is left, and the work was closed six months later decision of 5 February 1960. The same fate befell the missile target K-10M, is intended for the training of naval air defense forces.

    In 1972-79 years. work was carried out to establish on the basis of K-10SN variant equipped station production of active interference. Rocket, get the serial designation K-10SP and equipped station "Azalea", intended to cover the start-up of military missiles. Aircraft equipped for use K-10SP, received the designation Tu-16K-10P, and the complex as a whole - K-10P.

    Empowering complex by increasing its missile component led to the creation of a new missile system, K-26, which included rockets DAC-2 and DAC-5. Equipment Tu-16K-10 K-26 system began in 1964. This complex had an opportunity to defeat both marine and land targets. Complex is expected to assign a code K-36, but eventually caught on "separate" the name of K-10-26. Media was strengthened wing beamed holders under KSR-5, under the terms of accommodation which limited the flap angle of 25 °.

    Missile-10-26 remained in service until the last years of the Soviet Naval Aviation. By the end of 1981 in the Naval Aviation of the USSR, there were about 200 Tu-16K-10 - about 40% of all available at the armed fleet of Tu-16. By the time the Soviet Union collapsed in the Crimea continued to serve another 38 submarines, 34 cars were still in the Northern Fleet. The final write-off of K-10 was decommissioned from the Tu-16 in 1994.

    Composition

    radio equipment missile systems located in the extremities of the fuselage: dish washer ahead of the EU-2-1 and blocks "homing station" EC-2, in the wake of "guidance stations" (ie radio command control apparatus ) EU-1 and its antenna radio channel EC1 1. Altimeter antenna EC-1-II placed at the board in the bottom of the fuselage to the wing. For watertight compartment with equipment GOS in the second compartment (from 5 to 15 frame) placed number one fuel tank with a protective cone and contact sensors for high-explosive detonation-shaped-charge warhead, installed behind the tank. Undermining high explosive shaped-charge warhead-FC-10 weighing 940 kg was produced also by signals from electro fuses located before the main fuel tank and on the wing of contact sensors. The main fuel tank is made of steel, formed a third compartment, located between 15 and 19 of the frame. The total capacity of the two tanks allows you to put 1575 liters of kerosene T-1 or TS-1.

    For

    main fuel tank were installed hardware autopilot blocks EU-3, and the accumulator piston pump 435VM. Switching the main board systems implemented by placing at the bottom of the keel junction box. Ahead of her were providing power supply onboard equipment 27V DC power supply stations EC-1 and EC-2, PO-3000A converter and power unit. Served as the primary energy source mounted on the engine starter generator GSR CT 12000 VTKU. Deviations controls carried out by the EU-steering machines 4 ailerons, stabilizer and rudder.

    rear fuselage from 29 to 32 formed a removable bulkhead fifth compartment

    By

    upper surface of the central part of the fuselage settled yoke pendants to the carrier, separable kerosene and air valves, as well as in the area of the frame, umbilical connection with telecommunications carrier RK138-4.

    cruise missile to-10c (set to 10-comet-10) Wing aircraft projectile with a sweep angle 1/4 chord 55 ° were similar to those previously applied to doodlebug COP, X-20, as well as manned aircraft I-350, MiG-19 and some others. At low maneuverability requirements for K-10C was sufficient small wing area - 7.0 m2. Wingspan was 4180 mm. Thickness profile SRH-7c did not exceed 6% - K-10C wing was one-third thinner than the MiG-19. So graceful design was able to realize without the need for placement in a wing of the chassis by not installing it in the fuel tanks. 0.73 m2 area of the ailerons deflected at an angle of ± 10 ° from the neutral position. In the absence of the flap aileron were not located near the wing tip, and approximately in the middle of its semispan that meet both the requirements of controllability over the channel bank as needed, and reduce the bending moment acting on the not too rigid wing structure. During transportation and operation wing folded.

    horizontal tail area of 0.9 m2 with a sweep of 55 ° 52 'span, 1800mm could deviate by 10 ° down and 20 ° up. The structure of the vertical tail area of 0.915 m2 with a sweep at quarter chord 56 ° 30 'was part of the rudder area of 0.26 m2, which swerved to the right and to the left at an angle of 10 °. Vertical and horizontal tail were performed in the profile NACA-M relative thickness of 6%.

    In

    gruzootseke Tu-16K-10 housed beam holder DB-238 and retraction mechanism rocket enables the transport of K-10C in the semi-flush position to reduce drag in flight, and before starting to nominate her to the start position, dropping down to 550mm . Here hung extra tank 500 kg of kerosene to fuel in-flight rocket fuel system ensures the engine from starting and heating output mode under carrier. After starting the holder cleaned and profiled doors closed compartment, when the rocket on the suspension folded inside.

    This product was used several new technologies than the previous purely "airplane." Stabilizer and fin-cast panels were made of, cast magnesium alloy CF-5 in earth forms. In a similar manner a frame of the fuselage cast strength. In airframe also used duralumin D16T, AMG-6 for the manufacture of tanks, cast alloy AL-8 and stainless steel 12H2NVFA in power and butt nodes. A number of problems caused production nose fairing - bulky items more than meter size, which at supersonic loads and high mechanical strength was to have the necessary radioprozrachny affects the characteristics of the GOS. Before such aggregates were formed from the materials with an irregular arrangement of the structure that could affect the passage of radio signals. Stability characteristics provided special design fiberglass cowl and technology of its production. Cone consisted of outer and inner "shirts", molded by vacuum on steel punches, which fills the gap between the cells of glass. The assembled unit was placed in an oven where compliance with the three-step temperature polymerized filler. Process technology, developed with the participation of VIAM not immediately given good results - hlopuny occurred, separation and deformation of the fairings, but in the end, he was brought to perfection.

    Guidance rocket carried a combined way: according to the requirements of autonomy preference for the use of active radar seeker, mounted on the rocket, but due to the limited on-board equipment and sustainable energy capture and homing were possible from a short distance (about 15-20 km). Start is required to provide a removal order of magnitude larger, and the withdrawal of the line homing missiles done using a carrier and onboard autopilot. Respectively, in control and guidance K-station 10U included airframe and installed on the rocket system, asking for guidance in command mode radar carrier signals and radar homing and board control system, perform the functions of the autopilot.

    Under the terms of reliability

    launch rocket engine, it was held on the suspension with on afterburner (which was equipped with a carrier and an additional tank). After resetting the rocket (see diagram guidance) was in program mode using the autopilot prosazhivayas down to 1000-1500 m, and then transition to horizontal flight, keeping the height according to the aneroid altimeter. With 70 seconds of flight at a safe distance from the vehicle control K-10C translated into command mode by airborne radar beam, the operator will azimuth (then "telecontrol alignment method"). Position of the missile and target, he oversaw the indicator in his cockpit, trying to keep them aligned.

    exit to the removal of 105 km from the goal of the team from the carrier rocket began to dive angle 13-18 °, and on reaching a height of 2400 m - hollow decline angle 3-8 °, occupying a height of 800-1000 m (second stable height). Hold the course of her statement continued. Through 130 seconds after the first, when the rocket was in the 15-20 km from the target, it included the GOS, exciting goal and performs up to the tracking of hits. Participation aircraft at this stage limited radar target tracking and control of the missile flight signals it defendant by the operator at the exit of the attack. Unlike "Comets", the trajectory of which was almost straight, K-10C carried out maneuvers in the horizontal and vertical plane (though not for the purpose of trouble enemy air defenses, and under the terms of stages guidance).

    PERFORMANCE

    K-10C

    To

    10SN-

    K-10SD

    span, m

    4,18

    Length, m

    9,75

    Wing area, m. m

    7,0

    span horizontal tail, m

    1,90

    Height, m

    2,27

    Diameter, m

    0,92

    Weight starting

    kg

    4500

    4530

    -

    Warhead weight, kg

    -

    825

    -

    Launch range, km

    -

    220

    325

    Height start

    km

    5-10

    1,5-11

    1,5 -11

    Maximum trajectory speed, km / h

    2030

    tests and operation

    First in Naval Aviation launches K-10 were carried out in the Caspian Severomorskie crews in July 1960. Taking off from the airfield 33rd Centre under Nikolaev pair Tu-16K-10 came on the target, and with a height of 10 000 m at a distance of 175 km crew made a colonel Myznikova start. Because pointing errors rocket did not reach the goal, falling into the sea 40 km, the crew, who was behind the attack Lieutenant Colonel Kovalev made with the removal of 170 km, achieving direct falling off the target - submerged in shallow water tanker "Chkalov". Within two weeks, performed another three attacks, one of which fell again due to operator error, and one rocket touched wave crest just 200 meters from the ship.

    combat training launches accompanied by supervision of representatives of industry - yet the system was adopted with many reservations and required surgical correction of defects. For this it was even organized a special design and technological bureau (SKTB) involving engineers MAP bureaus, research institutes and AVMF. Conducted on the basis of the 33rd Research Center showed the feasibility of detecting targets with 450 km by adjusting the frequency and length of the radar pulses. Start extended range missiles able to carry 325 km, and the lower bound airplane was 500-600 m media radar antenna scans, mechanically turning the azimuth 120 °, giving the opportunity to turn away from the goal after starting and continuing to perform maintenance. Usually carried lapel 100 seconds of the performance with a roll bend 9-12 °, dictated by the possible stabilization of the antenna. Target approach, depending on your flight mode and start height did not exceed 140-160 km (later exit from the attack at start K-10SD with maximum range able to exercise at a distance 265 km).

    In one of tactical missions in the start in 1961 the crew of Captain G. Zimin faced with an extraordinary situation, when released to the start position the missile could not manage to bring back. Nothing good landing with hanging rocket did not bode well as the normal landing angle of 8 °, great was the risk of "scour" the rocket on the ground. Nevertheless, the crew managed to successfully start the plane on landing, then indicate this is the case entered in the pilot instructions.

    in 1960-62. missile system K-10 were equipped with seven regiments of Soviet fleets: 2nd mrad Black, 5th mrad North, 25th and 143rd mrad Pacific and 57th mrad Baltic Fleet. First, exploration and combat crew training naval aviation looked impressive: for the first six months of operation in 1960 were made 79 starts in the following - 126, and in 1962 - 147 (however, the flip side is a large flow of military missiles and aircraft understudy like "Comet", saves money and expensive products for K-10 was not available).

    identify other drawback - poor training ground services to the operation of complex equipment. The first time, she was assigned to a special aviation engineering service ICU, and storage issues, engaged in repair and technical base. Getting rid of the duplication of work, the structure was reorganized and introduced the division of responsibilities all aircraft systems specialists serving IAS Regiment, and a full list of works carried out on missiles repair and technical base.

    measures allowed to reduce training time and improve the quality of art works. Confirmation was to reduce the number of failed launches the fault errors in the preparation of materiel - in 1962 their number decreased by 20%. Near the aircraft is equipped with shelter, where the dressed and equipped missiles, previously authenticated and circled in the air on "your" media. Procedure for suspension and training K-10 was reduced to 45 min., And this work was carried out entirely by the regimental technicians and crews - preparation for departure of two squadrons with 16 Tu-16K-10 fell by half time.

    managed to reduce the number of failures, although the number of claims for deficiencies and defects of the system remained palpable, causing reliability Tu-16K-10 inferior to another, simpler complexes, primarily the fault of the equipment. In 1961, almost half of the executed launches ended in failure, with about a third - the fault of the design-manufacturing flaws.

    Face to face with Soviet missile carriers combined fleet of NATO had to meet in September 1964 during a major exercise "Tim Wark-64" covering the entire North Atlantic. They participated in more than fifty ships, including two carrier battle groups. The squadron was discovered reconnaissance aircraft TU-95 Northern Fleet, and then command the 5th mrad offered to arrange response exercises with the use of aviation "for real goals", showing the example of the country's leader Americans "gruel." The Navy, however, was afraid of bringing the situation to the brink of unleashing this war, but the country's top leaders gave what was intended "good».

    Order of the Air Staff SF plan was accepted for execution. In the evening on September 21 in the air up three squadrons of Tu-16K-10 Strike Group Lieutenant Colonel KL Timakov and scouts designators and jammers, cover missile. Ship group has been found in the ocean at low altitude aircraft secretly reached the line of attack. "Missile Strike" was applied from three directions with the removal of 160-200 km, and reflect his opponent was powerless.

    On the Pacific Fleet in 1964, an incident occurred Attack K-10C Japanese ship caught in a restricted area landfill. Ship "Shino-Maru" was held near Cape ê where working out a training mission crew of the Tu-16K-10 from the 169th MRAP. Retarget the missile went right onto the new "target". Japanese lucky - the fuse was set to undermine the path to save on the target and the explosion took place 400 meters from the side. Debris damaged the superstructure, and the rocket engine broke out in the ship through. Among the crew were wounded, forcing the Japanese to head to the nearest Soviet Kholmsk for medical care and repair. The incident was hushed up, and the Japanese side believed that the ship hit a Soviet fighter plane crashed, and expressed sympathy for the dead pilots.

    During major strategic exercises "Ocean", held in April 1970 and covers all the fleets and waters North Sea Tu-16K completed 6 rockets at the landfill redeployed to strengthen them with 10 submarines of the Pacific Fleet attacked April 20 missiles at targets Kola Peninsula. As part of the nine Tu-16K-10 Pacific 143rd mrad, with the support of five tanker aircraft performed tactical attacks in the Sea of Japan, using as a target group of NATO ships and the United States.

    Tu-16K-10 aircraft of the Baltic Fleet took off when catching rebellious TFR "Watchdog" in the October holidays 1975 left the base and head to the Irbe Strait. It was assumed that he wants to go abroad, and this attempt to suppress November 8 and 9 were alerted all naval and air forces. Rocket attack near a busy shipping, fortunately, did not take place - Tu-16 found the goal when the ship had been bombed and stalled the car, but they followed him on the way back to base.

    With the organization of the Soviet navy base in Vietnam's Cam Ranh port there placed 169th Guards. SAP, which included, in addition to reconnaissance and anti-submarine aircraft designators, at the forefront was a squadron of Tu-16K-10-26. Service here they carried from 1982 to 1989.





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