Cruise missile KSR-2 (complex K-16)




    management system:

    Radar GOS


    spetsboepripasov, Blast-cumulative


    anti, anti-radar, air-to-ground




    220 km.

    year development:


    cruise missile KSR-2 (a complex for-16) KSR-2 (product 085) - airborne cruise missile complex K-16, was developed as a replacement for anti-ship missiles COP -1 "Comet". Intended to defeat radar-contrast targets such as sea cruiser displacement of at least 10 tons, as well as ground - railway bridges, dams, etc.

    missile was developed in OKB-155-1 under the direction of J. Bereznyak. Liquid rocket engine developed by KB-300 AM Isaev Management System "Rubicon" - OKB-238. Experimental production of missiles at the factory number 256 in Dubna, mass production - in the Smolensk plant number 292.

    flight tests as part of K-16 began in 1958, for which the Tupolev OKB-256 reequipped two Tu-16, equipping them with a system "Rubicon". In trials with the Tu-11 was launched 16KSR shells at a range of 100km. Six rounds were fired at the ships-Target (tankers "Japaridze" and "Chkalov"), and others - on ground targets designated corner reflectors. Of 6 starts on the ships at a distance of 90-96 km were 4 direct hits, one miss and one start is not credited due to failure of guidance station.

    Tests showed that installed on the aircraft carrier radar guidance K-PM provides at work on ground targets at a height of 4 - 10km detection range of up to 200km and stable tracking of targets at a distance of 160-180km. Reset the target with automatic tracking occurs at a distance of 13-15km. When working on sea targets detection range and taking on autofollow depended on many factors, including the type of vehicle and the direction of call. Thus, at an altitude of Tu-five kilometers 16KSR detection range tankers "Japaridze" and "Chkalov" was 140-160km, and their range of sustainable support 120-160km. Seemed tests went well, but when switched to launching missiles at a range of 130-150km, they all failed. The reason - the failures of airborne guidance system showed up and unreliable fuel supply LRE missiles at long negative normal loads. After completing the tests in accordance with Resolution CM CCCR N 998-435 August 22, 1959 , OKB-286 rocket KSR-2 has been designed with an improved seeker antenna increased size - diameter fairing radiotransparent increased almost to the midsection of the rocket.

    Part KSR-2 rocket began to arrive in February 1963 Total for these missiles went 4 aviation regiment. First practical launches carried crews 33rd Training Center from October 25 to November 23, 1962

    parallel with the development of rocket parts were working to reduce the height of the missile launch. It turned out that it can be run from a height of 2 km. April 22, 1968 an order was issued to the Minister of Defense of the USSR revision KSR-2 missiles to enable it starts from a height of 0.5 to 10 km. Modified missiles received index DAC-2M.

    According to Resolution N 684 of 19 June 1959 based on the KSR-2 rocket was created missile target ASO-2 is designed for testing of air defense systems.

    To defeat the radiating ground and sea targets based on the KSR-2 has developed the world's first anti-radiation missile DAC-11 (CEB-2P). Work on the rocket began in thresholds and USSR CM Resolution of 20 July 1957. MAP and the Order of 31 July 1957. DAC-11 was put into service in the complex K-11 (see photo) April 13, 1962. Serial production was organized at the factory number 292 in Smolensk. High degree of commonality missiles DAC-2 and DAC-11 allowed in the future to create a single set of Tu-16K-11-16.

    Bearers KSR-2 missiles were converted and modified missile Tu-16KS (50 vehicles) and Tu-16A (155 cars). Modified bomber Tu-received index 16KSR-2. Were subsequently modified by DAC-2 and close on design DAC-11 has 156 bombers and missile carriers COP-1 (Tu-16KS), rescuers Tu-16s (in the Tu-16K-11-16). Total complexes under K-11 and K-16 revision was 441 aircraft, of which 211 were on duty in the long-range aviation and 230 - in the Sea.

    Missile Tu-16K-16 had a number of serious shortcomings. He was exposed to electronic jamming, the range of application is strongly dependent on weather conditions, sea state, flight speed was relatively small. Nevertheless, KSR-2 rocket fairly steadily onto targets as well as each missile could tuned to its frequency, it is allowed to use up to 20 rockets in a salvo without interference. Question equipment TU-16 more effective missiles was resolved at the end of 1969 with the adoption by the complex K-26 missiles with DAC -5.

    According to NATO classification

    rocket KSR-2 was designated AS-5 Kelt.


    cruise missile KSR-2 (a complex for-16)


    aerodynamic configuration DAC-2 - mid-wing monoplane and feathers (see diagram). Glider rocket consists of an all-metal fuselage, wing and tail. Wing with a sweep of 55 ° evolved during storage and transport missiles (see photo). The main material in the structure are aluminum alloys, steel and duralumin, and plastics.

    active radar homing type KS-2M, had a range up to 160km capture target (see layout scheme). Nasal radioprozrachny fairing is made of two layers of glass with honeycomb fiberglass filler. For compartment is a compartment ARLGSN warhead (BC), which can be fixed in nuclear or high-explosive warhead-cumulative FK-2. The latter had 681kg of explosives at a total weight of 840kg and punched 300mm naval armor. To destroy ground targets intended warhead FC-2H - Blast from the active shell.


    warhead compartment located: oxidizer tank capacity 990l (1570kg) and fuel tank at 630l (530kg). As the fuel composition used TG-02, AK-oxidant 20I - nitrogen tetraoxide solution in concentrated nitric acid. Fuel is fed to the dual-mode LRE S2.721V (later S5.6.000) turbopump assembly. LRE has two modes of operation - starting with traction 1215kgs and marching with traction 710kgs. Starting engine cutaway at the projectile at all altitudes starting from 4 to 10km and carrier speed 400 - 500km / h

    between tanks and the engine compartment is equipment with pneumatic autopilot AP-72-4, ampoule silver-zinc battery (rated for 500c work) blocks electrical equipment and air tanks.

    range missile launch DAC-2 was 160-170km (see diagram guidance). The purpose was taken on autofollow 20-30km to the point of a missile launch. In contrast to the "Comet", the purpose of taking on board radar tracking of missiles, not aircraft. In this case it was possible to send both missiles at a single target or choose to each his goal. Uncoupling missiles took place alternately. Through 7c after uncoupling the engine run and started overclocking. Drawdown missiles after separation from the aircraft was 600-1200m, depending on altitude and airspeed. Through 40c after uncoupling mechanism time gave a command to connect to the autopilot radar homing missiles KS-11M, and the engine is translated into marching mode. At this point, the speed of the rocket reached 1,250 km / h With the approaching missile to the target at a distance of 15km station K-11M issue commands to razarretirovanie gyroscopes, and control of a rocket carried already given target speed. This command is used to unlock the locking device antenna, and after its optical axis coincides with the longitudinal axis of the missile back stoppers. In this mode, the K-11M station operated until the end of the rocket. When the goal remained 450m station KS-11M has issued a trip command radio, and the rocket continued to fly, saving the last position for a further 1.2-1.6s, and then proceeds to dive.


    upgraded missile-DAC is designed for low-altitude 2M starts. DAC-2M was equipped with a new dual-mode S5.6.0000.0 LRE (see photo) development KBHM them. AM Isaev. Cruise missiles reduced the drawdown after the cutaway to 150-200 m LRE rocket after launch smoothly gaining altitude over the aircraft carrier height 500-800 m, then going on a sloping path controlled by the GOS, with the practical launch range does not exceed 70-80 km.

    DAC-11 (item 086)

    For DAC-11 missile was developed new autonomous guidance system with passive radar homing (PARGSN). As PARGSN DAC-11 used a passive radar target coordinator 2PRG-10 with a range of target detection - up to 350 km. ; Structurally DAC-11 differed from the prototype design of the fence of the tanks, the inner frame of the fuselage. To organize media on DAC-11 was equipped with additional nodes suspension and carrier beamed holders DB-352. Missile launch was carried out at a range of 160-170 km. Radius the Tu-16K-11 with one missile was 2,000 km, the probability of hitting the target - 0.8-0.9.

    guided missiles (see diagram) was carried out in a combined way - enemy radar station detected airborne reconnaissance purposes "Rica". "Rica" is detected as a surveillance radar air defense systems at distances of 300-350km, so station and the gun aiming at a distance of up to 270km. Station determines the range, azimuth, frequency radiation, frequency and duration of pulses. PARGSN rocket was tuned to the frequency of emission targets and took her to the auto tracking. After uncoupling rocket flight took place in the passive mode of the autopilot, with 40th seconds included in the work PARGSN performs guidance on the course. Apart from the usual path was possible mode when LRE worked until the 60th second in the starting mode and rocket climb. An angular mismatch target of 25 ° rocket passed into a dive on a target with homing the rate and pitch. Upon termination of radar target seeker kept flight direction for 25 seconds. The disadvantage of DAC-11 was a limited range of frequencies PARGSN her because of what was excluded for a variety of applications rocket ship radars.

    In sea

    theater missile DAC-11 was planned to be used in conjunction with DAC-2.


    Length, m


    Diameter, m


    span, m


    rocket height, m





    Spec. 1 Mm fugas. Kumm-FC-2 bomb. to act. obolos. FC-2H

    warhead weight, kg


    guidance system


    height, km


    firing range, km

    170-220 (70-150)

    Altitude, km

    Up to 9 (1,5-10)

    flight speed, km / h

    1250 (0.9 M - 1.2 M)


    LRE S2.72





    Type IP


    aircraft carrier

    Tu-16K-11-16, Tu-16K-26, Tu-16K-26P, Tu-16KSR-2-5

    tests and operation

    complex Tu-16K-16 combat use was during the Arab-Israeli war in October 1973 bombers Tu-16K-11-16 36th Squadron 403rd Bomber Brigade General Mohammed Osman El Gendy Egyptian Air Force issued a total of 25 missiles DAC-2 and DAC-11, of which twenty (according to Israeli data) were shot down by fighters and only five hit targets - two radar stations and supply depot. It should be noted that the export DAC-2 can operate only at one frequency. The fighting was lost one bomber Tu-16K-11-16.


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