| automatic grenade Taubina |
In the early 1930s in the Soviet Union arms designer tackled the complex problem such as increasing the firepower of the infantry, it was possible not only due to the wide use of this type of automatic weapons like machine guns, but also by creating a fundamentally a new type of firearm - automatic grenade launcher.
In late August 1931 the Odessa Institute of Technology student of grain and flour - Yakov Taubin grenade sent its draft, the gunman regular 40.8-mm grenades Dyakonova in Artillery Administration of the Red Army, where he caught the eye of deputy commissar of defense armament Tukhachevsky . Famous corps commander was seriously interested in the project.
After months of controversy and bureaucratic Taubin proposed the creation of a prototype rocket-propelled grenade at the Kovrov arms factory NIH-2. Taubin quit college and went into the carpet. In the carpet on taubinskim drawings were produced the first two sample grenade: one with a vertical supply of grenades, the other - with the horizontal.
In 1934 a group of enthusiasts, working under the guidance Taubina was created independent Taubina KB (CBT), in 1937 renamed the OKB-16, the People's Commissariat of Defense Industry. In the same year, CBT moved to Moscow, to the end of the year his team, has 50 employees, has focused exclusively on developing a grenade launcher. Under the leadership of Taubina started designing automatic grenade launcher.
first experimental model grenade Taubina sample in 1935 worked on the principle of recoil speed. This model was first used magazine-loading of the cage for 5 rounds, improve practical rate. Taubina for automatic grenade launcher was created a new ammo - 40.8 mm unitary shot with frag grenade and flangeless sleeve. However, its small powder charge did not provide reliable operation automation weapons, so had to completely redesign the Taubin grenade.
(Clearly visible mechanism to store five grenades)
To increase the reliability of weapons in 1936 introduced a new scheme of automation, which worked through the barrel recoil energy in the course of his long.
rate of 40.8-mm grenade launcher is limited by design shop and did not exceed 50-60 rounds per minute. But Yakov developed and tape option under power with a rate of fire of 440-460 rounds per minute. Due to the small charge of a unitary cartridge heating trunk and its wear when shooting were small, and such a pace can be maintained until the end tape with grenades. On the other hand, charge enough to ensure the effective range of 1200 m
Tests 40.8-mm grenade launcher conducted continuously since 1933. Almost every year there were all new models, and even small series. Thus, only in 1937, the OKB-16 manufactured for military trials 12 grenade launchers, and Kovrov plant NIH-2 - 24 more. In late 1937, 40.8-mm grenade launcher Taubina passed military tests simultaneously in three infantry divisions. Reviews everywhere were generally positive, practical rate increased to 100 rounds per minute (oboymennym power).
In November 1938, the 40.8-mm grenade launcher was tested on a small armored launch of "D" Dnieper Flotilla. The grenade launcher was mounted on a pedestal from a machine gun ShVAK. Shots were fired as the anchor, and on the go. Also, Jacob Taubina grenade was tested in parts of the NKVD and the Far East, where he also received positive reviews.
Tests automatic grenade launcher Taubina
the end of 1938 completed work on the construction of a grenade launcher. Its automatic worked satisfactorily shot was also fully worked out. Tactical possibilities automatic grenade launcher Taubina Bergoltseva-AG-2 were identified on long polygon, then military trials, which were held in January 1940, on the Karelian front during the Russo-Finnish War IPA staff Nudelman and Isakov.
During tests revealed along with the high efficiency of the new weapons, and also numerous design flaws: low survivability of its individual parts; numerous delays during the shooting that occurred through the fault of automation in difficult operating conditions. Identified in the fighting disadvantages of weapons considered in future work. Thus, for reliable automation of specific enough weapons required to develop the new lubricant, do not freeze at low temperatures, brake fluid for recoil devices, improve grades and thermal treatment arms loaded parts.
Partial disassembly grenade body
Along with checking the combat capabilities of the grenade launcher AG-2 on the battlefield, an analysis of its production and economic indicators, which also revealed a high cost and complexity of manufacturing weapons due to its widespread use in the construction of special grades of steel, handling many details on the machine metalworking equipment.
As a result of persistent work of the staff of CBT over the complex "ammunition - grenade - Scope - Machine" automatic grenade Taubina-Bergoltseva-Baburina was created. On the new one grenade launcher AG-2 model 1938 working group of engineering Taubina J., M. Bergoltseva, M. Baburin Rashkova S., A. Nudelman and P. Gribkova.
second model automatic grenade launcher AG-2 worked on the principle of efficiency in the long course of the trunk with locking piston bore gate. Now, even with a small automatic expelling powder charge to work reliably. Food ammunition was carried out five-shot magazine, is inserted into the receiver on top of the receiver.
body grenade launcher designed YG Taubin, M. and M. E. Bergoltsev Baburin. It consists of a barrel with a removable cover, shutter, back-and fore-end of the mainspring.
Shutter grenade Taubina
shutter consists of two parts: the stem and core. Shutter on the skeleton are three ejector (because of large caliber) and wedge inside passes drummer. Stem shutter combined with a rod for reciprocating the mainspring.
40.8-mm grenade launcher was completed uncomfortable when transporting tripod machine. In 1936, Nudelman and fungal created infantry wheeled machine, similar in design to the machine gun Maxim legendary. However, the weight remained transcendent for the infantryman - 73 kg. After the modernization of the machine and its weight was reduced to 45.5 kg, and by 1939 the total weight grenade brought to acceptable 38 kg. And the weight loss did not impair his gun firepower. Grenade easily understood and tolerated by hand on the battlefield, and in the winter setup put on skis.
grenade consisted of two people.
View grenade left with the shutter cocked.
Through the open window of the receiver was invested first shot
With the loading arms. Visible below the shutter cocking lever.
automatic grenade launcher AG-2 was originally planned to be used for weapons ground forces in order to gain the tactical level fire platoon - company. For many tasks infantry divisions had similar armed with rocket launchers, could at ranges up to 2 - 3.5 km dispense almost entirely on their own without the involvement of battalion and regimental artillery.
In addition, in 1935 J. Taubin planned to increase maneuverability of these weapons, grenade setting an army motorcycle. In 1937, CBT was developed an experimental model of a motorcycle with two symmetrically arranged wheelchairs, one of which was mounted grenade launcher. But this idea was not realized until the end.
also OKB-16 developed for the Air Force and manufactured aircraft under option grenade belt feed 15 - 20 shots. Two aircraft automatic grenade launchers were mounted in the wing of the aircraft installations. But after the flight test work on them were terminated.
Already the results
military trials end of 1937 grenade should adopt the Red Army. All deficiencies noted were not serious and are removable. However Taubin "crossed the road" "mortar man." They believed that the grenade Taubina questioned the continuation of the 50-mm mortar company commander, and possibly 60-mm and 82-mm mortars. "Mortars" made from Artupravleniya fantastic foolishly solutions - testing 40.8-mm grenade launcher with 50-mm mortar, and mortar fire on the program.
In February 1939 were conducted comparative field tests grenade Taubina Bergoltseva-AG-2 and mortar "Wasp" B. Shavyrina in the presence of the USSR People's Commissar of Defense Kliment Voroshilov and a large group of officers of the Red Army. Grenade and mortar worked fine. Although the grenade could not compete with the results of mortar mounted shooting, especially at small distances, but surpasses it in rate of fire and accuracy of aimed fire at all ranges. Naturally, the mortar could not drive trajectory competitors, and it was not in the program, and a grenade launcher could effectively lead as grazing and mounted shooting. But at the maximum angle of elevation accuracy of firing 50-mm mortar was slightly better. Besides mortar was much easier and cheaper grenade. The test result was the adoption of service in the same year, 50-mm mortar company commander model 1938. "Mortars" won - 50 mm mortar was put into mass production. But at the very beginning of World War II 50-mm mortar showed himself sufficiently effective weapon and was taken out of production and weapons.
| Caliber, mm || 40,8 |
| grenades Weight, kg || 0,59 |
| greatest range |
| 1250 |
| rds / min || 436 |
| Practical rate, |
Rds / min
| 57 |
< / table>
| Weight in firing position, kg || 45,5 |
should be noted that the cost of grenade was relatively large, because its semi-artisan produced by the OKB-16, but after the launch of a grenade launcher in mass production, it had to fall several times. Naturally, with the "childhood diseases" grenade-type receiver weakness springs, extractor and ejector during the production would be over. Since the Soviet Union ever most weapons systems.
Also Marshal G. Kulik, as Deputy Commissar of Defense who oversaw the direction of new developments artillery and small arms was against adopting a grenade. Kulik's stubborn unwillingness to adopt automatic grenade launcher AG-2 and open hostility to its constructor eventually led to a complete cessation of work on the new weapon, arrest and execution in 1941 of the Taubina accused of wrecking and sabotage.
Weapons of this type were created only thirty years later, but a qualitatively different level. The automatic grenade launcher Taubina-Bergoltseva had a major impact on the further development of infantry weapons, and not only in Russia.