development strategy and tactics during the Second World War put to Yugoslavia in 1945 to the establishment of an effective anti melee weapons. Due to the lack of armor and antitank Department of National Defence (MHO) Yugoslavia turned its attention to the German experience with tanks in the period from 1942 to 1945. His study showed that to effectively combat armored vehicles requires satiate their infantry cheap and effective anti-tank weapons. As such, considered hand antitank grenade launchers, which in principle to refer to the dynamo-jet weapons and shooting of which is being nadkalibernymi cumulative grenades. As a prototype for the first Yugoslav RPG considered famous German antitank grenade Faustpatrone and Panzerfaust.
As part of the new concept of the first anti-struggle "Plan military shipbuilding industry and for the period from 1947 to 1951" envisages-valos and production of a new hand grenade.
Issue of new weapons planned to organize Kragujevac arms factory "Crvena Zastava". But since there is also going to start the assembly of small arms for the Yugoslav Army, all these plans proved difficult to implement. It was supposed that in 1947-1948. prototypes will be made RPG, and in 1949 will already begin production. The plan provided for the supply of the troops in 1949 - 100000 grenade launchers, and in 1950 and 1951. 150000 for instance.
"Crvena Zastava", the "Institute of number 11" and in the Department of Armament "Military-Technical Institute" (VTI), which was entrusted with the development and production of RPG, as it turned out, not even specialists able to undertake development this type of weapon. Therefore, the production of RB (Human batsach - so called Serbian grenade launcher) was transferred to the "Military-Technical Plant" in Valjevo, where they were well-trained engineering staff and there was a mine production, detonators and hand grenades.
headed the development team got a new grenade launcher chief Anton Meshichek Design Bureau, which in 1946 began work on a hand grenade and anti-cumulative ammunition based on the German Panzerfaust.
main challenge for the designers was to create a reusable rocket-propelled grenade (Panzerfaust was a one-off), with a high rate of fire, large sighting range and armor penetration increased cumulative grenades.
First designers started designing nadkalibernoy cumulative grenades flexible plumage. Mine consisted of a composite body with bursting charge and cumulative funnel and hvosotovoy part of a detonating device, fuse and tail. The tail part of the mines was a wooden rod, to which were attached four thin steel plate (tail). Designing bomb dubbed Srno, was completed Buklishem engineer in September 1948. Length was 552.5 mm grenade caliber warhead cumulative grenades - 76.2 mm diameter wooden rod - 43,7 mm. The final element of the cumulative ammunition designed by designers, became the fuse K-301 that is based on fuse TK-12. His drawings were signed in July 1949.
Principle of operation fuse K-301
Meshichek grenades started to create antitank grenade launcher.
Grenade Meshicheka was a smooth-extruded steel tube (barrel) 44 mm caliber.
The barrel is fastened
trigger mechanism with safety shutter mechanism and Boikova: receiver with the sliding bolt and trigger small-bore rifle, pistol grip with wooden cheeks magazine case and magazine catch which has been taken between the grip and trigger guard, and Single row detachable box magazine capacity of six blank cartridges rimfire caliber 5.6 mm (almost the primer). The chamber was connected to the pipe bare hole. From hitting drummer tripped the shutter blank cartridge, through the bare hole burned through it and ignited the cardboard core gunpowder propellant charge. Fuse looks like a cylindrical rod, which is assigned to the right and left descent blocks.
USM fuse descent RRB M49
Old and new type
grenade equipped with a telescopic sight allows to deliver aimed fire at distances up to 200 m, a simple mechanical sight and shoulder rest, which joined to the trunk with steel rings.
had kind cardboard sleeve, finishing with one hand rubber gasket. Inside was a smoky gunpowder charge of 420 gr. and sand located between cardboard partitions (resistance increased pressure gas sand). Penetration cumulative grenades was 100 mm (shot arr. 1949) and 240 mm (later shots arr. 1950 and 1951.).
while competing project and antitank rocket launcher. It shot was carried out using the primer, which were located in a single-row removable store into three capsule, located at the rear edge of the receiver. However, the commission chose the General Staff of the JNA antitank grenade launcher system Meshichka, the designation M49 RRB (Human Reaktivan Batsach M49 - handmade rocket launcher of 1949).
Issue RRB grenade M49 has been launched at the enterprise "Crvena Zastava" in Kragujevac, and cumulative release of grenades - the company "Krusik" in Valjevo. Prototype and several sham RRB M49 were made for the military parade May 1, 1948 In 1949, Kragujevac gunsmiths produced 232 hand-held antitank grenade launcher.
However in 1949 identified a number of shortcomings RRB M49, which include expensive and complicated production, shooting inaccuracy, delay, and small initial velocity grenades.
Anton Meshichek finalized grenade, thereby succeeded in simplifying the mass production of these weapons. So attached to the barrel swivel to attach the shoulder strap, simple mechanical sight and shoulder rest attached to the barrel steel welding (without rings), changed the shape of the handle and the head of the handle guard, improved optical sight (in the plane of the objective set sights threads 0 to 20, that facilitate zeroing and gave the opportunity to quickly make adjustments for wind).
| Caliber, mm || 44/76 |
| Length mm || 970 |
| Weight || 6.200 |
| Combat rate, |
Rds / min
| 3 |
| Muzzle velocity |
Grenades, m / s
| 87 |
| Maximum range |
| 600 |
| Effective range |
| 200 |
| Penetration, mm || 100 (1949) |
240 (1950, 1951)
In addition, the company "Krusik" was developed by another single-shot design of the trigger: trigger with pistol grip, rotating in a vertical plane down to 90 ° - thus, leaf mainspring with a hammer on the end automatically put on combat Platoon. Gear chamber the primer produced one primer. But this option was not adopted because it was worse than the design proposed Meshichekom.
A number of shortcomings had
and M49 grenade RRB: small penetration (less than the German Panzerfaust), a high probability of ricocheting, Fuse K-301 did not work, if the grenade met the target surface with a large angle. Therefore constructors "Krusik" May 23, 1949 began the construction of "Mines RRB Group B", with the rod stabilizer silumin - alloy of aluminum and silicon (4-22% Si, 96-78% AI). And in February 1950, work was completed on a new fuse - K-302. Improved mine went into production under the code RRB M50 (with the old fuse K-301) and RRB M51 (with fuse K-302 and the bursting charge of 610 g of TNT, RDX).
Another problem was the production of flexible metal folding wings tail, cumulative funnel casing and fairing. Since the Kragujevac factory valevskaya and did not have time to master their production they were made at the enterprise "EMO" in Celje (Slovenia).
«Crvena Zastava company" continued mass production of improved M49 grenade RRB. In 1950, the army was put 6625 of these weapons, in 1951 - 3437, and in 1952 - only 20 hand grenade. That's when it became apparent that most of the flaws has not been remedied, in addition to portable anti developed new very stringent operational requirements. The only solution in this situation was the creation of an entirely new RPG.
In the first half of 1950, work began on a new anti-tank grenade, causing RRB model M49 in 1957 was replaced by a new RB M57 grenade launcher.
Dining antitank grenade RRB M49