Intercontinental ballistic missile LGM-118A Peacekeeper - MX



    Mine PU, PU Railway

    management system:

    management software








    9600 km.

    year development:


    intercontinental ballistic missile lgm-118a peacekeeper - mx In 1972, a special government commission was engaged in research development prospects of the strategic nuclear forces of the United States until the late 20th century. According to the results of its work the administration of President Richard Nixon issued a specification for development of promising ICBM capable of carrying multiple warheads with ten warheads. Research on the development of a new ICBM program began in February 1972, and in April Headquarters U.S. Air Force awarded the new missile preliminary designation MX (Missile eXperimental) and designate an organization to develop a Space and Missile Systems SAMSO ("Space and Missile Systems Organization") responsible for the program. The new missile was to surpass the predecessor ("Minuteman-III") in terms of accuracy, the number of warheads (BB), their effectiveness, size of the area breeding BB PFYAV resistance, etc. The new missile was meant primarily for the destruction of highly purposes - missile silos and command bunkers protected when applied pre-emptive strike. Greater accuracy and payload made it really effective; missile survivability expected to increase due to the mobile home. As mobile options were considered based aviation, ground, rail and other options (at different times seen up to 40 different options based, including the most exotic). For example, in October 1974 was conducted experimental launch of an ICBM "Minuteman-IB", dropped from a military transport aircraft C-5A "Galaxy". The first stage of an ICBM contained fuel charge for semisekundnogo flight. Experiments have confirmed the potential of mobile-based aviation option.

    In early 1976, the program moved from MX conceptualization to production of experimental samples. In July of the same year, the U.S. Congress has blocked funding for the elaboration of a stationary silo-based and aircraft types, and suggested that other accommodation options new ICBMs. As an alternative accommodation option MX ICBM on a platform that moves in a specially prepared trench and secure accommodation in a mobile system of protective shelters MPS ( "Mobile Protective Shelters" ). Under the concept of MPS, to accommodate 200 ICBMs supposed to create 4,600 shelters launch pads for horizontal placement of missiles scattered around the circumference of a large diameter. The rocket was secretly moved from cover to cover at random. Level of protection shelters had to be such as to allow disabling only one shelter one attacking enemy warhead. When receiving a signal to start the roof cover is separated, and the rocket, rising in a vertical position with the help of special jacks started. In April-May 1978 as the main contractor for the development of MX ICBM was chosen corporation "Martin Marietta", and corporations "Thiokol", "Aerojet", "Hercules" and "Rocketdyne" awarded contracts for the development of 1 - st, 2 nd, 3 rd stages and stage of breeding, respectively. Warheads developed company AVCO, warhead - "Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory", and the full integration of the combat equipment was also involved in the company AVCO. Development of inertial control system involved in the company "Rockwell Autonetics", and OBC - "Hewlett-Packard". In June 1979, began full-scale engineering study of MX missiles with main bases in accordance with the concept of MPS. However, in the course of the work it became clear that the selected view based not only require large financial costs ($ 37 billion), but also a huge amount of alienated land. In October 1981, President Reagan's decision in this direction have been discontinued.

    Despite this, the completion of missile systems continued - by the end of 1981 were tested for ground stands all three propulsion stages and stage of breeding, in flights at the IDB "Minuteman-III" were tested warheads, missile defense and PCB components inertial management. In 1973-1986, the city landfill in Nevada nuclear explosions carried out 14 test program warhead and missile systems for resistance to PFYAV. In January 1982, was first conducted research "mortar" launch model rockets on a special stand polygon "Nevada Test Site".

    In November 1982, developed by Rocket received a new designation - LGM-118A "Peacekeeper". At the same time began to work on a new version based, so-called. "Dense pack" - CSB ( "Closely Spaced Basing" , she's "Dense Pack" ). In accordance with this concept was to build sverhukreplennyh mines (calculated on the excess pressure in the shock front of more than 700 kgf/cm2) just 550 meters from each other. The idea of mutual-attacking enemy warheads and abatement shock waves of nuclear explosions that would survive the main part of the silo and make a return run. However, it quickly became clear that the concept of CSB based on extremely dubious assumptions.

    To solve the problem based ICBMs LGM-118A was established a special government commission headed by General Scowcroft. Commission verdict was announced in April 1983, which stated that due to the deactivation of heavy ICBM "Titan-II" urgently needed "to demonstrate national will" deploy ICBMs 100 LGM-118A "Peacekeeper" in existing mines, missiles " Minuteman-III ", and begin to develop an easy-piece solid-fuel ICBM mobile home (later dubbed" Midgetman "). This solution allows you to quickly deploy new ICBM at relatively low financial cost and has been approved by the Reagan administration. For the missiles were selected 400 th and 319 th strategic missile squadron of the 90th Strategic Missile Wing, located at FE Warren AFB (Piece Wyoming). This option would not allow placement of ICBMs LGM-118A with the standard load (10 BB + PCB ABM) hit the southern Soviet missile grouping heavy ICBMs. In August 1983, U.S. Defense authorized the initiation of work on the deployment of missiles as part of the 90th Strategic Missile Wing. The first rockets were to begin to act in part in January 1986, and achieve a state of readiness in December of the same year. Willingness entire group was to be achieved by December 1989.

    Tests ICBM LGM-118A was decided to be held in two stages, in six starts in each. Tests were carried out in the West test site (Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif.). The first stage of the six test launches were made in 1983-1984, the launches were carried out in a special area set launch canister. In February 1984, the serial production of missiles. The second phase of testing began in 1985. and ended in 1986. The first two launches second phase of the ground also held PC, the next - from a refitted ICBM silos "Minuteman-III".

    In July 1985, the program waited for a new trial - Congress limited the deployment of the 50th instances. Another 50 were to be deployed after is brought to life by a new plan based, providing increased survival. Thus, it was decided that the first stage of the rocket will be deployed on the basis of only the 400th strategic missile squadron. The first rockets "Minuteman-III" removed from the mines began in January 1986. SAC Air Force received the first four to deploy missiles in October 1986.

    In December of the same year, U.S. President Reagan unveiled a plan to organize the remaining 50 missiles. The plan is called "Peacekeeper Rail Garrison" and involves the deployment of 25 rail systems, each of which was to stay for 2 missile LGM-118A.

    In December 1986 SAC USAF announced that the first flight of 10 missiles LGM-118A achieved initial state of readiness. However, during the flight tests was recorded unsatisfactory performance gyro-stabilized platform inertial control rocket. It was decided to hold the third phase of the test (also from six starts). Launches were combined with partionnymi tests and began in 1986. Technical problems with the control system were eliminated, but the department "Electronics Division" corporation "Northrop" (swallowed company "Rockwell Autonetics") was not big enough to deliver super complex (about 20,000 pieces only gyro-stabilized platform) system in sufficient quantities. As a result, in July 1987 of 20 missiles, standing in the mines, and a third had no fixed system of governance. By January 1988 the problems were solved and all the missiles got control system, on duty 30 rockets were already standing.

    In February 1987, the Air Force issued a list of ten airbases - candidates for the deployment of the "Peacekeeper Rail Garrison". At the preliminary design of the project has been allocated by Congress $ 350 million. From January to June 1988 was carried out three tests with the conclusion of the pilot train to various portions of the United States railroads. In May 1988, the U.S. Defense Department has authorized the deployment of a full-scale work on the program. In 1987, after five successful launches on the third test program it was decided to temporarily "brake" it - for the Air Force was in the account every rocket fired. In March 1989, was completed last test launch and announced the system reaches full alert. In April of the same year the new President George HW Bush announced that the number of simultaneously deployed missiles Peacekeeper not exceed the number of 50 - already deployed missiles will be removed from the mine and placed on trains. It was a tribute not only "warming between East and West", but also the emergence of armed Soviet Strategic Rocket Forces newest missiles - R-36M2 "Governor", the RT-23 UTTH "Good" and RT-2PM "Topol" capable of hitting KP and ICBM silos "Peacekeeper". In September of the same year, CAA Air Force started combat training launches new missile, and in November, the Air Force announced airbase selected for placement of missile trains - Barksdale (LA), Little Rock (AR), Grand Forks (North Dakota), Dayess (Texas ) Vurtsmis (MI) and Fairchild (Washington). FE Warren base was supposed to be the main technical base program. The first train was to embark on combat duty in December 1992. During the development of the railway complex combat (BZHRK) Americans are faced with a number of technical and organizational problems, but then suddenly they helped the Soviet leadership by agreeing to the signing in July 1991, an agreement on the reduction of offensive weapons START-1, according to which the number of gutted Soviet heavy ICBMs, and already deployed Soviet BZHRK stopped combat duty on the highways of the country, rising to duty stationary bases. After that, the promising U.S. strategic missile systems ("Peacekeeper Rail Garrison" and "Midgetman") dramatically slowed down, and in January 1992, both programs were closed permanently.

    intercontinental ballistic missile lgm-118a peacekeeper - mx

    In the development of the American BZHRK should be further noted. According to foreign sources, the prototype was tested on BZHRK railway range U.S. and Western missile range (Vandenberg Air Force Base, California) until July 1991. Possible appearance of American BZHRK included: one or two types of locomotives, two car launchers with rockets "MX", wagon (command post) with means command and control, car power supply system, two carriages for personnel and security cars. Weight and dimensions rocket launcher allowed to develop the car adapted to the U.S. rail network. Its length is almost 30 m, weight - about 180 tons. Lifting the container with a missile in position to start to implement special lifting mechanism.

    In early 1991, the military and political leadership of the United States suddenly announced that comprehensive tests BZHRK successfully completed. At the same time, however, listed a range of issues identified. In particular, it was noted that the relative underdevelopment of the U.S. rail network does not provide a high stealth and survivability BZHRK. Drawing attention to their vulnerability and lack of physical protection from ground and air attacks probable enemy sabotage and reconnaissance operations and terrorist groups. Significant costs required to strengthen the construction of railways and various infrastructures. Identify the negative attitude of the population to move nuclear missiles on the territory of the state and to potential threats of environmental damage. In the interest of strengthening the regime of secrecy was considered impossible to use civilian experts. Nevertheless, in the course of negotiations the Americans apparently persuaded the Soviet side that created a significant technological advance for the deployment BZHRK. But the analysis of information materials in those years suggests that the production of even a prototype American BZHRK and its full-scale tests were far from complete. So, the only test launch of the train launcher for technical reasons did not take place and was replaced by throwing test. In connection with this solution is not visible outlet jet from the starting of the car at a rocket propulsion engine startup after ejection from the container. Noted that the missile "MX" was developed to mine option-based completions and has not been rocket engines of inclination after the start had. This could cause a fire and damaging the car and start the train track section. Determination of the composition, appearance and requirements for permanent basing facilities BZHRK points and rail infrastructure was stopped at the stage of conceptual design. Dining dispersal and combat patrol using BZHRK experienced on a real rail network has not been produced. Failed to create a precision navigation support system BZHRK and aiming missiles in preparation starts with any suitable rail sections. There have been no comprehensive resource and transmission test with a missile BZHRK "MX" with the conclusion of the railways and perfecting combat training missions. Behavior of the rocket in terms of real shock and vibration impacts are not evaluated. Not solved the problem of creating a centralized management system for combat patrolling BZHRK U.S. railroads, which were in the hands of private companies. Battle railway missile system differed significant number of telltale signs. Unable to work practically forms and methods of combat employment BZHRK, dispersal their ideology, organization and management alerting nuclear missiles on combat patrol routes, the basics of technical operation and functioning of the comprehensive support BZHRK.

    Not surprisingly, the main efforts were directed at Washington limit the operation and subsequent liquidation of domestic BZHRK. To this end, the Americans achieved inclusion in the text of the START Treaty and its application of unilateral restrictive and articles and liquidation procedures, the implementation of which led to the destruction of our combat railway missile complexes, although its similar grouping Pentagon did not plan to deploy. This is confirmed as follows. Thus, according to claim 10 b) of Article III of the Treaty the U.S. side the existing types of ICBMs for mobile launchers of said missile "MX" (TTC rail variant missiles were not specified), noting that the missile in the mobile version is not deployed. In accordance with Section II, paragraph b) and Annex A "Memorandum of Understanding on the Establishment of the Data in connection with the Treaty between the USSR and the USA on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms" Americans are presented: the number of missiles and warheads BZHRK - 0; throw them weight - 0; non-deployed mobile launchers - only a prototype, test launcher - 1; fixed structure for mobile launchers - no, freight handling facilities - 1; non-deployed MX missile on the range - 1. Photos starting the car and other means in accordance with Appendix J (through mutual exchange) has not been shown. Thus, in reality American BZHRK existed mainly in the form of loud statements of U.S. politicians. Had not been declared and infrastructure alleged places of permanent deployment. The inspections revealed that to retrofit the previously mentioned air bases in the interests of their deployment BZHRK Americans and did not think to start. Obviously did not want to invest, waiting for the signing of the START Treaty.

    Once it became clear that the deployment of ICBMs LGM-118A will be mine, it was decided to take steps to profound modernization of electronic equipment and communication systems command posts (program "Rapid Execution And Combat Targeting" - "accelerated execution of commands and command and control retargeting"). However, after the signing in January 1993 of a new START-2 treaty, according to which the rocket "Peacekeeper" was planned to be removed from duty by the end of 2004 as missiles with MIRV MIRV, these plans have been reoriented to implement the CP ICBM "Minuteman-III" (modernization was carried out between October 1994 and August of 1996). By this time, changed the structure of the U.S. Air Force - SAC was disbanded in 1992, and transferred to all MDBs have formed the Air Force Space Command, all strategic missile wings were renamed space wings, and strategic missile squadron renamed missile squadron preserving number. In addition, reducing the number of passed and air bases with ICBMs - from 9 in 1982 to 3 in 1998 year. In June 2001, U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld announced the decommissioning of ICBMs LGM-118A. Despite the fact that Russia has found itself not related reduction treaty with MIRV ICBM force in the U.S. withdrawal from the ABM Treaty of 1972, the dismantling of missile LGM-118A began in October of 2002, with the rate of 1 in 17 rocket days. Dismantled missiles were sent to storage at Hill AFB, Utah. By January 2003 on duty only 46 missiles out of 50, by January 2004 - 29. In the same year, combat training launch ICBM, was the last. Total for the period from 1983 to 2004, the first years was launched 51 ICBMs (including 18 test program) completely failed was only one start in 2001. Combat training start, plan on August 2005, has been canceled. A total of 114 were built missiles. By January 2005 on duty, with only 10 ICBMs and the latter was removed from combat duty in September 2005 and the 400th Missile Squadron of the 90th Space Wing deactivated in October of the same year. On the basis of elements decommissioned ICBM "Peacekeeper" and "Minuteman-II" developed conversion RN family "Minotaur" - "Minotaur-IV" and "Minotaur-II" respectively.


    same overall ICBM missile system with "Peacekeeper", it should be noted that the American engineers were able to create really quite perfect ICBMs of a new generation, which is due to a significantly greater shooting accuracy had the opportunity to destroy a fortified strategic targets on Soviet territory. U.S. experts assessed the probability of destroying the silo complex OS 15A18 two hits with BB Mk21 warhead W87-0 (ICBM Peacekeeper) capacity of 300 kilotons each as 0.962, while the two BB Mk12A with warhead W78 (ICBM "Minuteman-III") capacity of 335 ct each destroyed the same shaft with probability 0.59 total, and two BB with Mk12 warhead W62 (ICBM "Minuteman-III") capacity of 170 kilotons each destroyed the same shaft with probability only 0.407. The missile had a pretty strong defense PCB, and she and her fighting equipment had significantly increased, compared to its predecessor, resistance not only to PYAFV but to weapons based on new physical principles. Upgraded mine complex provide increased resistance to PFYAV (primarily to excessive pressure in the shock front - to 155 kgf/cm2 and seismodynamic displacement of soil). According to U.S. experts, the missile LGM-118A superior rocket "Minuteman-III" combat effectiveness by 6-8 times. Development of the missile in the U.S. forced the USSR to start developing its counterpart of this missile - ICBM RT-23 UTTH, which has been put on duty in two versions - the mobile and stationary rail mine, and not inferior ICBM "Peacekeeper" combat effectiveness. Nevertheless, despite all the advantages, in general MX program can be evaluated as a program to have a significant number of challenges faced by it (at least in part with the help of this program, the Americans managed to "roll out" of the USSR on the huge costs associated with building programs and deployment of several new or improved for various types of ICBMs based). Therefore, when approaching the end of the warranty period ICBM Peacekeeper (20 years) United States refused further use of the ICBM (although, given the experience of warranty extensions solid fuels produced in the ICBM Minuteman, as well as possessing outstanding stock of missiles, the U.S. could exploit this missile in its arsenal more than 10 years). The choice was made in the direction of a significant increase in capacity ICBM "Minuteman-III", including through technology-established program MX.


    intercontinental ballistic missile lgm-118a peacekeeper - mx ICBM LGM-118A" Peacekeeper "(see diagram) is a solid-fuel three-stage rocket, steps which are connected by longitudinal scheme. All three marching steps were made of material such as kevlaroepoksidnogo Kevlar, and had 92'' on the outer surface multifunction black finish, protects the rocket from the action PFYAV and aerodynamic heating. Each stage had one central, partially recessed into the combustion chamber, divergent nozzle that allows you to control a rocket to pitch and yaw channels. Nozzles made of special material kevlaroepoksidnogo, high-purity material necks served pyrographite. Nozzles second and third stages were equipped with retractable propulsion conical nozzle on the nozzle body. To nominate a special nozzle used Pneumatic drive. This solution allows to provide the desired degree of expansion of the nozzle (and thus maximum thrust of the engine), while reducing the overall dimensions of the rocket. For missile control via heel on the site of the second stage, we used two autonomous gas generator unit mounted on the nozzle block level. On the site of the first and third stage roll control is not carried out, and offset errors accumulate during the second stage and the stage of breeding. On the first and second stages was used solid fuel HTPB Class 1.3, in the third stage - solid fuel NEPE Class 1.1 (unified fuel SLBM "Trident-2" D5). Separation steps carried supercharged mezhstupennogo space with a special gas generator and subsequent stages of the longitudinal division by using the compound of the elongated tapered charge. Breeding stage separated from the third stage of the march after firing explosive bolts and opening the third stage nozzles protivotyagi that wilderness solid propellant stages and leads her away from the breeding stage.

    breeding stage (see photo) was made of a special aluminum alloy. Outside the breeding stage had multifunction black finish, protect from PFYAV and aerodynamic heating. The stage was equipped with sustainer rocket engine with a fixed central nozzle and eight small steering motors, which control is exercised through a step on the pitch, yaw and roll. Stage rocket engine fuel dilution - nitrogen tetroxide as an oxidizer and monomethyl hydrazine as a fuel. Aspiration fuel tanks stage was carried out using helium is located in a special tank. Stage carrying multiple warheads (MIRV) (see photo), which consisted of 10 warheads (BB) Mk21 independently targetable warheads complementing W87-0 300kt capacity and implement the so-called. "Push" algorithm breeding. Breeding area of the combat equipment amounted to 320,000 square meters. km. Maximum configuration option provided equipment ICBM LGM-118A Eleven BB Mk21. Considered and Options missile warheads W78 warhead Mk12A with a capacity of 335kt missiles "Minuteman-III". In this case, the IDB could carry up to 12 of these units, but the choice was made in favor of the heavier and less powerful, but more accurate, resistant PFYAV, unobtrusive and cheap Mk21. Camouflaged combat equipment to shoot at the top end portion of the 2nd stage trikonicheskim titanium fairing. Breeding stage had special compartments for the deployment of missile defense PCB (light and heavy inflatable decoys, chaff, jamming generators, infrared aerosols). PCB mass missile reached 500kg. For a variety of information, after the formation of combat formations of BB and decoys stage undermined, creating additional field decoys.

    Inertial control NS-50A with a gyro-stabilized platform AIRS ("Advanced Inertial Reference Sphere") and onboard digital computer complex (ODCC) LC5400 type "Meca" is located in a compartment propulsion stage dilution. ODCC provides flight control at the boost phase, in step dilution warheads, as well as during combat duty and in preparation for the launch. High quality fixtures ISU NS-50A, accounting errors and the use of new algorithms provided high accuracy. Drift ISU NS-50A is less than 1.5x10-5 degrees per hour. To create the required temperature of the flight control system is cooled by Freon. Electronics rocket performed on radiation-semiconductor electronics RAM-type. The control system provides high precision missile (CWE ~ 90 m).

    intercontinental ballistic missile lgm-118a peacekeeper - mx

    To ensure the launching LGM-118A American designers for the first time, used the so-called. "Mortar" scheme. ICBM launch complexes LGM-118A (see diagram) is a modified silo complex OS LGM-30G "Minuteman-3", which removes all of the equipment associated with the gas-dynamic scheme launching of LGM-30 and installed a special launch canister made of graphite fiber reinforced fiberglass. Solid gas generator placed at the bottom of the container, when triggered threw a missile at a height of 30 m above the protective device of mine, and then turned on the first stage boosters. Rocket launch container fixed in with nine rows of special polyurethane tiles (see photo) covered teflonopodobnym material. They performed amortiziruyusche-obtyuriruyuschie functions and automatically withdrawn after the rocket out of the mine. As set out in the rocket launcher container partially protrudes and has a smaller diameter, to prevent contact with foreign objects launch canister gap between the top edge of the container and trigger housing ICBMs defended with a light jacket of polyurethane tiles that was filmed at the start due to body movements ICBM . ICBMs in silos OS launch canister occurred consistently postupenno using modified transport and positioning means ICBM "Minuteman" (in this regard the Soviet complexes based on the use of a single transport and launch container, far ahead of LGM-118A).

    command post complex virtually indistinguishable from KP ICBM "Minuteman" and was a made of heavy reinforced concrete structure with hemispherical tsilindropodobnuyu tipped fortified inside layer of special steel. Within this structure housed the proper command post amortized using a special suspension. Log in KP closing steel door weighing 9 tons, which could be open only from the inside. KP himself was buried at a depth of about 12 meters and could not defend, according to U.S. experts from "very close explosion of a nuclear weapon capacity of 15 kt." In the second half of the 70s, after the USSR had ICBMs and SLBMs with precise and powerful BB, have been undertaken to improve the sustainability of the CP and silos OS electromagnetic pulse nuclear explosion and the resulting flows of elementary particles.


    KP carried 24-hour watch a crew of two officers. The officers were armed. The whole complex was under protection of the special police unit Air Force is located in a residential service-story building on KP. KP and all OS silos equipped with alarm systems. Inside the command post was provided for one berth, complex storage and cooking, sink and toilet. KP officers watched their link of 10 missiles and could, if necessary, to control any of the other four elements of the squadron. To launch rockets across the squadron (50 ICBM) were required concerted action of two manual calculations (or, in extreme situations, a manual calculation and calculation of air command post EC-135 "Looking Glass"). ICBM launch was carried out after obtaining a special order and verify that the two officers. To run in a test-blocking equipment introduced special codeword every officer insert your key into a special hole, after which officers simultaneously (within 2 seconds) turn the key 1/4 turn and in this state held them for 5 seconds .


    General Characteristics

    Maximum range, km


    circular error probable, m


    diameter rockets, m

    length rocket assembly, m

    curb weight missiles, t


    I step

    Length, m

    - Curb stage
    - Unfilled stage


    Link SRBs at sea level, n


    Specific impulse solid propellant at sea level, with


    Hours SRBs, with


    II stage

    Length, m


    Weight, t:
    - Curb stage
    - Unfilled stage


    Link SRBs in vacuum, n


    Specific impulse solid propellant in a vacuum, with


    Hours SRBs, with


    III level

    Length, m


    Weight, t:
    - Curb stage
    - Unfilled stage


    Link SRBs in vacuum, n


    Specific impulse solid propellant in a vacuum, with


    Hours SRBs, with


    breeding stage

    Length, m


    Weight, t:
    - Curb the breeding stage (without IRT PRO, BB / CU and fairing)
    - Unfilled breeding stage (without IRT PRO, BB / CU and fairing)
    - Fighting equipment (BS / BSc)
    - IRT PRO



    steering engines


    Link, tf
    - Solid propellant sustainer vacuum
    - Steering motor in vacuo


    specific impulse, with
    - Solid propellant sustainer vacuum
    - Steering motor in vacuo


    Hours steering engines


    number of warheads, pieces


    Power warhead, ct


    Apogee trajectory BB km


    speed (about 30 m above sea level), miles / h



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