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Intercontinental ballistic missile LGM-30A / B Minuteman-1

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    Basing

    :

    Mine PU

    management system:

    management software

    Warhead:

    spetsboepripasov

    Application:

    Strategic

    Country:

    U.S.

    Range:

    9200 km.

    year development:

    1962

    intercontinental ballistic missile lgm-30a / b minuteman-1 ICBM" Minuteman "refers to intercontinental missiles" second generation ", which differ from the IDB" first generation "with expander (" ; Atlas "," Titan ") using solid propellant, smaller in size and weight, increased reliability and less time preparing for launch.

    Work on ICBM "second generation" was started in 1955, when the office was established ballistic missiles ARDC, whose main task at that time was to study the problems associated with the creation of an intercontinental ballistic missile with a solid propellant. Based on these studies, it became apparent that the most important problems of developing such missiles - the creation of a new type of solid fuel production engine casings and methods of guidance and control - are solvable. At the end of 1957. started the development of solid propellant ICBMs, dubbed "Minuteman". Development program envisaged the creation of a simple, relatively cheap missiles, which structure without changing the core of the project would be to make various improvements regarding power plant, guidance systems and warheads. Progress in the miniaturization of nuclear warheads and inertial guidance systems contributed to a significant reduction in weight of the rocket, and the use of solid propellant reduced the time to prepare for the launch of a few seconds. Simplification of the entire system is much reduced costs rocket for manufacturing and operation, as well as the opportunity to facilitate dispersal by starting bases.

    supposed to create two versions of "Minuteman" - one to run from underground mines, and the other to run from the railway platforms. The first test launch of experimental rockets "Minuteman" kitted out with all the stages was made February 1, 1961 with a ground-based starting position Canaveral. The aim was to test the engines run at all levels and guidance systems, as well as working out the sequence of the motors. Launch was successful, and the missile flew 7,400 miles.

    Development options for rocket launch from the railway platforms was discontinued in December 1961, the main reason for the cancellation of development, which has already spent $ 100 million, were the high cost of storage and maintenance of missiles on railway platforms, as well as a relatively long period of preparation to run, since the coordinates of the start, in this case is not known beforehand.

    first production missile "Minuteman" was collected April 12, 1962, a December 11, 1962 Strategic Air Command has adopted the first two links missiles, the designation LGM-30A / B "Minuteman-1." < / p>

    In mid 1961 the U.S. Air Force began studying the possibility of modifying the "Minuteman-1" to increase the capacity warhead, range and accuracy, as well as to simplify the whole system and increase its reliability. As a result of the consistent implementation of this program in 1972 missiles "Minuteman-1" were retired and replaced by a new modification of the "Minuteman-3".

    Composition

    intercontinental ballistic missile lgm-30a / b minuteman-1 first-stage engine:

    developed by "Thiokol" (TU-122) and operates on mixed fuel composed of polybutadiene acrylic acid, ammonium perchlorate and aluminum powder and epoxy resin (see the manufacturing process).

    first-stage engine has four diverging nozzle. Nozzle 2 and 4 are deflected up and down to control the pitch, and the nozzle 1 and 3 are deflected to one side to control the rate and in different directions for roll control. The deflection angle of the nozzle about 8 °.

    nozzle has a frustoconical shape with an angle of 42 °. Nozzle throat diameter of about 0.2 m, the diameter of the outlet section of approximately 0.56 sq. nozzles fastening bolts to the flanges mounted on the short exhaust pipes extending from the bottom of the lower housing. The nozzle consists of a steel base and a movable portion connected to the sealing ring. The length of the movable part of the nozzle about 0.63 sq. The movable portion of the nozzle is made from a phenolic resin reinforced with an insulating gasket made of plastics. In the critical section of the nozzle has a tungsten insert, six reinforced graphite rings, whose cross section at the front of the insert is 3 cm2, and on the back - 6 cm2. The inner surface of the throat of the nozzle and to the point with a spreading factor equal to about four, with a protective coating graphite.

    Deviation

    nozzles carried by the signals from the guidance system, which receives a control unit installed in the central portion of the lower bottom. The control unit has an X-shaped and comprises samovklyuchayuscheysya silver - zinc battery, auxiliary power source, the hydraulic four servotsillindrov and associated electronic equipment. The control unit does not require external power. Servotsillindry and the auxiliary power source mounted on a platform that has internal channels are conduits. External truborovodov present in the system.

    Auxiliary power supply consists of a motor, hydraulic pump, stop valve, filters, thermal resistance, oil reservoir of 164, quick fittings for filling and draining the fluid, as well as remote pressure switch. Variable hydraulic pump performance is directly connected with compound DC motor voltage 27. The weight ratio to the output power of the unit of 1 kg / l. s. Each of the four hydraulic cylinders drive the nozzles is rigidly secured to the platform. The piston rod of the cylinder through the floating grains is associated with a fork on the movable portion of the nozzle. Each actuator is provided with a solenoid valve, actuated by signals from the control unit of the servo amplifier.

    Wiring from the guidance system to the control unit located outside of the housing is closed and the engine cowl.

    intercontinental ballistic missile lgm-30a / b minuteman-1

    engine of the second stage:

    Designed by

    "Aerojet-General". Given the relatively small dimensions of the second stage, the motor housing can be made of fiberglass. However, studies have shown the inadvisability of such a decision, as a three-stage version of the rocket body middle stage perceive large load on a bend and turned izgotovleniiiz glass would be too heavy. Therefore, as a structural material has been selected steel of the same brand, and that for the first stage (see the manufacturing process).

    second stage engine has four diverging nozzle, which are attached to the exhaust pipe to the lower bottom. Each nozzle has a truncated cone 18 and the expansion coefficient. In the critical section of the nozzle is tungsten insert retained in the graphite lining thickness of about 25 mm. Exhaust nozzle cone is made of reinforced plastic. Nozzle rejected using the same hydraulic system as the first step. Each nozzle may vary within 6 °.

    In

    hole on the bottom center of the upper cone is inserted into the igniter, which is a small solid propellant, the fuel of which weighs about 900 g and the composition is virtually the same as the primary fuel and the engine. Igniter enters the fuel charge of about 0.5 m and has a safety device at the same ignition all three levels.

    third stage engine:

    developed by "Hercules", and operates on the dibasic fuel, the main components of which include ammonium perchlorate and aluminum powder, nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine, serving as a binder (see manufacturing process).

    Each nozzle as in the first two stages, consists of a fixed base and the rotary exhaust cone able to deviate by an angle of 4 °. Nozzle throat diameter of about 0.09 m, diameter of the outlet section of about 0.38 m, the expansion coefficient of 18.

    exhaust cone nozzle formed by injection molding at high temperatures. On the inner wall of the nozzle is an insulation coating layer consisting of a quartz fiber reinforced phenolic resin and a layer of resin impregnated graphite fabric. Graphite cloth has high thermal conductivity and reinforced phenolic resin - low. In a critical part of the nozzle is installed tungsten insert a graphite gasket.

    Igniter

    third stage engine is inserted into the central hole of the lower bottom. It consists of a small charge of solid fuel burning that begins as a result of the ignition of the powder pellets. Igniter equipped with a safety device. Switch system for blasting caps off the engine located in the upper body skirt. Outside the housing is located in the lining of the guidance system wiring to the control nozzles. Connect all stages of the launch via adapters in the form of truncated cones. Fixing is performed by means of bolts. All are equipped with self-destructing stage rocket, located under fairing wiring.

    management system:

    inertial guidance system, developed by the department "Autonestics" company "Nord American". The main elements are the inertial guidance system platform, a miniature computer D.17 and standard electronic components, transistors made. All equipment guidance system is located in an airtight container with a diameter of 1.14 m, filled with helium that cools the electronic devices. In the bottom of the container is a fan and a heat exchanger liquid fuel. Outside covered container and fiberglass insulation to be fitted to a rocket placed in an aluminum casing monocoque construction with a special protective coating. According to reports, the guidance system unit weighs approximately 81.8 kg. Power equipment guidance system provides a silver-zinc batteries.

    Inertial platform

    guidance system mounted on gimbals and can be freely rotated by 90 ° with respect to the pitch axis at ± 70 ° relative to the roll axis and ± 20 ° with respect to the yaw axis. Two dual-axis stabilized platform free gyroscope rotors are installed on gas bearings. A gyroscope is the anchor for the pitch and roll axes, and the other - for the yaw axis (one of the axes of the gyroscope remains free). Dual-axis gyroscopes with gas bearings were chosen because they provide good dynamic stability for a long time and are able to withstand high loads. To detect displacement of the body relative to the rotor gyro sensors used capacitive type. When storing missiles in the mine to adjust the position of the gyroscope pitch and roll the local vertical platform has a dual-axis level sensor and gyro alignment constant-rate relative to the reference azimuth by means of an optical collimator.

    To measure acceleration along each of three axes inertial platform mounted on the three integrating accelerometer. Each accelerometer has a pendulous mass floating in the fluid to reduce friction. Acceleration sensitive axis of each accelerometer biases its mass, resulting in a signal that is amplified and transmitted to a motor driven brake cap creates eddy currents and the torque to return the mass to its original position. To monitor the performance of the accelerometers on the platform has three biaxial level sensor, which are also used for periodic calibration of accelerometers.

    Incoming

    in computer guidance system, in addition to the basic function of calculation equations guidance performs a number of additional functions related to missile assembly and test as during storage in the mine, and in preparation for the launch. When assembling the rocket calculator used to test each stage, including test control blocks with nozzles devices for separation steps and other elements.

    After installing missiles in missile silo calculator performs continuous and periodic inspection of all missile systems throughout the storage period. At a constant scan is quality control of all systems, and during periodic checks conducted a more thorough inspection, in which accuracy is determined by the actions of each member and the deviation in performance, and automatically makes the necessary corrections. The difference in the above two types of checks can be seen from the following example. At constant verification unit control system in this block amplifier signal is to determine what servos deflect the nozzle in the right direction, and at periodic inspection, moreover, is determined and the reaction to the applied drive signal.

    When preparing to launch rockets evaluator conducts testing and prelaunch countdown. After starting the computer performs calculations rocket guidance determines the stage separation, instructs the engine to shut down the last step determines the moment of separation of the nose cone and cocking warhead so that it hit the intended target.

    calculator solves the fundamental equations of guidance and control, taking into account the aerodynamic characteristics of the missile and generates control signals based on the relative position of the missile coming from gyroscopes and accelerometers. Thus, the calculator performs the functions of transmitter guidance system in a form suitable for driving controls.

    calculator is computing devices general-purpose 27-digit code, which is used for computing 24 characters. The memory unit calculator is a magnetic disc rotating at 6000 rev / min. The capacity of this unit on the first modification of the missiles is 2985 words.

    calculator 43 receives data from various types of equipment and performs two major computing cycle: one cycle provides the solution of guidance (where the rocket at the moment in relation to where it should be to hit the target) and the other - the calculation signal to the control system.

    calculator provides three pairs of digital output signals for input amendments gyroscopes and three output voltages in analog form for driving the nozzle pitch control, and roll rate. Furthermore, for screening test computer provides a signal for actuating the paper tape puncher or electric teletype recording test results. When the pilot launches computer is also used for supplying a signal to the action of a telemetry system.

    calculator is designed so that by varying the information provided in the memory unit, it can be completely reprogrammed. To enter data into the calculator memory unit disposed on the conveyor using a programmer that is supplied to the silo and sent to the memory unit the data needed for a particular target lesion. All are in missile silos "Minuteman" pre-programmed to kill pre-selected targets.

    Since

    calculator performs a variety of complex functions associated with testing and calibration requires any rocket - devices that checking work of the calculator. The system "Minuteman" is used for this special unit disposed in the annular space top of silos.

    intercontinental ballistic missile lgm-30a / b minuteman-1

    Warhead:

    warheads - with nuclear 1-2 megatons TNT equivalent. Warhead placed in the incoming air in the nose-cone type burns. Branch of the nose cone from the third stage when the set speed and location processing engine thrust reverser third stage and undermining plugs in the center hole of the top head. Reverse thrust is synchronized with the release of the nose cone attachment locks

    PERFORMANCE

    ICBM "Minuteman 1"

    firing range, km

    9200

    Weapon Accuracy, km

    0,4

    control system

    Inertial

    with OBC

    Number

    rocket stages

    3

    Missile length

    :

    -full, m

    16,4

    maximum body diameter, m

    1,67

    Starting weight, t

    29700

    Controls and stabilization:

    -I level

    RDTT 910 kN thrust, 4 swivel nozzle

    -II stage

    RDTT 210 kN thrust, 4 swivel nozzle

    -III level

    RDTT 159 kN thrust, 4 swivel nozzle

    first stage:

    -length, m

    7,37

    -diameter, m

    1,83

    -weight of equipped stage, t

    22000

    Engine TU-122:

    -developer

    "Thiokol"

    -type

    single chamber solid propellant

    -thrust, kgf

    77200

    -number nozzles

    4

    Warhead:

    -type

    Thermonuclear

    -charge capacity, Mt

    0,65-1,5

    -weight, kg

    420





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