Intercontinental ballistic missile R-7 (8K71) / R-7A (8K74)



    Surface PU

    management system:

    management via radio, Control








    9500 km.

    year development:


    intercontinental ballistic missile R-7 (8k71) / p-7a (8k74)

    world's first intercontinental ballistic missile R-7 (8K71) - carrying a thermonuclear warhead and could deliver it almost anywhere in the territory of the probable enemy. Preliminary research on the creation of such a missile began in 1950. while performing work relating H3 "Study the prospects for creating different types of RBCs with a range of 5000-10000 km mass warhead 1-10t." Subject performed by decree of the Council of Ministers on December 4, 1950. Involved in the work leading scientific and industrial organizations in the country: OKB-1 NII-88 (SP Korolev), OKB-456 (VP Glushko), SRI-885 (MS Ryazan, NA Pilyugin ), SRI-3 (VK Shebanin), NII-4 (AI Sokolov), CIAM, TsAGI (Dorodnitsyn, VV Struminskii), NII-6, RI-125 (B . P. Zhukov), SRI-137 (VA Campfires), SRI-504 (SI Karpov), NII-10 (VI Kuznetsov), NII-49 (AI Carin) Mathematical Institute. AN Steklov (Keldysh), etc. When the theme was explored a wide range of problem while issues and ways to solve them, proved possible in principle to create a "composite" ballistic missile with a payload of 3-5m, working on the components of "liquid oxygen - kerosene," a detailed analysis of the circuit rocket and its optimal parameters, the number of stages, the initial weight, engine power and other characteristics.

    Continuing the theme

    H3 was the theme of T-1 "Theoretical and experimental studies to establish a two-stage ballistic missile with a range of 7000-8000km." Work was carried out according to the Decision of the Council of Ministers on 13 February 1953. Under this theme was carried out a two-stage development of conceptual design range ballistic missile weighing up to 170t with separable warhead weighing 3t to 8 thousand km range. However, in October 1953 on the orders of the Vice-Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR VA Malyshev mass in the head of the project was increased to 5500kg (at that time was not yet solved the problem of creating thermonuclear weapons with high power density) while maintaining the range, in therefore required a major rewrite of the project (as with the head part of such a mass-designed missile could provide a range of not more than 5500 km).

    In January 1954 a meeting of Chief Designers (SP Korolev, VP Barmine, VP Glushko, BM Kanaplyou, VI Kuznetsov, NA Pilyugin) with involving MI Borisenko, KD Bushueva, S. Kryukov and VP Mishin, which discussed the further work on the rocket due to the increased weight of the head. At the meeting it was decided to use a relatively small engine size uniform for all blocks, block size restriction, allowing their transportation by rail. Because the operating conditions, it was decided to abandon the usual launch pad and create a system of ground equipment with an unconventional way of suspension missiles on special farms discarded, thus reducing the load on the lower part of the rocket and reduce its weight. To ensure the specified accuracy shooting momentum spread aftereffect thrust was to be strictly a fixed range, however, at the stage of conceptual design of OKB-456 failed to resolve this issue. Then it was decided as the governing bodies for the first time to use the steering chambers, which would provide the final draft stage after turning off the main propulsion engine and the desired residual impulse. Due to failure VPGlushko develop steering engines, this work was entrusted by SP Korolev Chief of OKB-1 NII-88 MV Melnikov (later, when you create based on the R-7 rockets, used steering motors developed in OKB-456).

    May 20, 1954. adopted a Joint Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the CPSU Central Committee to develop a two-stage ballistic missile R-7 (8K71). Decree have been identified: the leading developer of OKB-1 NII-88 and implementation: OKB-456 (engines), SRI-885 (control), GSKBspetsmash (ground equipment), NII-10 (gyro), CB-11 (special charge) and NII-4 MO (field tests). Decree of 28 June 1954. "The terms of research on special products" have been refined content, order and schedule for the R-7 rocket. The order of the Minister of Defense Industry of 6 July 1954. emphasized that the creation of the R-7 is a task of national importance and all work should be completed within a specified time. Head of OKB-1 NII-88 SP Korolev received broad powers to engage not only specialists in various industries, but also the use of the necessary material resources. Draft project on missile system R-7 was ready in mid-July 1954. Such rapid rates were largely secured through the use of reserve on the T-1.

    November 20, 1954 submitted by the conceptual design of the R-7 (8K71) was approved by the Council of Ministers. In November 1954 the OKB-1 held a meeting with KN Rudnev, VP Barmina, NA Pilyugina, MS Ryazan and customer representatives. The meeting considered a proposal OKB-1 assembly package missiles vertically on the launch facility, as envisioned in the design work, and horizontally in the assembly building c, followed by suspending assembled at the starting system for the power nodes on the side blocks. Proposal was ambiguous: it was necessary to break the already established a mechanism to organize work, but arguments in favor of the proposal were so weighty that all doubts have disappeared by themselves. March 20, 1956 the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on providing a test of the R-7 and other measures, creating favorable conditions for its development. Dramatically increased the pace of work to simulate missile R-7, and with it the pressure on artists, which were introduced piecework wages and additional bonuses.


    working documentation for native missile was created documentation for full-size models for experimental testing of missile systems. In 1956 was made on two sets of blocks A (central) and B (one side) for test bench and three sample layout for ground tests. At the same time made the first flight model, factory control tests which were carried out in the branch number 2 NII-88 (later SRI-229). Despite all the difficulties, the first flight model of the R-7 at the end of 1956 was sent to the landfill. In the second half of 1956 it was decided to connect to the serial production of R-7 rocket Kuibyshev Aviation Plant "Progress" (AY Linkov). The first rockets at the "Progress" collected from parts and components manufactured in the factory number 88. Later, when the plant "Progress" was organized branch of OKB-1, headed by Deputy Chief Designer DI Kozlov.

    Novelty design rockets, new construction principles launcher demanded a considerable amount of experimental testing of missiles and systems in general. Required to conduct training and services of the newly created site. For this purpose creates a comprehensive program of tests, including:

    Tests developed radio system R-7 missile in real flight conditions rocket R-5R. Instead warhead on a missile R-5R installed container onboard equipment R-7. From May 31 to June 15, 1956 there have been three successful launches of missiles R-5R.

    Tests in the real flight control system R-7 rocket comprising: a system of simultaneous emptying tanks of the central unit, the control system of the apparent velocity; system normal and lateral stabilization telemetry system "Tral" and control "Torch". Testing was conducted on a rocket M5RD on GPC in two phases of five starts on each (the first stage from 16 February to 23 March 1956., The second - from 20 July to 18 August 1956.). The test results were evaluated as "positive".

    Testing of unstressed start of the rocket system, at the Leningrad Metal Plant (LMZ). LMZ were concreted 19m diameter wells intended at the time for making turrets and two 300-ton crane. These tests allowed to carry out control assembly and test operation of all systems and components of the new launcher (PU) "Tulip", check unstressed output missiles from PU. Tests were conducted with a breadboard model and technological R-7CH, which allows filling the tanks with water and corrosion additive. For this rocket launcher was placed in, refueled before starting mass and rising (simulation start) two taps on a special traverse tied behind the head power side blocks. The measured speed and angles of the exhaust from a rocket launcher elements (lower guide), supporting farms, cable-mast, etc. The processing of measurements by converting the experimental data, despite the lack of completeness of the simulation start (the difference in the speeds of the rocket starting device and other parameters), led to the conclusion of shock exit of rocket launching device in a real start. At the Leningrad Metal Plant (LMZ) were also worked out of the rocket assembly technology transportable units in a "package" installation method and technology for rocket launcher, transfer its mass to support the farm and turn verticalization missiles at a predetermined angle. Tests were conducted from June to September 1956. Then launcher and missile R-7CH were dismantled to send them to the landfill. In early December 1956. Rocket R-7CH arrived at the landfill.

    Firing tests missiles and missile units in general (since July 1956. March 1957.) Metal based on number 2 branch of NII-88. The tests included the cold test the individual units in order to develop modes of fueling and feeding tanks with liquid oxygen and nitrogen, obtaining data on temperature conditions in the tanks, fuel lines and compartments blocks and test firing of single units to test modes starting and running propulsion and steering motors as part of the propulsion system, verify that the engine power systems, obtaining data on temperature and vibration stress on structural elements of the blocks, check real dynamic characteristics of the equipment and machine control systems stabilize the apparent velocity and emptying tanks. There were five fire tests three side units (August 15, 1 and 24 September, 11 October and 3 December 1956.), Three tests of the central unit (December 27, 1956. (Block 2TSS), 10 and 26 January 1957. (Block 1TSS) ) and two fire tests collected in the "package" missiles (February 20 - "package" 2C, March 30, 1957 - "package" 4SL - flight option). Firing tests of all three side units have been satisfactory. Propulsion launched in accordance with a predetermined patterns. In preparation for the first test firing of the central unit after oxygen filling the accident occurred: water hammer was destroyed because of the tunnel tube supplying oxygen to the engine. Cause of the accident was the overheating of liquid oxygen in the tunnel tube because of its great length. To overcome this limitation was introduced constant flow of oxygen from the lowest point of the pipeline for release, which was subsequently replaced by a system of circulation. After repair work tests were continued and yielded positive results. The first missile test lasted only 20c by reducing refueling propellants. If subsequent tests while working all propulsion units corresponding to the time of their work during the flight and onboard flight control system produced deviation steering chambers at maximum angle. In parallel with the fire tests on a special stand was worked undocking ground communications and technology services to the tail section of the missile launch, the results of which were adjusted operating documentation.

    Testing cab service launcher and checking her pairing with the tail section of the missile units. This work was conducted in the branch number 2 NII-88. Their aim was to test the work of all mechanisms cab service, methods of its deployment and retraction niche and verification capabilities and ease of maintenance tail compartments missile sites with cabins. For this special installation was assembled that included real cab service and layouts tails blocks missiles. During the test, repeatedly put forward cabin of niches, raised its grounds, were expanded and connected to the tail section of the missile charging hoses, as well as folding and evacuation of the cabin in a niche. Upon completion of this work cubicle was sent to the site for installation on the launch system.

    Testing separation system side blocks rockets from the central unit in a special unit at the branch number 2 NII-88. The aim of this work was to determine the actual characteristics and parameters of the system of separation units. The measurement results showed that the separation system is functioning properly and its parameters do not exceed the design values.

    Improvement of technology training missiles for launch services and the interaction site. In December 1956 the landfill came first rocket R-7CH for fitting and debugging work. The program of these works as part of a comprehensive testing program of the R-7 included a:

    O for technical positions - the full amount of all mechanical assembly works with a missile, leak tests missiles highways, checking serviceability missile systems units with ground equipment and testing of technical documentation for training and learning rocket calculations;

    O on the launch pad - transportation of the missile and its rise into a vertical position and install the trigger, vertical integration and aiming, the connection to the rocket all the air - and gidrokommunikatsy, fueling rocket propellants, gases and conducting all pre-launch operations (lowering of farm service , tap cab service in a niche), shooting air - and gidrokolodok from rocket fuel components and drain evacuation missiles from the start position and the refinement of technical documentation and training crews. When these studies were controlled willingness to work all services site. Tests were conducted in December 1956 - February 1957

    in December 1956 were produced aircraft overflights of measuring complex polygon points along the route of flight, and in the fall the head. In March 1957 on technical position landfill arrived first rocket R-7 (№ 5) for LCI. The process of preparing a rocket provided elektropnevmoispytaniya each block, check the alignment after transporting the missile units, package assembly, conducting electricity - and pnevmoispytany missiles in general (autonomous and integrated test), the installation of pneumatic and hydraulic response pads for rockets blocks for connection at the launch complex land highways, relaying "package" on the installer and docking head. Compared with previously developed "products" (R-1, P-2, P-5, P-11) the volume and complexity of the test program were unprecedented.

    April 10, 1957 the first meeting of the State Commission for conducting flight tests approved by the Council of Ministers of the USSR, August 31, 1956, as part of VM Ryabikova (chairman), MI Nedelina (deputy chairman), S. Korolev (technical manager), VP Barmina, VP Glushko, VI Kuznetsov, AG Mrykina, NA Pilyugina, MS Ryazan (deputy technical director), C . Vladimir M., AI Nesterenko, GN Pashkov Peresypkin and GR Udarova. SP Korolev at the commission meeting, reported on the results of experimental work carried out and on the preparation of R-7 rocket to the top flight tests. Convincing arguments about the readiness for flight tests missiles were positive results of fire test bench units and missiles in general. In its report, SP Korolev also touched on the structure of test calculations and their personal membership of a scheme to control the operation of responsible preparation for launch rocket ("executive control test controller - Controller Chief Designer"), which further work, particularly in the preparation of manned space systems, has been widely used. Before the flight test objectives were validation of critical decisions by the design of rocket motors, control systems, complex ground equipment, debugging and testing of their in flight conditions, receipt and storage of experimental data on the range and accuracy when starting on the estimated range of about 6300km and well the experimental data for all systems and units rocket complex ground equipment and measuring tools. Based on these objectives, the objectives were first starts working out technology start dynamics of controlled flight stage 1 and stage separation process, and the next - checking and testing of radio control systems, flight dynamics stage 2 and the head of the movement to the target. In addition, two of the twelve missiles intended for flight tests, after appropriate modifications have been used to start the first two artificial satellites such as "SS" ("The simplest satellite").

    second phase began May 5, 1957, when the R-7 rocket number 5 was moved to the starting position. Work on preparing the rocket for launch at the starting position, given the novelty and responsibilities have been divided into several days, in particular fueling rocket propellants was provided on the eighth day. The first launch took place on 15 May 1957. at 19 h 01 min Moscow time. By visual observations flight proceeded normally until the 60s, then in the aft compartment changes were observed in the flame flowing gases from engines. Processing telemetry data showed that 98c flight fell off the side of the block A and the rocket lost stability. The cause was leaking fuel line fuel. Despite the failure of this launch possible to obtain experimental data on the dynamics of start and controlled flight stage 1.

    second launch, scheduled for June 11, 1957, failed, despite three attempts: the first two attempts due to freezing tareli main oxygen valve unit is reset to the drive circuit, on the third attempt was emergency shutdown of propulsion systems on mode, a preliminary stage due to an error committed on the technical position of the valve when installing the nitrogen purge line oxidant central unit. The missile was removed from the starting device and returned to the technical position.

    third launch took place July 12, 1957 at 15 h 53 min. 33c on the flight the rocket lost stability. Cause of the accident proved ground fault circuit control signal integrating device via rotation.

    fourth start August 21, 1957 at 15 h 25 min was successful, and the missile for the first time reached the target area. The main disadvantage of this was the start of the destruction of the head in the dense layers of the atmosphere at the descending part of the trajectory, and the experimental data on the reasons for this failure have been received since the telemetry recording stopped for 15-20s before the fall of the head. Analysis of the fallen head of design elements revealed that the destruction began with the tip of the head, and at the same time to clarify the magnitude of its ash thermal barrier coating. This allowed to finalize the documentation on the head part, specify the layout, design and strength calculations and make it as soon as possible for the next start. In the media August 27, 1957, it was reported TASS that the Soviet Union had tested an intercontinental ballistic missile.

    fifth launch of R-7 September 7, 1957 mainly confirmed the results of previous start.

    Positive results of missiles at the boost phase allowed to use them to launch the first two satellites of the Earth (such as "SS"). As their carriers were used rocket number number 1 ps and 2ps which have been refined in the light of tasks. In general, removal of the two first satellites were successfully solved: October 4, 1957 on the satellite was put into orbit the first artificial satellite of the Earth, and on 3 November the same year on satellite orbit satellite was launched with the first living being in orbit - a dog named Laika. RN based ICBM R-7 without additional upper stage called "Sputnik". According to the results of the first six rocket launches R-7 were modified nosecone (replaced new) system and its affiliates, used slot antennas telemetry system "Tral" and others, whose effectiveness has been confirmed by subsequent starts. Flight tests have been completed the second phase launch of R-7 on May 24 and July 10, 1958., With the first fully successfully launch of R-7 March 29, 1958, the missile was equipped with a prototype standard MS M1-6A. Program flight tests of experimental rockets R-7 was basically completed. Obtained experimental data showing the validity of the basic fundamental decisions embodied in the rocket structure, propulsion and control system. Worked takeoff techniques, dynamics of controlled flight at 1 and 2 levels, radio system and the separation of the head. Tested and implemented measures to ensure the achievement of target warhead. Obtained experimental data on the actual trajectory of a predetermined range, adopted warranty reserves are sufficient fuel components. However, the data on the scattering were insufficient to fully evaluate the accuracy, although a preliminary assessment showed that the dissipation does not exceed the limits adopted in the design. The data on the elastic vibrations and pressures in the design propulsion systems with a frequency of 10-13 Hz at 1 stage of flight, was not enough for a full answer to this question.


    missile R-7 with the elimination in a timely comments and deficiencies identified and resolved in the course of the test is permissible for the next phase of flight tests. These trials were checking basic flight and operational characteristics of the R-7 ICBM (construction of the third stage) with the requirements of the Ordinance of 20 May 1954; validation and structural adequacy of the decisions taken on the results of the LCI missiles R-7, and the second stage determines the reliability of missiles specified range and accuracy, and issue recommendations on the possibility of adopting the third phase of construction by the Soviet Army.

    joint flight tests were conducted from December 24, 1958. on November 27, 1959 Tests undergone 16 rockets, eight of which were already made at the production plant "Progress". Tests preceded control firing bench test a special assembly, consisting of a central unit and one side, held in August and November 1958. stands on a branch of number 2 NII-88. Test November 17, 1958., Which side block was fixed in a "package", confirmed the effectiveness of measures to eliminate resonance vibrations in the loop "elastic structure - propulsion system" that had previously led to the destruction of the rocket.

    However, estimates show that the charge type RDS-6s with the required capacity will be extremely large mass and size. It was therefore decided to explore the possibility of increasing the capacity of the RDS-6s in his bestritievom embodiment through the use of more significant mass of fissile materials. This charge was assigned the designation RDS-6sD. In the course of its development has gradually become clear that to the use of the physical schema of the RDS-6s can not be solved the problem of creating highly efficient thermonuclear warheads necessary power.

    Develop a powerful thermonuclear weapons on a new two-stage scheme allowed them to abandon the path of creating a one-step scheme - a two-stage thermonuclear charge scheme can dramatically raise specific power ammunition, ie the ratio of power to weight ratio of ammunition. Designed RDS-37 charge (the charge for the first two-stage thermonuclear bomb domestic made based on the idea of "nuclear implosion," the authors ideas - employees of KB-11 VA Davydenko and AP Zavenyagin - see photo), though satisfied by the level of energy requirements imposed on combat equipment ICBM R-7, required a major upgrade. Development of a new charge from the beginning has to wear a sharp competitive nature between the options being developed in two main nuclear centers of the country - KB-11 (now VNIIEF, Sarov) and SRI-1011 (now VNIITF Snejinsk). For example, only in 1956, KB-11 conducted in order to improve the scheme of the RDS-37 5 tests of thermonuclear devices. However, the problem is not solved, the three trials was rejected fusion nodes that was a serious blow, of insufficient available at that time of the processes taking place in the RDS-type charges 37.V the same time, based on the RDS- 37 development of powerful thermonuclear weapons and engaged in SRI-1011. In April 1957 SRI-1011 in Semipalatinsk test conducted two thermonuclear weapons, generally shown good results. Tests were carried out with a specially reduced energy release in the interest of safety.

    The results of the work following decision was made:

    1. "To take to support the charge of the R-7 KB-11, consisting of a thermonuclear core SRI-1011 and primary atomic charge based on the RDS-4 (the first domestic charge for tactical nuclear bombs - see photo);

    2. conduct tests on the full power of the explosion ".

    charge for R-7 missile was tested in the body bombs. Due to high computational power of thermonuclear charge and in accordance with the decision to hold a full-scale test explosion was conducted in the Northern range (Novaya Zemlya archipelago). October 6, 1957 in charge of the case was dropped bombs on board the long-range bomber Tu-16. The test was a complete success - the data obtained after the power of the explosion of a thermonuclear charge was 2.9 Mt and exceed the estimated 20%. After a further significant improvement in charge of this type, including in the direction of increasing the power of the explosion (it was caused by the relatively low accuracy of the first ICBM and caused a decrease in a corresponding decrease in range due to increase in mass of the charge), he was accepted into service as part of missile complex IDB 8K71.

    In developing designs warhead missile R-7, except for the general design of laboratory-ground mining were conducted flight tests to determine the state of its construction, the temperature effect on it, displacements and deformations of nodes in terms of real action overloads and temperature warhead in flight. When flight test telemetry corresponding information is transmitted to ground registration complexes. Flight tests have shown the safety and structural integrity warhead charge magnitude overloads, temperature effects and motion design nodes were within acceptable values. In general, it is possible to conclude that the high reliability of MS R-7 rocket.

    However, in 1957 has been finalized, and in 1958 held its first full scale test of a new type nuclear charge, dubbed "article 49". Ideologists of the project developers and the physical schema of the charge were members of the KB-11 A. Trutnev and N. Babaev. Feature of the new charge was that by using the basic principles of the RDS-37 it failed:

    significantly reduce the size parameters by solving the problem of a new original transfer of X-rays, which determines the implosion thermonuclear unit;

    simplify "layered" structure thermonuclear unit, which was extremely important practical solution.

    Under adaptation to specific carriers "article 49" less developed dimensions and weight category compared with the RDS-37, but it turned out to be the energy specific volume is 2.4 times more. "Primary atomic charge" (according to the classification of the time, currently used designation primary nuclear site or trigger) for "product 49" was tested independently in 1957 During its development has significantly 1.5 times, reduce size of the site, while ensuring that it is sufficiently high energy release. In 1958, KB-11 test conducted eight devices that are based on "product 49", their energy release ranged from 0.2 to 2.8 Mt.

    As a result of this work, in the end of 1958, KB-11 was tested new thermonuclear charge under the "Product 49" to equip advanced ICBM R-7A (see photo). Compared with a charge, previously developed for equipping ICBM R-7, while maintaining the level of energy has been drastically reduced weight and size parameters of the charge (for example, the diameter of the charge was reduced to 1.75 times). The primary charge of the atomic charge used with tritium-deuterium gas boosting (increasing fission "thermonuclear" neutrons). Modified according to test results thermonuclear charge was later adopted in the complex with a rocket R-7A.

    USSR Council of Ministers on 20 January 1960 intercontinental ballistic missile R-7 (8K71) was adopted by the Soviet Army. However, even in the course of work on the R-7 rocket, it became clear that the missile has the potential for improvement. So, from December 24, 1959 began flight tests improved the R-7A (8K74) with the head part of a new design (new, lighter thermonuclear charge 46A, satisfy, in addition to weight and size characteristics, all trajectory impacts and operational requirements) and advanced radio control system. Missile range increased significantly. Massosberegayuschie were applied technology. Was simplified and methods of preparation for the launch rocket. The task of designing a new rocket OKB-1 received 2 July 1958., When it was approved by the relevant Council of Ministers of the USSR. During the LCI was tested eight missiles, seven of which fulfilled their task. Rocket R-7A was adopted by 12 September 1960. Replacing him rocket R-7. According to reports, the R-7 rocket directly on duty never stood in contrast to the R-7A (the latter was withdrawn from service in 1968.; Maximum number of ICBMs of that type, while standing on duty - no more than 5 pieces). However to achieve significant improvement of performance combat and y R-7A as compared with the P-7 failed. It quickly became clear that the R-7 and its modification can not be put on combat duty in bulk quantity. To base these missiles since January 1957. construction began fighting starting station (to "Angara") near the village of Plesetsk (Arkhangelsk Oblast, RSFSR).

    summer of 1959 for the first time in the Armed Forces on their own property, "Angara" conducted combat training starting from the start position. December 31, 1959 the first ICBM missile system with R-7A was put on combat duty (part of Colonel G. Mikheev). Before the start of the rocket delivered a technical position in the rail freight carriage and installation mounted on a massive trigger. The whole process lasted prelaunch more than two hours. The missile system has turned bulky, vulnerable, and very expensive and difficult to operate. Besides Wet missile could be no more than 30 days. For creating and updating the necessary oxygen supply for deployed missiles needed a whole plant. The complex has a low combat readiness (readiness for the launch of not less than 7 hours). Was insufficient and accuracy. Launch of this type was not suitable for mass deployment. Total on-site "Angara" was built four starting structures (site number 41 "Lesobaza" area number 16, number 43 area (2-a complex)). Two more were on the range "Tyr-Tam" (site number 1 "Gagarin's Start" area number 31), but only one of the two (№ 31) could be used for full combat duty ICBMs. All five launch complexes were taken into service by July 1961. According to available data, in the early 60-ies were conducted LCI ICBM R-7A equipped with light warheads reduced power (maximum range reached 12,000 km), but this modification has not been released to general production.

    However, despite all the shortcomings of the R-7 / R-7A, the mere presence of these missiles in service, albeit in small amounts, was an unambiguous signal for supporters of aggression against the USSR - it became clear that well-deserved retribution case of war will not be able to leave. Moreover, the development of these missiles testified that the Soviet Union there is a corresponding scientific, technical, industrial and human resources base on which will soon be more perfect specimens of various classes of missiles, which was demonstrated.

    Conceived and operated as a combat missile R-7 had a safe and successful design, has energy capabilities to help bring into space (into orbit) payload considerable mass. Therefore, after the successful launches of ballistic missile 8K71 as it was used in 1957 to launch the world's first artificial earth satellite. Since boosters R-7 family are actively used to launch satellites for various purposes, and since 1961 these boosters are widely used in manned space flight. Reliability and successful designs allowed to create on its basis a whole family of launch vehicles. It is difficult to overestimate the contribution of the "seven", but even harder to imagine foresight Korolev, who laid the foundation for many decades for national astronautics. Total from 1957 to mid-2010 already launched more than 1,800 missiles, based on the design of the R-7, of which more than 97% - successfully. Based on the already proven "Soyuz-U" and "Soyuz-U2" has been much improved "Soyuz-2", which will be used not only with the traditional launch pads - Polygons "Baikonur" and "Plesetsk" - but also from the territory of the European Space Agency spaceport "Kuru" (French Guiana, South America). Missiles, based on the design of R-7 will be applied for many years and a few will be able to press them only created the Russian producers cooperatives to replace RN such as "Union" and "Proton" family of prospective RN "Angara", but the beginning of "change generations "can hardly be expected before the end of the second half of the 2010s.

    In the West

    missile 8K71 (R-7) received the designation SS-6 mod.1 Sapwood, and 8K74 (R-7A) - SS-6 mod.2 Sapwood.


    intercontinental ballistic missile R-7 (8k71) / p-7a (8k74) The design of the R-7 (see diagram) is fundamentally different from all previously developed its missiles layout and power schemes, size and weight, power propulsion, quantity and purpose systems, etc. It has been performed by the "packet" scheme and consisted of four identical side rocket units (each 19 m long and the largest diameter of 3m) which were attached to the central unit upper and lower zones of power relations. The construction of all units were similar and included support cone, fuel tanks, power ring, tail section and the propulsion system. On each block of the first stage were set RD-107 (8D74) designed by the OKB-456 pump-fed fuel components. RD-107 (see photo) was made on the open circuit and had six combustion chambers. Two of them were used as steering. Central unit rocket consisted of the instrument compartment, tanks oxidizer and fuel, power ring, the tail section, the main engine and four steering units. Fuel tanks of all blocks were "carriers". Engines of all five units began to work with the earth. At staging side engine is switched off and the central portion continued to fly, as the 2nd stage.

    steering motors swing angles, combined with arteries supplying fuel components, selected for the main engine turbopump unit had cravings 2.5 mc. On each side block installed on two steering motor and the central unit - four. Creating a steering engine required the solution of many scientific and technological problems and new designs that have found application and further development in subsequent developments. These include combustion chamber, fuel-operated "liquid oxygen and kerosene T-1", cooled kerosene and having high for the time and energy mass characteristics; sealed rotary units, combined with arteries supplying fuel components, providing swing combustion chamber at 45 degree angle and having small friction torque; pyro valve operating in liquid oxygen, will significantly reduce the thrust impulse effects; pirozazhigatelnoe device for liquid fuel when starting the combustion chamber.

    The second stage was set RD-108 (8D75) (see photo), similar in design to the RD-107, but a large number of distinguished steering chambers. He developed a craving from the ground up to 75 tons and worked longer than LRE side blocks. For all motors used bipropellant oxidizer - liquid oxygen fuel - kerosene T-1. For operation of turbopump assembly of rocket engines, the hydrogen peroxide was used, and for tank pressurization - liquid nitrogen. To reach the target range, the designers have established an automatic control system modes motors and synchronous system emptying tanks (GSS), which reduced the guaranteed reserve of fuel. Structurally-layout scheme provided the R-7 launch at the start of all the engines on the ground with the help of special pirozazhigatelnyh devices installed in each of the 32 combustion chambers. LRE rocket boosters had high energy and mass characteristics and high reliability. For the time they were an outstanding achievement in the field of rocket engine.

    P-7 was equipped with a combined control system. An autonomous subsystem provides angular stabilization and stabilization of the center of mass at the boost phase. Radiofrequency subsystem the correction of lateral motion of the center of mass at the end of the active portion of the trajectory and issuing commands to turn off the engine, increasing accuracy. Executive bodies of the control system is the turning chamber steering motors and air rudders. To implement the radio correction algorithms were built two control points (principal and mirror), 276 km distant from the starting position and 552 km from each other. Measurement of motion parameters R-7 and the transfer of control commands rocket carried a multichannel pulse line communication system operating in the 3-centimeter wavelength range coded signals. Special resolver, is on the main point, to make it possible to control range, it gave the team off the engine of the second stage, when the set velocity and position.

    autonomous control equipment was very cumbersome and housed mainly in the inter-tank section compartment central unit in large (about 1 m) racks - cassettes. The control system includes automatic stabilizer that provides normal and lateral stabilization, regulation of apparent speed and wireless transmission range control and direction. In batch scheme adopted for the R-7 rocket, it was impossible to do without regulation propulsion.


    Maximum range, km








    Power warhead, Mt



    Dimensions, m:








    specific impulse propulsion engine thrust second stage kgfs / kg:
    - Earth
    - In vacuo




    second stage, with



    weight main engine of the second stage, t




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