Intercontinental ballistic missile R-9A (8K75)



    Mine PU

    management system:

    management software








    14000 km.

    year development:


    intercontinental ballistic missile R-9a (8k75) Based on progress to the beginning of 1958 the progress in the establishment of more efficient engines and warheads with nuclear warheads much smaller mass main constructs Council sent in April 1958 to The Soviet Government a proposal to develop a new intercontinental ballistic missile R-9 propellant "oxygen-kerosene" with an initial mass of about 100 tons of SP Korolev took a great effort to persuade the Council of Chief sign these deals. VP Barmine and NA Pilyugin strongly doubted the reality of the claimed initial mass (eg, P-16 was 30 tons heavier), Glushko initially disagreed on the development of oxygen engine with a thrust of 140 tons and insisted on application of high fuel components. When in 1958, information was received that in recent Titan I ICBM Americans, like the IDB Atlas, using liquid oxygen as the oxidizer, it seemingly confirmed the selection of oxygen, rather than the high boiling components. Titan I missile silo based in and was ready to launch after charging 15 minutes. It was not available until either of Soviet missiles. However, in late 1961 it was reported that the latest Titan II ICBM on high-boiling components, placed in solitary silos Wet, could begin in 1.5-2 minutes after receiving the command. Simultaneously received data on the planned withdrawal of missiles Titan I and Atlas with weapons. Now to the "horse" were supporters Glushko and high-MCT. Because at that time it was not clear which of the pairs of components will provide the best operating conditions in the army and less time preparing for launch, after further elaborations OKB-1 proposed to develop two versions of the rocket, used different propellants and propulsion systems: F-9A ( low-boiling fuel components "kerosene-liquid oxygen") and P-9B (on storable propellants "kerosene-nitric acid"). All depends on the complexity of systems to maintain fuel components ready for refueling, toxic components, time necessary for the fueling of the rocket, and the time of promotion gyro before starting. Given that time is ready to be launched in both versions of the system is approximately the same, and operational quality, including security of the missile, preferably at the components of the "oxygen-kerosene," OKB-1 insisted on taking the further development of the R-9A.


    missiles as weapons of war requires the maximum possible duration of stay in the number 1 readiness and minimal preparation for launch. Solving these problems is facilitated by storing missiles long Wet, but for oxygen rocket it was practically impossible. Should ensure that while refueling the R-9A does not exceed the total time of preparation of the rocket. Thus eliminates the need for long-term storage rocket Wet. The Decree of the Government of the USSR to develop the R-9A from May 30, 1960 specifically noted that as the oxidant should be applied supercooled oxygen. First suggested the use of supercooled liquid oxygen VP Mishin. If instead of minus 183 ° C close to the boiling point of oxygen to reduce its temperature minus 200-210 ° C, first, it takes a smaller volume, and secondly, sharply decrease evaporation losses, and thirdly can be implement high-speed refueling (oxygen getting into a warm tank will not boil rapidly, as it usually happens). This will allow for storage of oxygen in the ground refueling capacity and its a rocket with almost no loss for a period not exceeding the time of preparation of instruments control system to start. This allows for storage of oxygen in the ground refueling capacity and in his rocket with almost no loss for a period not exceeding the time of preparation of instruments for the launch control system (mainly "limiter" advocated the preparation gyro). The solution chosen was absolutely right, and it confirmed the correctness of the time - in the future for the Soviet missiles (including the "moon-rocket king" N-1/11A52 universal and severe ROP "Energy" / 11K25) applied supercooled propellants. Duration of the R-9A Wet was 24 hours, but the missile could stand on duty not seasoned propellants. All systems and components of the R-9A could ensure its readiness to stay number 1 for 1 year, provided for periodic (without removing it from the start) routine maintenance.

    When preliminary design were examined five concepts missiles, providing the required characteristics at maximum simplicity, mobility and the minimum possible mass of the structure. This was achieved by the adoption of a number of structural and layout decisions, for example, the use of open truss sections for joint missile stages, the glider tail section of stage II, the use of vapor fuel tank pressurization stage II for separating warhead, etc. Dimensions missiles were chosen from the possibility of transporting her Assembled in a railway carriage and use of welding and stamping equipment R-7 rocket for the production units of the R-9A.

    development of the R-9A began in OKB-1 under the direction of the Queen after the Decree of the Government of the country from May 30, 1960 and the order of the USSR State Committee for Defense Technology November 22, 1961. Design and development of control systems of the R-9 was conducted in NIIAP under the leadership of NA Pilyugina. Control devices were developed under the leadership of VI Kuznetsov in SRI-944, and radio system - NII-885 under the leadership of MS Ryazan. Chief designer on the ground complex was appointed VP Barmine (GSKB "Spetsmash"). I stage engine was developed in OKB Glushko and motor stage II - OKB SA Kosberg. Warhead designed KB-11 (Arzamas-16), led by SG Kocharyants. Draft a project of the R-9A was completed in October 1959, it was provided the opportunity to further improve the performance of the rocket. For this purpose, developed new engines NK-9 (ND Kuznetsov OKB) for the first stage (with improved performance through the use of closed circuit) and for the second stage - the engine on the basis created in OKB-1 engine "block A "for RN 'Lightning'. In applying the new engines and maintaining launch mass maximum range could be increased by 2,700 km. While maintaining a predetermined range and warhead weight rocket mass was reduced by 13 tons Rocket received index P-9M. However OKB ND Kuznetsov failed timely to organize work on a new engine, and Glushko soon made the decision to leave the R-9A as the only option for the first-stage engine developed by them. It is worth noting that occurred during the creation of an ICBM R-9A contradiction between SP Korolev and Glushko views on the further application of high temperature and low fuel components led eventually to an open split between them, which was one of the most important (but not the only) reason for the failure of the Soviet "lunar program" - EDO ND Kuznetsov, which did not have sufficient experience, could not at that stage to create a sufficiently reliable and powerful at the same time oxygen-kerosene RD RN for H-1. On the application for superheavy carrier N-1 rocket engine on storable propellants, as urged by VP Glushko, it was decided to abandon due to environmental concerns - in the case of a failed launch (and all four attempts to launch H-1 ended in failure) on the landfill risked long term become a lifeless desert. Later he VPGlushko changed his mind - he led in 1974 TSKBEM - the former "company SP Queen" - and created in the future under his leadership in the world's most powerful super-heavy launch "Energy" applied only to the LRE oxidant "oxygen" for both propulsion and fuel levels "kerosene" (stage 1) and "H" (2nd stage).


    ICBM R-9A envisaged the creation of two types of launch facilities: ground - "Desna-N" and mine - "Desna-In." In parallel with the continued rocket research and development work on the acquisition, transportation and storage of supercooled liquid oxygen and reduce its losses. The problem was so serious that as an adviser was recruited renowned expert on ultralow temperature physics Academician Kapitsa. Due to the use of new types of insulation tanks with liquid oxygen (powder, screen-vacuum thermal insulation, etc.) and select the optimal design of tanks and rocket storage tanks of oxygen, new construction materials, implementation of hypothermia were able to reduce oxygen loss from evaporation 15 % on the initial stage of work to 0.05-0.2% (ie 75-300 times) before going on missile flight tests. To ensure long-term storage rocket Wet studied the possibility of installing screen-vacuum thermal insulation on the oxygen tanks (index 8K77 rocket). As proposed to use engines engines variants of the R-9M. The use of these high-energy motors allowed while maintaining a working stock of fuel missile to equip heavier and thus more powerful warhead. But this scenario is not received, due to serious complications in the manufacture of the containment (steel thickness of 0.5 mm) for screen-vacuum thermal insulation (difficulty with welding and fastening). To maintain the vacuum in large volumes require special pumps. Soviet industry while they are not released. SP Korolev made decisions about MIC production of such pumps modeled firm «Philips». Of course, this company did not know anything. A special gas chiller, which, when installed on a container of liquid oxygen, condensed vaporized oxygen from the container and returns it back to a liquid state. Replacement of existing types of insulation (mipory, slag wool) on powders (spray, perlite, etc.) that fills the space between the tank and the outer jacket, and evacuation of the space transformed a storage tank of oxygen in a large thermos and drastically reduces heat gain to the oxygen tank, and consequently, its loss from the heating and evaporation. This similarity is further enhanced by the use of multilayer insulation, which represented the mats shiny sheets of thin foil (about 100 pieces), separated from each other rare fiberglass. Shiny foil surface dramatically reduced heat transfer to an oxygen tank, and vacuum heat-insulating space vessel completes deal. To create a vacuum system at multiple sites oxygen storage was designed and created a special backing pump in combination with two adsorption pumps using a new synthetic material - zeolite pre-cooled with liquid oxygen or nitrogen. This design allowed to bring the vacuum level to 5x10-2 mm Hg. Art. to 1x10-3-1x10-4. It would also require the development of new welding technology for a complete seal welds multimeter storage tanks, creating methods and equipment for quality control. All of the above measures will minimize volatilization kriozhidkosti. So the nation's first problem was solved liquid oxygen storage unscathed. However, studies have shown that there are additional opportunities to improve the efficiency of the supercooled liquid oxygen. At a temperature of 203-210 ° C minus strongly increases its fluidity. This allowed us to drastically reduce refueling time (from 25-30 to 3-8 min), the pump could instead use compressed air, which is squeezed out of the oxygen storage capacity in tanks missiles at a rate of up to 700 t / h Supercooling of liquid oxygen used mobile unit, which used the principle of ash and vapor ejection from the surface of the liquid oxygen through the differential pressure in the ejector. In a memorandum addressed to the Minister of General Engineering Ustinov and Deputy Chairman of Gosplan VM Ryabikova in May 1961 SP Korolev presented the main results of the work on oxygen topics. Thus, it can be noted that the work on the missile R-9A allowed to substantially expand the scope of work on cryogenic topics in our country as a whole and to achieve significant results. The results obtained have demanded a radical restructuring of processes for obtaining, storing, transporting and filling kriozhidkostey. Was fundamentally restructured industrial base in the future came relevant Resolution of the USSR Government, in 1972 created the largest scientific and allied industrial organization on this issue - NGO "Cryogenmash" (Balashikha, Moscow region), combining scientific and industrial groups. < / p>

    intercontinental ballistic missile R-9a (8k75)

    principal feature of the rocket was the incorporation of the adapter frame launch pad. With this amount of work declined sharply at the start, since all links docking "surface-to-board" is now carried on a technical position, after the rocket dock adapter frame, and at the start remained docked significantly fewer communications "earth-transition frame" ;. Another feature of the complex of the R-9A was a systemic solution to the problems associated with long-term storage of liquid oxygen. System was established hypothermia, prolonged storage and fueling of the rocket speed supercooled liquid oxygen and it solved the problem of long-term storage without loss. However, during the LCI revealed shortcomings ground launch complex "Desna-N". In particular, when this composition revealed disadvantages of assemblies and trigger section, and transition frames. Transition frame was very bulky and heavy, its weight reached 4.5 tons and was 50% of the dry weight of the rocket. Technological cycle launch preparation was insufficient automated, which lengthened the process of launching, require skilled fighting crew. Complex and lengthy installation process proved rocket on the launch pad, was not fast enough refueling propellants, launch preparation time was almost 2 hours All this has led to the fact that the starting complex "Desna-N" was not recommended for adopting.

    In May 1962, it was decided that a more perfect launch complex. It should be noted that the complex "Desna-N" has been rejected not because of gross structural failures - high combat and operational characteristics of the R-9A confirmed LKI, demanded the creation of even more advanced launch complex with a high level of combat readiness, ie . required to approach the rocket and launch site as a unified whole. OKB-1 was the parent company and the main ideologue of creating a new set of ground equipment for the R-9A. Was developed and produced new transitional frame, with a mass of less than 3 times the same. In CDB Transport Engineering was established effective device controlled by a single operator, the ability to set the rocket on the launch pad for 30 seconds. On the basis of the latest achievements of cryogenic technology system was created hypothermia, long-term storage without loss of speed and fueling of the rocket supercooled liquid oxygen, developed (in GSKB "Spetsmash") system speed refueling (kerosene T-1) pump-fed fuel. First in the OKB-1 was created and produced in the factory "Red Dawn" automated system of training missiles for launch (ASPS), and adopted her classical solutions used in the future for a number of new rockets. ASPS was a single automated system that covers the entire range of automatic control systems of individual units and systems of the launch complex. ASPS also managed operations for semi-automatic drain fuel components from tanks missiles for missed start, eat missiles with PU.

    Work at the site to create complex Baikonur "Valley" were soaring - in May 1962, a decision was made about the need to modernize the complex "Desna-N", and in late September at the site number 75 was completed and the installation of new launch complex "Valley". February 22, 1963 was successfully conducted the first launch from this launch complex. Observers at the time struck by the fact that automation provided almost complete lack of combat crew. Pallet truck with a rocket, leaving the assembly and testing stops and reaching the trigger, was connected to the hoisting installation device, which has risen to the upright position automatically docked all communications and perpetuated the rocket on the launch pad. This was followed by high-speed refueling propellants, training management system and aiming. All took 20 minutes instead of 2 hours on a complex "Desna-N". Mine launch complex "Desna-In" for the R-9 was built on the site number 70, it checks all estimates and the very possibility of a missile launch, seasoned with oxygen and kerosene from the mine. When starting from the mine perfected installation and operating documentation, construction technology silo launchers, etc. September 27, 1963 was held the first launch from the mine. He was successful. However, no casualties during the test rocket, alas, has not done - October 24, 1963 in the silos of the R-9A at the site Baikonur suffered a major fire, killing 8 people (in the history of the landfill on October 24 in general has become a "black date" - October 24, 1960 at preparing for tests of the R-16 explosion and fire, which resulted in 74 people were killed immediately, more than a dozen people died later of his wounds). For a final decision on the possibility of adopting the P-9 adopted was appointed the third stage LCI - Sc. "Joint LCI", bearing in mind that most of the work carried out regular military calculations, and industry representatives were carried out basically the role of observers. On February 11, 1963 to February 2, 1964, was put 25 missiles, 17 of them reached the goal. At three stages LCI for 3 years were spent rocket 54. After completion of flight tests of the missile R-9A with mine ("Desna-V") and ground ("Valley") launch was adopted by the Strategic Missile Force July 21, 1965. Its production in 1963 transferred to the Kuibyshev plant "Progress". Experience gained during start, and continuous improvement culture mass production at the plant "Progress" did their job - when serial control jettisoned missiles between May 15, 1964 on December 16, 1968 14 of 16 missiles have reached the goal.

    14 and December 15, 1964, respectively, began production on alert first four missile regiments with ground starts at two under Kozelsk (28 Guards Red Banner Missile Division) and Plesetsk, and December 26 - first missile regiment with silos under Kozelsk. DBK missile R-9A were on duty for more than 10 years and have been praised by the troops. However, by the time the decision on alert R-9A is not fully satisfy the requirements of the newest combat strategic missiles of the time. She belonged to the first generation of ICBMs and surpassing combat, technical and operational characteristics of a similar class American ICBM Titan I and Atlas F (at the beginning of setting R-9A on alert they already were being retired, all U.S. ICBM first generation were completely removed from service by the end of June 1965) and domestic R-7A and P-16U, it yielded new American ICBM Titan II and Minuteman IA / IB / II in terms of survivability, precision shooting and time of launching. Besides missile systems with R-9A were quite expensive to operate, which could not affect the scale of their deployment (of combat duty was delivered 27 units under Kozel'sk Omsk (20th Missile Division) and Tyumen (22th Missile Division), as well as on the Baikonur and Plesetsk). R-9A was the last battle in the grouping of Strategic Missile rocket on oxygen-kerosene fuels. She was decommissioned in 1977, the Strategic Missile Forces.

    In the West

    missile 8K75 (R-9A) received the designation SS-8 "Sasin".


    intercontinental ballistic missile R-9a (8k75) R-9A (see diagram) was a two-stage rocket with a serial stage separation. First stage consisted of an open lattice work, oxidizer tank, the instrument compartment, fuel tank and tail section. At the first stage was marching four-chamber RD-111 (8D716) oscillating combustion chambers, 141 tons of thrust and developed under the leadership of VP Glushko. Controlling cameras engine first stage was carried out for the first time developed a central hydraulic drive is used as the working fluid kerosene discharged after engine turbopump. Each of the four chambers deviate by ± 6 degrees. the neutral position, which ensures control rocket flight. The engine is a further development of the RD-107 R-7 rocket. Pressure in the chambers compared to the RD-107 rose to 80 atm. (20 atm.). With this engine RD-111 a very compact with a thrust of up to 75% higher than the RD-107. However, high pressure was one of the causes of high-frequency oscillations in the testing phase leads to frequent accidents. Unlike RD-107, THA is not to drive the hydrogen peroxide needed. Turbogaz produced in the gasifier by burning a small portion of the fuel. Initial promotion TNA made gunpowder starter. The second stage consisted of a conical and cylindrical parts. Conical body portion formed adapter, fuel tank and oxidizer tank with intertank sidewall. The cylindrical portion formed the tail section, which housed inside boosters. Fuel tank was made on the carrier scheme and oxidizer tank - in the form of a sphere (see diagram).

    On the second stage set four-chamber RD-0106 (8D715) SA design Kosberg. Manage missile carried by 4 rotating nozzles, use waste turbogas TNA. Aspiration tanks in flight and work TNA ensured through the main components of the combustion products of fuel that allows us to simplify the design of engines and reduce its weight. After appropriate revisions second stage took place the third stage of the rocket "Vostok", received the name "Block I" (upgraded OS is called "Sunrise", "Lightning", "Union" for various types of modifications and payload). Rocket propulsion developed taking into account the speed of the rocket fuel filling tanks, missiles stay Wet within 24 hours of remote control operations at the start, maximum automation training to start, start the engine of the 1st stage as automatically signal the end of refueling tanks components or manually, at the right time, without opening the hatches and wait staff without access to the units and appliances missiles. Stability was achieved using rocket stabilizers first stage. Each of the stabilizers 4 consisted of two parts: a strut rigidly connected to the housing and a removable console. When transporting the console filmed. R-9A has a relatively short portion of the first control stage, so that the separation occurred at the height of the steps, where the influence of the dynamic pressure on the rocket is still considerably short in length and the second stage was aerodynamically unstable. To increase the resistance on the surface of the tail section of the fairing second stage set aerodynamic shields. Separation steps occur on a "hot" circuit, which includes the opening of a power rack. After separation of the tail cone compartment was discharged, thereby, the missile has facilitated x 800 kg.

    The rocket was set

    combined control system, which had an inertial system and radio correction channel. Its instruments were placed in mezhbakovovom compartment. Circular error probable point of impact when firing warhead at a range of over 12,000 km using radio was 1.6 km. Eventually of radio subsystem refused, while CWE has deteriorated somewhat. For R-9A were developed two variants of monobloc thermonuclear warheads: native "light" and "heavy". Native "light" had power of 1.65 Mt, it reached 14,000 km range. "Heavy" MS had a capacity of 2.5 Mt and could be delivered at a distance of 12,500 km. Warhead was attached to the adapter second stage with two pirozamkov. Her office was carried off after pnevmotolkatelem sustainer rocket engine second stage. To work pnevmotolkatelya gases used fuel tank pressurization stage 2. Technical readiness R-9A for the launch of the position number 1 was 10 min.

    principal feature of the R-9A for ground complex was the incorporation of the adapter frame launch pad. The fact that the preparation for launching missiles required to attach occurs to produce a large number of rocket (up to 50) ground hydraulic, pneumatic, and electrocommunications. It was proposed to create a transition frame launch pad with seating on her bulk of nodes joining terrestrial systems with a missile. Another innovation was the gutter board communications (JBK). In this trough, which stretches along the generator of the second stage to the launch pad, were laid hydraulic and electrical communication required to communicate with missiles "ground" to the very last seconds. Usually numerous tubes and cables connecting the missile with ground equipment are part of the design of a rocket and fly together it is unnecessary burden. Rocket R-9A everything that does not need a flight, moved to JBK who returned fire from the rocket before separation from the table. Savings of, on assurances creators missiles "hundreds of pounds." Rocket R-9A, designed to start from the mine, had the adapter frame and concrete structures had changed before the start of construction and not discarded, but are detached from the rocket and was driven to the wall of glass.

    complex "Desna-B" consisted of three mines (see map), located in one line, not far from each other, command center, storage fuel components and compressed gases, paragraph radio and technical equipment required to maintain a stock of liquid oxygen. All the structures were buried and interconnected communication trenches. Individual power supply provides a diesel power plant. Under the trigger table, placed at a depth of 25 m, there were three floors for fueling equipment. Inside the concrete structure of the mine was placed steel beaker diameter of about 8 m gap between the mine and served a glass flue for jets rocket motor at start. Training and start-up performance of the R-9A proceeded automatically, with remote control of each team. Since radio system provides guidance only one rocket, launch missiles while using it can be done only in sequence.

    Regarding silo construction for R-9A between the OKB-1 and leadership RVSN disagreement. OKB invited to post on one mine next to any settlement. This saves money in the construction of special military camps with all household services in remote and inaccessible areas. In addition, according to representatives of the OKB-1, significant cargo traffic to the construction sites in remote areas of the country would inevitably attracted the attention of potential enemy intelligence, whereas single shaft option in settlements could be easily disguised. But the military leadership, received crucial support Khrushchev insisted on taking the option away from silo location densely populated places. Semi-automatic ground launch pad "Valley" had a total 2 PU (each with a fixed installer), buried CP, diked storage of fuel components, storage of missiles and pristartovy point radio. Complex "Valley" provide an almost complete lack of combat based on the starting position. Pallet truck with a rocket, leaving the assembly and testing, and stops on reaching PU, was connected to the lifting-adjusting device, which has risen to the upright position automatically docked all communications and perpetuated the rocket on the launch pad (thanks to the launch pad frame transition and JBK volume work at the start declined sharply). Design service provided rocket on the launch pad in an upright position without any special tools and without opening the hatches. This was followed by high-speed filling components of rocket fuels, training management system and aiming. Prelaunch test onboard systems practically reduced to preoperational inclusion and regulation. All operations were combined maximum time. All took no more than 20 min.


    firing range, km


    starting weight, t


    Dimensions, m:
    - Length
    - The maximum diameter of the body


    throws weight, t


    Power MS, MT


    CWE km


    Fuel weight, t


    Weight untucked missiles, t


    Engine Stage 1:
    - Pull the Earth, n
    - Thrust in vacuum, n
    - Specific impulse of the Earth, kgfs / kg
    - Specific impulse in vacuum, kgfs / kg
    - While working with
    - Weight, t


    Engine Stage 2:
    - Thrust in vacuum, n
    - While working with



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