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Intercontinental ballistic missile Topol (RS-12M)

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    Basing

    :

    chassis

    management system:

    management software

    Warhead:

    spetsboepripasov

    Application:

    Strategic

    Country:

    Russia

    Range:

    10500 km.

    year development:

    1988

    intercontinental ballistic missile Topol (RS-12M) Developing a strategic mobile complex" Topol "15ZH58 (RS-12M) with a three-stage intercontinental ballistic missile, suitable for placement on a self-propelled wheeled chassis (based on solid-fuel ICBM RT-2P) was launched at the Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology under the leadership of Alexander Nadiradze in 1975. Decision of the Government on the development of the complex came July 19, 1977. After the death of Nadiradze work was continued under the leadership of Boris Lagutin. Mobile "Topol" was supposed to be the answer to improving the accuracy of U.S. ICBMs. Required to create a complex with high survivability achieved not reliable construction of shelters, and the creation of the enemy vague ideas about the location of missiles.

    By late autumn 1983 experienced a series of new missiles, the designation RT-2PM, was built. December 23, 1983 at Plesetsk began flight tests. For all their timing was unfortunate only one start. In general, the missile demonstrated high reliability. There also were tested and all combat units DBK. In December 1984, the main series of tests has been completed. However, there was a delay in the development of certain elements of the complex are not directly connected with a missile. The entire test program was successfully completed in December 1988.

    decision to start serial production systems adopted in December 1984. Serial production deployed in 1985.

    In 1984, construction began on the stationary structures and equipment based combat patrol routes mobile missile complexes "Poplar". Construction objects placed in position areas removed from duty ICBM RT-2P and UR-100, located in silos OS. Later started equipping position areas removed from service under the contract of INF medium-range "Pioneer".

    In order to gain experience operating the new complex in units in 1985 it was decided to expand the first missile regiment in Yoshkar-Ola, without waiting for the completion of a program of joint trials. July 23, 1985 the first regiment of mobile "Topol" atonement for combat duty under Yoshkar-Ola on-site deployment of missiles RT-2P. Later "Poplars" entered service division stationed under Teykovo and which had previously armed ICBMs UR-100 (8K84).

    April 28, 1987 on combat duty near Nizhny Tagil atonement missile regiment armed "Topol" with a mobile command post "Barrier". PKP "Barrier" has repeatedly protected duplicated radio command system. On a mobile launcher control panel "Barrier" posted missile command and control. After its launch missiles transmitter gives the command to launch an ICBM.

    December 1, 1988 a new missile system was officially adopted for the Strategic Missile Forces of the USSR. In the same year, a full-scale deployment of missile regiments with the complex "Topol" and the simultaneous de-alerting obsolete ICBMs. May 27, 1988 on combat dezhurctvo near Irkutsk atonement first regiment ICBM "Topol" with advanced enterprise "Granite" and automated control system.

    By mid-1991 was deployed 288 missiles of this type. In 1999, the Strategic Missile Forces was 360 PU missile complexes "Poplar". They were on duty in ten position areas. In each district based on four - five regiments. In service of each regiment - nine autonomous launchers and a mobile command post.

    Missile Division "Topol" were deployed near the cities of Barnaul, Upper Salda (Nizhny Tagil) Vypolzovo (Bologoye), Yoshkar-Ola, Teykovo, Yurya, Novosibirsk, Kansk, Irkutsk, as well as near the village of Wood Chita region. Nine regiments (81 launcher) were deployed in the missile division in Belarus - for Lida, Mozyr and deliver. After the collapse of the USSR part of the "Topol" remained outside Russia, on the territory of Belarus. August 13, 1993 was launched conclusion SMF grouping "Topol" from Belarus, November 27, 1996 it was completed.

    the west range was designated SS-25 "Sickle".

    Composition

    intercontinental ballistic missile Topol (RS-12M) Launch RT-2PM performed on the circuit with three stages of marching and fighting. To ensure high energomassovogo perfection and increase the firing range in all stages of propulsion was used a new high-density fuel with a specific impulse, increased by a few units compared with fillers created earlier engines and hull upper stages were first made continuous winding of organoplastic scheme " cocoon. " Complex technical problems appeared on the front bottom of the hull top level node cutoff thrust reversing eight bells and "windows" slashing DUZ'ami (RMD - detonating extended charge) in organoplastikovoy power design.

    first stage of the rocket consists of a solid propellant sustainer and aft compartment on the outer surface of which there are aerodynamic rudders and stabilizers. Main engine nozzle has one still. The second stage consists of structurally connecting compartment and solid propellant sustainer. The third step has almost the same structure, but its composition further includes transition compartment which is attached to the head portion.

    Autonomy, inertial control system developed in NGOs Automation and Instrumentation, led by Vladimir Lapygina. Sighting system developed under the leadership of the Kiev factory "Arsenal" Seraphim Parnyakova. Inertial control system has its own on-board computer, which resulted in high accuracy. On domestic sources of circular error probable (CEP) when firing at maximum range is 400m, according to Western sources - 150-200m. The control system provides control of rocket flight, routine maintenance and a rocket launcher, prelaunch preparation and launch missiles without turning launcher. All transactions prelaunch and launch fully automated.

    "Poplar" is equipped with a set of decoys. Missile flight control is carried out by gas-jet and rotary lattice aerodynamic control surfaces. Created new nozzle apparatus solid motors. Designed to ensure stealth camouflage, false systems, means of camouflage. As with previous mobile complexes Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering, "Topol" may start as a combat patrol route, and while parked in the garage with a retractable roof shelters. For this launcher posted on jacks. Readiness of the receipt of the order to the missile launch was brought up to two minutes. For new systems were developed mobile and fixed command posts. Mobile command post command and control ICBM "Topol" is placed on the basis of a four-MAZ-543M. Used for fire control and mobile command centers "Barrier" and "Granit" missile equipped with a transmitter instead of payload, which you launch missiles carried duplication command to start for PU are in position areas.

    During operation the missile is in the transport and launch container mounted on a mobile launcher. It is mounted on the base semiosnogo heavy chassis MAZ. The launch is made from a vertical position with the help of powder pressure accumulator placed in transport and launch container.

    intercontinental ballistic missile Topol (RS-12M)

    Launcher (see diagram) developed in Volgograd CDB "Titan" led by Valerian Sobolev and Victor Shurygina. Launcher mounted on the chassis semiosnogo tractor MAZ-7912 (later - MAZ-7917 14x12 wheel formula. This machine 80s equipped with diesel engine 710 hp.). Minsk Automobile engine with Yaroslavl Motor Plant. Chief designer Vladimir raketovoza Tsvyalev. Solid charges engines developed Ljuberetsky NGO "Union" under the leadership of Boris Zhukov (later headed the union Zinovy Pak). Composite materials and container designed and manufactured in CRI Special Engineering under the direction of Victor Protasova. Steering transmissions and transmissions propelled rocket launcher developed in the Moscow Central Research Institute of Automatics and Hydraulics. Nuclear warhead created the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, under the leadership of Samvel Kocharyants.

    was originally set lifetime warranty rocket 10 years. Later, the warranty period is extended to 15 years. Mobile command post command and control ICBM "Topol" was placed on a four-chassis MAZ-543M. Used for fire control and mobile command centers "Barrier" and "Granit" missile equipped with a transmitter instead of payload, which you launch missiles carried duplication command to start for PU are in position areas.

    PERFORMANCE

    Maximum range, km

    10000

    Missile length

    21,5

    starting weight, t

    45

    Mass

    warhead t

    1

    curb weight of the first stage, t

    27,8

    length of the first stage, m

    8,1

    length of the second stage, m

    4,6

    length of the third stage, m

    3,9

    length warhead m

    2,1

    Diameter

    first stage, m

    1,8

    Diameter

    second stage, m

    1,55

    Diameter

    third stage, m

    1,34

    Diameter transport and launch container, m

    2

    The area

    combat patrol complex km2

    125 000

    tests and operation

    intercontinental ballistic missile Topol (RS-12M) PGRK" Topol "went on trial in February 1983. The first launch took place on February 8 at Plesetsk. This and the next two launches were made from a refitted mines stationary missile RT-2P. One start-ended unsuccessfully.

    produced annually by one control rocket launch "Topol" from Plesetsk. The high reliability of the complex by the fact that during his testing and operation produced about fifty control and test launches of missiles. They all went smoothly.

    November 29, 2005. was carried out combat training ICBM RS-12M "Topol" mobile home from the Plesetsk cosmodrome in the direction of the Kura test site in Kamchatka. Training warhead missiles with a given accuracy struck conditional target on the Kamchatka Peninsula range. The main purpose of starting - to check the reliability of the equipment. Rocket stood on duty 20 years. This is the first case in the practice of not only domestic but also international rocket - the launch of successful solid-fuel missile, which was in operation for so many years.

    Based ICBM "Topol" conversion developed space launch vehicle "Start". Missile launches "Start" made from Plesetsk and free.





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