Medium-range anti-radar missiles Kh-28




    management system:

    Radar GOS








    90 km.

    year development:


    anti-radiation missile medium-range x-28

    Aviation anti-radiation missile Kh-28 (product 93, the D-8) is designed for medium-range combat ground and shipboard radar developed IBC "Rainbow" under the leadership of Chief Designer I. Selezneva by order of the USSR Council of 10 January 1963

    X-28 was created using constructive solutions range missiles Kh-22 and DAC-5 and is like a miniature copy of them.

    Rocket X-28 was included in the complex K-28P as part of front-line fighter-bomber Yak-28N and two Kh-28. Test carrier aircraft Yak-28N were launched in 1966, but in mass production it was not running. By the early 1970s. production of aircraft Yak-28 ceased, so as a carrier of X-28 in 1973 were used fighter-bombers Su-17M and Su-24.

    fighter-bomber Su-17M, which was being built in 1972, could carry only one missile Kh-28. Launcher PU-28C was suspended under the fuselage, and a container with equipment "Blizzard-A" for the exploration and development of the enemy's radar targeting issued for onboard equipment missiles mounted on pylons under the fixed part of the wing.

    in 1976 were completed testing of the Su-24, which could carry two Kh-28. The Su-24 was set station for intelligence purposes and target designation "Owl". Fighter-bomber Su-17M was 1-seater, and the Su-24, except for the pilot, navigator, was capable of more qualitatively assess the situation and make decisions on the use of missiles. In addition to these aircraft carrier X-28 was a MiG-23B.

    Currently, X-28 decommissioned Russian Air Force. Has been replaced by the Kh-58, Kh-25MP, Kh-31P.

    Rocket X-28 was exported to foreign countries, Costoyalsya Air Force Yugoslavia, Libya, Iraq and countries - participants of the Warsaw Pact. Used in operations Iraqi Air Force called "Nissan-28" in the Iran-Iraq war.

    the west missile was designated AS-9 "Kyle".


    anti-radiation missile medium-range x-28 The Kh-28 (see projection layout scheme) is arranged on a normal aerodynamic scheme. A cylindrical housing, along the length of variable diameter. At the bow mounted fairing GSH ogival shape. Wings trapezoidal shape in plan, with straight back and leading edge sweep (sweep angle of 75 °).

    tselnopovorotnym control surfaces, horizontal surfaces is repeated in terms of wing shape. Vertical tail consists of two parts - the top all movable control and lower foldable unmanageable. Drive rudders - EGS electro-40L. Power is supplied from the battery monoampulnoy A-221 through the converter PTO-300/500K.

    On X-28 set two-chamber liquid jet engine R-253-300, developed in OKB-300 under the leadership of SK Tumanskiy.

    guidance system - passive radar seeker type PWG-28M. GOS developed in CDB-111 (NGOs "Automatic" Omsk, Ch. A. Kirchuk a constructor). The missile can be equipped with three types of passive radar GSH for guidance on land and shipboard radar, working in three main frequency bands. Autopilot - APR-28 is designed in the SRI-923 (chief designer Antipov EF).

    Kinetic heating in flight at high speeds (up to M = 3) made to install on the wing leading edges and tail lining of refractory material press. The structure itself was carried out mainly from heat resistant materials - steel ZOHGSA, EI-65I and special duralumin D19. Bulky nose cone size 1250x300 mm was made of fiberglass by special technology that combines high radioparency with the required strength and heat resistance. Nevertheless, for a given health first series X-28 had to complete three different cones, designed for a specific wavelength range. Later achieved 'enlightenment' fairings and required radiotransparency required throughout the frequency spectrum.

    9A283 warhead weighing 155 kg was carrying 74 kg of explosives, and was equipped with electromechanical fuse pin-host computer 139 and proximity fuse DOM-5 providing undermining warhead in the air at the height optimal for the destruction of the radar. Warhead was mounted in the housing end, the fuel and oxidizer tanks had intertank compartment and were performed by a combined scheme. peculiarity missiles became possible to install it on the replacement warheads, including nuclear (X-28 was to "crack" of enemy air defenses, clearing the way for groups of attack aircraft).

    Pipelines supplying fuel components and pneumatic valves were installed in the box (fairing). In fairing was also an angular velocity sensor autopilot, set around mid-length rocket that minimized the impact on the flexural vibrations Measured angular deviations missiles. Behind the tanks, compartments placed elements interfacing with carrier systems and electromechanical transducer PTO-300/500K behind them - the main unit autopilot APR-28 and A-monoampulnaya battery 221. The tail part of the rocket took electrohydraulic actuator elements EGS-40L and liquid rocket engine R-253-300.

    Carriers X-28 became the Su-17M-24iSu (M2, MS), and X-large size demanded a 28 on the original Su-17 Revised: in ventral suspension rocket had to install panel podshtampovka under her keel and the lower keel formed, like the "big" missile Kh-22 and DAC-5. Suspension itself Plane launcher PU-28C was not easy - it weighed 100 kg bar.

    equipment provisioning and management missile system was placed on the Su-17 in a hanging container (system "Blizzard-A" and "Snowstorm-AB", differing in the range), and the Su-24 was on board the aircraft (the system " owl-H "). With their help, the GOS and SP preparing to launch a rocket to give information on the direction of the radar bearing and pitch angles, programmed flight profile and output to the target. Receiving antenna using "Snowstorm" served seeker, "Owl" was itself a passive PAC equipment and antennas used to detect and DF goals and then entering data into the missiles. Autonomous search and defeat with "Snowstorm" proved too difficult. Aimed launch X-28 could only be on the radar target, the position of which was already established, and the task of the pilot was to be released in the planned start-up zone, binding to landmarks and after capturing an object GOS start performing.

    Significant weight and size X-28, ultimately, were the result of the requirements for it and the level of equipment of the time: circular error probability was 20 m, which required powerful warhead to reliably and without a direct hit. LRE with starting a thrust exceeding 8000 kg, to provide high speed and range (in operation, under the terms of the speed and altitude launch, it is limited to 30 - 35 km, although at high altitudes it could be much more) brought a lot of operational difficulties. Keep rocket 235 kg curb "soaring" oxidizer AK-27P (a mixture of nitric acid and nitrous oxide) and no less caustic and toxic fuel TG-02, a long time it was impossible, and after draining the tanks required to thoroughly wash and dry the neutralizing solution, which required special equipment, time and effort, and work is ensured even at fixed airfields, not to mention the field. Set of equipment and test equipment deployed at special sites training missiles PPR-28, and all work is carried out in protective special suit.



    5970 (6040)


    fuselage diameter, mm


    Wingspan mm


    Starting weight

    missiles kg

    690 (715)

    Weight warhead 9A283, kg


    firing range, km
    - Project
    - From a height of 5km
    - From low altitudes

    90-110 (120)

    flight speed, m / s


    Altitude, m


    circular error probable, m


    probability of hitting the target



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