Missile systems 15P098 with ICBMs 8K98 (15P098P/8k98P)



    Mine PU

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    9600 km.

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    combat missile 15p098 with ICBMs 8k98 (15p098p/8k98p) missile systems (DBK) 15P098 - the first national strategic complex equipped with solid-fuel intercontinental ballistic missile RT-2 (8K98). Development of a three-stage solid-propellant ICBMs RT-2 (8K98) was launched in the OKB-1 under the leadership of Sergei Korolev in accordance with the government of the USSR on April 4, 1961. Leading designer - deputy chief designer of OKB-1 I. Sadowski. Engines of the first and third stages are created in Perm KBM engine of the second stage - the Leningrad CDB-7. Charges engines of the first and second stages of the Altai Research Institute developed HT charge of third-stage engine - Perm SRI-130 (Research Institute of Polymer Materials). Silo launcher of a single launch (silos "OS") and command post designed to CDB-34 (KB Special Engineering Leningrad) under the direction of VV Chernetskii and EG Rudyak. Autonomous inertial control system is developed in the Research Institute under the direction of Nicholas AP Pilyugina. Remote control system startup created by OKB "Impulse" led by Taras Sokolov. Serial production deployed in 1966 at the Perm Machine-Building Plant named after VI Lenin, in 1967, extended to the issue of chemical plant equipment Perm (PZHO).

    tests took place on February 5, 1966 to October 3, 1968 at the Kapustin Yar and Plesetsk. In the course of the State 17 flight tests conducted with single missile KP DBK and first produced three singles and one trehraketny volley (28 August 1968) with GSH UKP. Initially working out of combat duty regime began with one command post (CP) and three launchers, in the future the number of launchers has been brought up to 10. Resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers № 1004-3 of December 13, 1968 DBK 15P098 was adopted by the Soviet Army. By 1971, Yoshkar-Ola under was built 60 series launchers comprising 6 DBK 15P098.

    This rocket was the first solid-fuel ICBM, adopted by the Strategic Missile Forces, and is essentially a transition from the second launch of the third generation. Important features of the complex 15P098 were ease of use, high technical readiness of missiles, serving a relatively small number of units and the lack of refueling. At the same time ICBM RT-2 significantly inferior to a number of parameters of the American "Minuteman 2" created around the same years.

    Resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of 18 December 1968 is set 8K98 missile modernization in the complex 15P098. Upgradable complex has received index 15PO98P missile - 8K98P. The missile was developed in CDB-7 under the direction of Peter Tyurin. State tests of the complex began in December 1969 and ended January 14, 1972 production of 15 starts (13 of them - it was successful). In the period from 1974 to 1982 was the serial production of missiles 8K98P.

    Since adopting and until 1987 inclusive missiles were post-warranty service for the various research programs of the Ministry of Defence. Program ended in flight missile launches from Plesetsk. Launches invariably confirmed high reliability missiles, including the timing of operation from 15 to 17 years.

    the time of signing in 1991 of the START-1 (under this contract is designated missile RS-12) was on duty 40 RT-2P. Fulfill the obligations of the Soviet Union on the implementation of the agreement combat missile 15PO98P was listed and removed from service during the period from 1992 to 1995 was completely eradicated.

    Complexes 15P098 and 15P098P were designated NATO SS-13 "Savage" mod1 and mod2, respectively.


    Launch RT-2 (see layout scheme) had three marching steps. In the diagram: 1 - head part 2 - coupling section 3 - the instrument compartment, 4, 9, 15 - Trunking, 5 - sustainer stage III, 6 - III stage 7 - the tail section of stage III, 8, 13 - connecting the farm 10 - sustainer stage II, 11 - II stage, 12 - tail section of stage II, 14 - support-leading times, 16 - sustainer stage I, 17 - I stage, 18 - tail section stage I, 19 - aerodynamic stabilizers, 20 - tray with musculoskeletal leading belt. For docking steps between an applied connecting truss sections that allowed freely out gases from running engines when "shooting" staging. Between the third-stage rocket and warhead located instrument compartment and an adapter for fixing MS. All SRBs were made in different diameters, nozzle blocks rocket engines had four split control nozzle consisting of fixed and moving parts. Envisaged the possibility of a combination of rocket stages by RT-2 to develop missiles of intermediate range. The missile was equipped with a detachable gooseneck nuclear warhead in flight with a capacity of 600kt thermonuclear charge.

    Marching solid propellant propulsion first (15D23) and second (15D24) to have the same constructive scheme and consisted of a cylindrical steel shells with elliptical front and rear bottoms. Front bottoms placed igniters solid propellant charges. Solid propellant charges were made from composite propellant based on butyl rubber and ammonium perchlorate with the addition of aluminum powder. Nozzle blocks, steering gear and part of the control system devices were placed in the tail section of steps that took the shape of a truncated cone. To improve the stability of the rocket at the initial stage of the flight at the tail section of the first stage is equipped with four lattice stabilizer.

    third stage on assembly scheme was similar to the first two, but had differences in hull design and solid propellant charge, the tail section. Also this stage engine - 15D25 had thrust cutoff device. The rocket was mounted inertial control system, flight control of missiles since start up and go to the head of the uncontrolled flight. In the control system have been applied computing devices. Most of the devices SU housed in the instrument compartment.

    All parameters

    RT-2 rocket (fuel distribution between the stages, diameter motors, while they work, the pressure in the combustion chamber and at the nozzle exit, etc.) were chosen close to optimal. And yet, the RT-2 rocket required further improvement. Thus, the composite fuel formed in individual molds, then charge embedded in the body, and the gap between the charge and the case was filled binder - this created some difficulties in the manufacture of solid propellant rockets.

    Rockets placed in silos such as "OS" interconnected power lines, command and control, data transmission and communication. Technical inspection and commissioning carried out remotely via commands from the unified command post 15U52 developed in LACA under the leadership of EG Rudyak. At the command post for the crews carrying duty, created quite comfortable with the latest requirements of ergonomics. The structure consisted of 10 DBK launchers.

    launcher 15P798 (see layout scheme) including: special construction equipment 15U7, 15U9 protective devices and devices depreciation gidrostabilizatora sighting system (custodian direction) 15U43 were developed in LACA. Rocket having obtyuriruyuschie belt rested without clearance by the glass starting with a dull head and started marching to their own engine. Starting position for combat delivered in a container separate the first stage and docked separately the second and third stage of the rocket.

    The composition of ground equipment complex also included (developer KB "Motor", the chief designer born VA):

    Freight loading machine (TRV) and 15U39 15U40 for receiving (issue) of the isothermal block rocket railcar or connect carts, transporting blocks within the GMD and block-loading (unloading) rocket launcher (TRV made on the basis MAZ-537E tractor with semitrailer activated on the go);

    isothermal 15T21 docking machine designed to transport warheads within the GMD and docking them to the rockets in the launcher;

    docking carts to work with a missile in the housing inspections;

    isothermal railway wagon with a sliding block-frame for transporting rockets from the factory in position area (developer SKB Kalinin Carriage Works, Chief Designer LD Novikov).

    routine machines for various complex systems on the basis of all-terrain vehicle "Ural 375".

    This complex was first adopted and brought to life by way beckranovoy overload missiles in all operations conducted with her in military units and at the test site, which worked very well, securing the transfer operations. The design of the launcher 15P798 was introduced many new promising solutions. One of the biggest technological challenges was the task of creating a trigger nozzle for mass production. Since the missile its leaned obtyuriruyuschimi surfaces on the inner surface of the glass, it was necessary to ensure the accuracy of inner diameter of nozzle is not lower than grade 5 (on the glass 22 400 mm in length and 2208 mm in diameter it was necessary to ensure access to the inside diameter of 2.5 mm). In the manufacture of steel cup for experimental launcher CM-170A and 3-cup 15U7 it became clear that to ensure these requirements on steel glasses can only be due to the time-consuming manual rework inner surface of the glass in the field of welded joints. Therefore, as the material of construction was chosen for a glass fiberglass. Glass was made by winding, which immediately solved the problem of ensuring the accuracy of its inner surface. To resolve technical issues on fiberglass and prototyping a specialized organization was involved - SPKB (Hotkovo Moscow region). Serial production of launchers cup was organized at the "Plastics" in s.Safonovo Smolensk region. The factory was built a special workshop of 40ga where placed winding production, polymerization ovens products, as well as the production of finished products for the treatment of fiberglass (processing ends and joints, holes and other operations). Shop was constructed separately for preparatory operations - impregnation of fabrics with epoxy resin before winding. With the commissioning of the plant is the question of the supply of fiberglass cup was resolved dramatically.

    In accordance with TTT, which created complex 15P098, provided an order of magnitude reduction in the time of his readiness compared with complexes of the first generation. Of all ground equipment involved in the start, it was critical when opening protective equipment (protective roof launcher). Protective devices launchers that were used on the complexes of the first generation had two-stroke electric or electro-hydraulic drive and could not ensure that the TTT in time due to lack of required facilities (PU mode autonomy on battery power). In addition, placement drives roof required an increase in headroom areas of a building structure, which increases the burden on the trunk of a nuclear explosion and created additional problems for depreciation rocket

    combat missile 15p098 with ICBMs 8k98 (15p098p/8k98p)

    decision was proposed and then implemented VS Ushakov, who proposed a fundamentally new type of protective device inertia with single-cycle engine powder, with minimum power consumption, running only at harnessing pyro aid. Lifting of the roof needed to tear the seals carried out in the initial part of the roof displacement follower sections of track. Effectiveness of the protective device is created: seven pound charge of gunpowder IMP-2 provides opening roof weighing 40 tons per 0.3 seconds. Ensure reliable operation of the protective device is provided by means of initiation triplication powder charge. Was a thorough bench testing of protective roof. In tests reproduced piles of soil and trees, freezing and snow drifts that protective device easily overcome. In the process of LCI and more than twenty complex operation of the protective device failures were observed.

    To ensure the safety

    missiles against a nuclear explosion on the launcher first applied the pendulum suspension with coil springs and hydraulic dampers. When starting vertical suspension stopper special devices in hydraulic dampers, horizontal suspension not stop. In launcher was first used automatic aiming system with gyroscopic direction keeper. To ensure its safety was established pendulum damping system with air cushioning, providing a very small overload guardian directions, high accuracy after his return to the starting position fluctuations and the short oscillation damping.

    When an improved DBK 15P098P object steel missile modernization and equipment of the complex in terms of:

    Translation of all rocket engines to a single solid propellant;

    introduction of a complex decoys;

    modernization management system, provide storage in the memory of two flight missions with remote selection of one of them;

    sector expansion without increasing the firing time prelaunch;

    increase the range and accuracy of fire;

    technical decisions to exclude unauthorized missile launch;

    Revised launcher 15U7M.

    By its dimensions and mass and geometrical characteristics of the missile RT-2P similar RT-2 rocket, but the tactical and technical data significantly exceed the latter.

    Upgraded RT-2P (see diagram) carried a single warhead with a thermonuclear charge capacity of 750kt. Was also provided the opportunity to install the shared (up to eight) warheads. Complex decoys enemy "Birch", provides in-flight radar deception and distortion characteristics programmed for disposal of the rocket's third stage, the combined emission of numerous decoys, was developed under the leadership of Vitaly CRIRE Gerasimenko.

    Launch RT-2P equips solid propellant based on butyl rubber having high ductility with no noticeable aging and cracking during storage. This fuel is poured directly into the motor housing, and then made the necessary polymerization and formation of surface charge burning.


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