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Mrbm Pershing-2 (MGM-31C)

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    Basing

    :

    chassis

    management system:

    management software

    Warhead:

    spetsboepripasov

    Application:

    Land-Plot

    Country:

    U.S.

    Range:

    1,800 km.

    year development:

    1983

    mrbm pershing-2 (mgm-31c) By the mid-70s in the United States returned to the ballistic medium-range missiles. This was caused by a change in military balance with the Soviet Union. Real opportunity to gain a powerful retaliatory strike on its territory forced the U.S. strategists and politicians look for an acceptable way out of the situation. Developed the concept of "limited nuclear war", which consisted in the transfer of a nuclear conflict on the territory of Europe, with the capture and the Soviet Union. In 1972, theoretical study on this issue, that pozvoltlo develop a set of tactical and technical requirements for the future missile system.

    Since mid 70s near the missile firms conducted development work on the formation of the complex. Firm won "Martin-Marietta Aerospace", which deal with full-scale development was signed in 1979.

    Design work was completed by 1982. And in April, a rocket to get to that time the name "Pershing-2", entered the flight test. Scheduled for 14 control and 14 military launches. The first two launches, held June 22 and 19 November, were unsuccessful. But designers to quickly understand the reasons for these failures, and has the following 7 test starts at a range from 100 to 1650 km were successful. A total of 18 test launches, after which a decision was made on the adoption of the missile complex "Pershing-2" on the arms of the 56th Brigade of the U.S. Army.

    Composition

    mrbm pershing-2 (mgm-31c) In its kompovochnoy scheme" Pershing-2 "is a two-stage missile with a serial stage separation docked with the head part through transition compartments. A characteristic feature is the placement of missile control systems in its head. and the presence of the cut-off thrust on both solid steps.

    Design SRBs (designed by "Hercules") sustainer stages were similar and consisted of the following main elements:

    hull of a composite material based on a material "Kevlar 49" with a heat insulating coating,

    nozzle block rigidly fastened to the body of the solid charge,

    igniter,

    drive thrust vector control

    cutoff traction system.

    Designers used

    slopla with a high degree of expansion, which rejected using electrically controlled hydraulic drive. While the engines to full fuel burn-55 and 40 seconds for the first and second stages, respectively. Application of cutoff traction afforded a wide range of flight range.

    head part consisted of three sections: the front (with sensors located therein undermining warhead and guidance system elements), medium (warhead) and rear (inertial control system and actuators).

    rocket flight control at the boost phase for pitch and yaw deviation was carried out by solid propellant rocket nozzles. Roll-control in the area of the engine of the first stage was carried out by two aerodynamic rudders mounted on the tail Osek this stage. Two other vehicles stationed there, fixed rigidly and acted as stabilizers. During the second stage of solid propellant management roll by four aerodynamic control surfaces of the head.

    management system supplemented homing warhead on the final trajectory on the radar map area (system RADAG). Such a system for ballistic missiles before used. Complex command devices located on a stabilized platform placed in a cylindrical body, and had its electronic control unit. Work management system provides onboard digital vychislstelny complex, located in 12 removable modules, and protected aluminum housing.

    mrbm pershing-2 (mgm-31c)

    RADAG system consisted of airborne radar and correlator. RLS was screened and had two antenna unit. One of them was intended to obtain radar images of terrain luminance. Another - to determine the altitude. Image of ring-type under head often gets by scanning around the vertical axis with an angular speed of 2 rev / s. Four reference image the target area for different heights stored in memory digital computer as a matrix, each cell of which is a radar brightness of the corresponding section of the countryside, recorded double-digit binary number. To a matrix similar to the body of the actual from the radar image of the terrain, which when compared with the standard can be determined inertial error.

    Flight warhead adjusted executive bodies - jet nozzle operated from a compressed gas cylinder outside the atmosphere, and the aerodynamic control surfaces hydraulically operated upon entering the atmosphere. As missile warheads carrying nuclear monoblock variable tratilovym equivalent. Before the start of the start control point calculation could choose one of four possible capacity: 0.3, 2, 10, 80 kt. To defeat the objects of highly developed penetrating deep into the earth to 50-70 m nuclear charge.

    Rocket "Pershing-2" was placed on the starting device, mounted on a wheeled trailer, and before the start polnimalas upright. Rocket had no transport and launch container, and to protect it from exposure to precipitation, dust and dirt used special cases. Before the start of it was converted into a vertical position. All combat and support units were mounted on a self-propelled chassis.

    PERFORMANCE

    Range, km

    650 - 1800

    Length, m

    10.6

    maximum body diameter, m

    1.02

    Starting weight, t

    7.4

    Power warhead, CT

    0.3, 2, 10, 80

    circular error probable, m

    50

    Ready to start, s

    30

    tests and operation

    mrbm pershing-2 (mgm-31c) In the West German territory on three missile operating bases were deployed 108 launchers (120 missiles) for missiles" Pershing-2 " . In peacetime, all missiles and equipment, usually located in the stationary hangars. Provided for the transfer to the higher degree of combat readiness output them in wooded areas of Bavaria, where the missile batteries held starting positions and prepared to carry out combat missions. The flight time "Pershing-2" to objects placed in the center of the European part of the USSR, was only 8-10 minutes, making them very dangerous first-strike weapon.

    As Soviet medium-range missiles "Pershing-2" came under the INF Treaty. All 120 deployed and non-deployed 127 missiles that were in the U.S. by mid-1991 were eliminated.

    There is information about the use of control and guidance "Pershing-2" rocket target "Hera". It is collected from the second and third stages decommissioned intercontinental missiles "Minuteman-2." United States at the time filming this unit with missiles destroyed "Pershing-2" and stockpiled it. Pentagon unit - Organization for the Protection of ballistic missiles - actively using the "Hera" as Scud simulator tests at two of its missile defense systems: "THAAD" and "Patriot" PAC-3. Russian military classified "Hera" as a ground-based ballistic missile (GLBM) medium range. Creation, production and deployment of such weapons INF Treaty prohibits

    medium-range missile RSD-10 Pioneer (SS-20) Basing:

    chassis

    management system:

    management software

    Warhead:

    spetsboepripasov

    Application:

    Land-Plot

    Country:

    Russia

    Range:

    5000 km.

    year development:

    1977

    mrbm pershing-2 (mgm-31c) Designing complex" Pioneer "with medium-range missiles on the solid composite propellant was launched in 1971 at the Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology under the guidance of Academician . D. Nadiradze. The new missile (factory designation 15ZH45) was created based on the basis of two upper-stage intercontinental ballistic missile complex "Temp-2C." Were newly designed: End node cutoff propulsion second stage coupling section and separating warhead missiles.

    After

    practical working of different technical solutions for new missile units and ground missile system September 21, 1974 at the Kapustin Yar began flight testing. It took almost half a year to complete the finishing of the complex and perform scheduled testing program. March 11, 1976 the State Commission signed the act of taking a complex "Pioneer" with 15ZH45 missile (SS-10) on the Strategic Missile Forces.

    Part

    outdated medium-range missiles, especially the P-14, was removed from service, and their place was taken by "Pioneers." Appearance of the latter caused a big stir in the NATO countries, and very quickly the new Soviet missile became famous as SS-20 - "Storm in Europe".

    August 10, 1979 for flight tests was presented rocket 15ZH53 , which had a higher combat characteristics. Tests were conducted at Kapustin Yar until August 14, 1980, and December 17 of the same year a new complex, designated the "Pioneer UTTH" (improved performance characteristics), was adopted by the SRF. Rocket 15ZH53 had the same first and second stages, and that the missile 15ZH45. Changes have affected the control system and aggregate-instrument unit. By strengthening the command devices and algorithms ODCC managed to increase accuracy up to 450 m Installation of new engine with increased energy on aggregate-instrument unit made it possible to increase the area of breeding warheads, which was of great importance in the planning of targets. Also was increased maximum range to 5,500 km.

    In 1987, on duty and in the arsenals were 650 missiles. Two-thirds of them were designed to destroy targets in Europe and the Middle East, and about one-third for the destruction in Asia and the United States.

    Both complexes operated until 1991 and was liquidated in accordance with the terms of the INF Treaty. The first rockets were destroyed in the Chita region by launching. Of particular interest were the rocket "Pioneer", has been in operation for over 10 years. Conducted launches were successful. Later near Kapustin Yar was applied other technology liquidation - the explosion of rockets without removing them from the launch canisters. Chassis launchers complex after special procedures dismantling, excluding their use for different applications, can be used in different ways in the national economy.

    Last

    missile RSD-10 was destroyed by May 12, 1991. Multiple launchers and missiles kept as exhibits in museums around the country and abroad.

    Composition

    mrbm pershing-2 (mgm-31c) The structure of the missile complex" Pioneer "includes the following military vehicles:

    Rocket "15ZH45" (15ZH53) (see layout scheme)

    Launcher

    storage, packing means (TPN)

    rocket boosters 15ZH45 had two steps and aggregate-instrument unit with the head part, which docked with each other by means of connecting sections.

    Propulsion first stage is a structure consisting of a fiberglass body with a solid-bonded with him a charge, made of high-energy composite propellant, steel front and bottom nozzle cap nozzle block. The aft compartment housed stage brake motors and drives the steering bodies. Control efforts have created four gasdynamic and four aerodynamic steering (last made in the form of lattices).

    Propulsion second stage had a similar design, but for the control actions used other methods. Thus, control by pitch and yaw of the gas injection was carried out in supercritical gas generator portion of the nozzle, and roll - bypass gas through a special device. Both engines had thrust cutoff system (the first stage - the alarm) and time about 63 seconds. Engine is switched off by opening additional ten openings arranged at the front end of the combustion chamber, the pressure drops abruptly and stops the combustion of solid fuels.

    missile control system, developed under the guidance of Academician NA Pilyugina with onboard computer that allowed the rocket during combat duty in a horizontal position, ensured accuracy rate (CWE) at least 500 m over the entire range of distances and azimuths without turning launcher, full automation prelaunch and launch, and also automatically perform routine inspections. All major components have redundancy, which ensures high reliability of operation, and housed in a sealed instrument compartment.

    rocket carrying MIRV MIRV type with three warheads with a capacity of 150 kilotons each with individual guidance on their own goals. Breeding stage included a system of control and solid-propulsion. Aerodynamic fairing on the head part was not provided. To reduce the aerodynamic loads during flight, the warheads were set at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the missile. Complex to overcome missile defense system had.

    There were 3 options

    missile RSD-10:

    Mod 1 - with a single warhead and a range of 5,000 km,

    Mod 2 - differed only fighting equipment - had a splitting head (HSR) with three independently targetable warheads (ID). (This is the main option is most popular).

    Mod 3 - tested in May 1985 and is sometimes referred to in the West as the SS-X-28, had an easy single warhead capacity of 50 kt and increased up to 7400 km firing range - not out of the testing stage.

    mrbm pershing-2 (mgm-31c)

    During operation

    rocket placed in sealed transport and launch container was placed on the self-propelled launcher (STC) made on the basis of six-axle road MAZ-547. Also missiles on the chassis has the necessary plant and equipment to monitor the technical condition of the rocket and launch. Despite its weight (over 80 m) and dimensions (length - 19.3 m) STC had a relatively high speed, use the road with any surface, easily overcame meter fords and rises to 15 degrees. and had a turning radius of 21 meters, which makes extensive use of the existing road network.

    The rocket could be made from a special shelter or garage type on the basic position (construction "Crown"), or with one of the trained field positions. Before this launcher posted on the jacks and gorizontirovalas. The launch was carried out using powder pressure accumulator, throw it out of the container. After reaching a safe altitude, included the first stage boosters. Prelaunch operations and commissioning took place in automatic mode after a special team from the control.

    Structures "Krona" meant in the first place, to avoid the possibility of permanent monitoring systems "Pioneer" by means of intelligence potential enemy. "Crown" is a prefabricated structure made of metal structures. Construction of passage, then there is a gate located on both sides, which makes it possible to abandon the complicated maneuvering for heavy machinery. Along the walls of buildings located electric stove type SKB. Thus, using the thermal sensor can not determine the launcher is in the construction or not. The rocket is possible to produce without leaving the building. This is done by blasting squibs which were discarded in the side roof sector. After this container Wake up and launch. Since the launcher while in construction already posted on the jacks, while preparing to launch reduced. On the route of movement of the column missile regiment provided several similar structures that sprosobstvovalo mislead the enemy.

    PERFORMANCE

    mobile missile system "Pioneer"

    Developer

    MIT

    Chief Designer

    A. D. Nadiradze

    Manufactured

    rocket

    Votkinsky MH

    NATO Code

    SS-20 Saber Mod 1 & 2

    Name INF

    RSD-10

    complex type

    Moving

    missile system of medium-range BR, third generation

    condition

    is armed with 11 March 1976.

    Rocket "15ZH45"

    firing range, km

    600-5000

    Weapon Accuracy (CWE), km

    0,55 (deviation limit - 1,3)

    type MS

    Monoblock fusion (on tests - Option 1)

    type MS

    MIRV warheads with three ID (option 2)

    Power charge (option 1), Mt

    1,0

    Power charge (option 2), Mt

    0,15

    MS

    Weight, kg

    1500-1740

    control system

    Inertial gyro-stabilized platform with a float based on gyro with OBC

    Developer

    management system

    SRI AP

    chief designer management system

    N. A. Pilyugin

    steering actuators

    Hydraulic

    Developer steering gear

    TSNIIAG

    Controls on stage 1

    gas rudders and aerodynamic grid, lattice stabilizers

    Controls 2 steps

    pitch and yaw - blowing in the supercritical part of the nozzle of the hot gases; roll - gas nozzle gas generator

    Type

    start

    "Mortar" of TPK

    number of steps

    2

    Full length

    missiles, m

    16,49

    length without rocket warhead, m

    14,9

    Missile length TPK, m

    19,32

    maximum body diameter, m

    1,79

    Starting weight, t

    37,0

    weight of the rocket in TPK, t

    42,7

    Fuel

    composite solid

    first stage

    Full length

    first stage, m

    8,58

    maximum body diameter of the first stage, m

    1,79

    Weight

    stage kg

    26,7

    Engine

    single chamber solid propellant

    Developer engine

    NGO "Union" (Moscow Region)

    Chief Designer engine

    B. P. Zhukov

    The number of nozzles

    1

    Hours, with

    63

    second stage

    full length of the second stage, m

    4,4-4,6

    maximum body diameter of the second stage, m

    1,47

    Weight

    stage kg

    8,63

    Engine

    single chamber solid propellant

    Developer engine

    NGO "Union" (Moscow Region)

    Chief Designer engine

    B. P. Zhukov

    The number of nozzles

    1

    Combat level

    number of warheads

    3

    Propulsion

    Four

    RDTT

    combat unit

    Full length

    warhead, m

    1,6

    maximum body diameter warhead, m

    0,64

    The radius of curvature of the tip

    0,11

    launcher

    type

    Dirt

    mobile

    Developer

    CDB "Titan"

    Manufactured

    plant "Barricades"

    Chief Designer

    V. P. Barmine

    Length, m

    3,05

    Width, m

    3,05

    Height, m

    3,30

    number of rockets on the launcher

    1

    Drive lifting TPK with rocket

    Hydraulic

    Developer

    the hoist TPK with rocket

    TSNIIAG

    Turning radius, m

    21

    Crew

    3

    for Storage device (RTD)

    Developer

    CDB "Titan"

    Manufactured

    plant "Barricades"

    Base

    MAZ-547A

    Number of Axis

    6

    Full Length, m

    17,33

    Width, m

    3,2

    Height, m

    2,9

    Engine

    Diesel

    Power l. with.

    746

    Maximum speed km / h

    40

    number of missiles in TPN

    1

    Crew

    2

    tests and operation

    mrbm pershing-2 (mgm-31c) Flight tests missiles PCD-10 began in September 1974 at the Kapustin Yar. In 1977, immediately after the adoption of the complex on the Strategic Missile Forces of the USSR, began its deployment. The first missile regiment with the complex "Pioneer" atonement on alert August 30, 1976 (district of Gomel region Pietrykaŭ. Commander AG Doronin). Mass deployment of complex "Pioneer" began in 1978 in the position areas previously occupied by obsolete complexes with R-16 missiles. Each missile regiment consisted of 6-9 propelled PU secured individual protective structures.

    According to U.S. data

    largest number of deployed launchers unit was 441 in 1986. Acknowledgment by the Soviet data given in the Memorandum of Understanding on the Establishment of the Data in connection with the contract between - the USSR and the USA on the Elimination of Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, as of November 1, 1987, the USSR had deployed 405 missiles PU RSD-10, another 245 BR is in stock.

    Over 15 years of operation has not been a single case of damage or failure of the rocket. During the test, operation and decommissioning 190 missiles were shot. All launches were successful. The probability of hitting the target with the left 98%





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