Mrbm R-12/R-12U (8K63/8K63U)



    Surface PU

    management system:

    management software








    2,200 km.

    year development:


    mrbm r-12/r-12u (8k63/8k63u) According to the Resolution of the USSR Council of 13 February 1953 the design department of the factory number 586 was tasked with developing conceptual draft medium-range missiles R-12 (8K63). August 13, 1955 issued a decree of the USSR "On the creation and production of R-12 missiles." In October 1955 was released preliminary design. The missile was designed to engage area targets (approx. 100 km).

    In March 1957, SRI-229 (Zagorsk) were successfully conducted bench test firing R-12 missile. June 22, 1957 held at the launch of the new GPC number 4 (Kapustin Yar) from the ground launch pad. In October 1958, the serial production of missiles, and December 27, 1958 completed flight tests.

    Despite the fact that R-12 missiles were placed in storage in arched concrete structures, very complex because of the abundance start serving technology (which included cars, transporters, trucks, tankers, command posts, communications centers, etc. ) was a vulnerable target. It was necessary to develop a new method based - silo launcher (MSE). May 30, 1960. the Resolution of the USSR Council of combat development silos "Dvina" for R-12 missile. After a series of improvements (modernization of the control system and aerodynamic fairing removal stabilizers) December 30, 1961. conducted the first launch of a modernized missile, which received the designation R-12U (8K63U) . Her trial lasted until October 1963. Pervyeboevye mine for R-12U were built by January 1, 1963. Plunge (Baltics) and 5 January 1964. combat missile with a missile R-12U was adopted by the Strategic Missile Forces.


    missile R-12 is open is shown on a military parade in Moscow in 1961. After adopting a missile system with R-12 missiles mass construction of military camps and starting positions. By 1965, 608 had been deployed launchers for missiles R-12 and R-12U. With the advent of the Soviet missiles had the opportunity to deliver nuclear strikes operational regardless of the long-range strategic forces.

    On the basis of R-12 in 1962 developed space launch vehicles series "Cosmos" (11K63) .

    the west missile was designated SS-4 "Sandal" .

    By 1987 had 149 missiles R-12 to be eliminated under the INF Treaty. Last rocket was destroyed May 23, 1990 based on the elimination of rocketry "Forest" in the Brest region.


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    Starting weight, t


    Missile length


    diameter rockets, m


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    Weapon Accuracy, km



    Gas handlebars

    Weight empty rocket, t


    engine RD-214


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    Weight Fuel TM-185, t


    Weight AK-oxidant 27And t


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    warhead weight (heavy combat unit), kg


    tests and operation

    In October 1962, performed with the launch of a nuclear warhead out of Vorkuta martial fields on the New Earth as part of "Operation Rose". In July 1962 Start the R-12 missile (Operation K-1 and K-2) to investigate the effect of nuclear explosions on rocketry. October 30, 1962 in the area of the surgery was performed GPC K-5 - undermining the nuclear charge of R-12 at an altitude of 60 km to test the feasibility of radio communication: there was no connection for about an hour.

    In 1958, the program of creating national missile defense system, were started posting ballistic missiles P-2, P-5 and P-12 long-range detection station "Danube-2" and three PTH mode BRUP (ballistic missile - conditional amm). The first successful intercept target - the head of the R-12 missile V-1000 with high-explosive fragmentation warhead design KI Kozorezova (rotary field lesions with slow expansion of submunitions) was done March 4, 1961. In total, the test was destroyed 11 ballistic missiles of various types, direct defeat warheads were recorded in two launches on BD-R 5 and three missile R-12 BR. At the final stage of testing complex polygon ABM "Aldan" in 1976-1977, there were three missile launch A-350ZH on real goals - 8K63U missiles.

    In 1962 the world was on the brink of nuclear war. Crisis broke out, which was the consequence of the negative development of the military-political situation in the zone of the Caribbean after the Cuban revolution, which dealt a severe blow to the economic interests of North American companies. Posed a real threat to U.S. intervention in Cuba. In these circumstances, the Soviet Union decided to provide assistance, including military assistance, the Government of Cuba. Given that the American missiles "Jupiter" from Turkey can achieve vital centers of the Soviet Union in just 10 minutes, and the Soviet ICBM needed at least 25 minutes for a retaliatory strike on American territory, Khrushchev ordered the place in Cuba Soviet MRBM Soviet military personnel. In accordance with the plan of operation "Anadyr" planned to place on Cuban territory three regiments of R-12 (24 launchers - 3 Regiment from the 13th Missile Division strategic purpose.) And two regiments of R-14 (16 CP) which required to be in readiness signal from Moscow, to strike at the most important sites in the United States in compliance with the conditions of the strictest secrecy R-12 missiles have been delivered to Cuba, where they were built by the Soviet military personnel launch pads. U.S. intelligence failed to detect them in a timely manner. Only a month after the arrival of the three missile regiments American aerial reconnaissance plane "U-2" was able to photograph the launch pads and rockets, which caused great concern in the Pentagon, and then President Kennedy. By late October, about half of the 36 delivered to the island of R-12 was ready for refueling oxidant and docking with nuclear warheads. Because of the naval blockade off Cuba missile R-14 on the island arrived. It was at this time, the leaders of the USSR and the United States concluded that the conflict should be resolved peacefully. During the negotiations, the parties agreed to remove Soviet MRBM with Cuba, and American - from Turkey and Europe.


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