Already in the late 1970s, the French Navy Command concluded that occurred while the qualitative changes in operational-tactical situation caused by increased "Cold War" at the beginning of the XXI century will lead to the fact that the French Navy SSBN Le Redoutable type will not be able to deal effectively put before them the strategic objectives, and complete exhaustion of their reserves modernization displacement will not allow any significant impact on their combat capabilities.
Furthermore, the level of physical aging of the material makes these boats continued their operation is unnecessarily expensive. However, new technological level reached the French industry, to create a missile ship, fully adequate to the task.
ship was destined to become a new generation SSBN SNLE-NG, works on creation of which were launched in France in 1982.
in 1986 approved a new program for the development of sea-based strategic forces by 1987-1991., which provides for construction of the main PL series, dubbed Le Triomphant. Total up to 2010 planned to build six PAARB this series, but with the collapse of the USSR military-political situation in the world has changed significantly, and a series of four decided to limit ships. Plans provided the following terms of construction series:
Like many modern SSBNs submarine missile project SNLE-NG or type Le Triomphant (no lead ship name) are single-shaft single-hull submarines with smooth hull lines circular cross-sectional shape.
The choice of the main dimensions of Le Triomphant class SSBNs significantly affected by a command decision to equip the French Navy ships, these new intercontinental ballistic missiles M5. The length and diameter of the rocket exceed those missiles M4, so compared to the previous series boats (like Le Redoutable) diameter pressure hull had to be increased up to 12.5 m This, in turn, required to create new techniques and advanced technology capable of providing the correct circular shape of the steel shells of the pressure hull and the accuracy of their connections with each other on the slipway. In particular, the French Navy shipyard in Cherbourg, where new construction is being SSBNs equipment installed, allows installation on the stocks of shells with a diameter up to 13 m with an accuracy of 0.5 mm.
case is assembled from individual sections watertight bulkheads spherical, it is divided into sections (zones). In the forward compartment are torpedoes, central post with electronic weapons and equipment crew accommodation. Middle part of housing reserved for the missile compartment, in which vertically in two rows along the center plane of the ship mounted 16 missile silos. For missile compartment is the reactor compartment, it is available steam supply system with all the equipment and pipelines of the primary circuit. For reactor compartment is equipped with a turbine compartment with steam turbine unit (main turbine), turbo-propeller motor and a generator to power the systems on board the ship. In this compartment aft propeller mounted motor-drive propeller type pump jet.
Fencing mines sliding devices mounted in the front of the hull above the central station.
mines sliding devices it comes with a durable cutting, chopping on the fence are hydroplanes.
Powerplant SSBN Le Triomphant type consists of a main (GEMs) and auxiliary (WT) power plants. GEM includes nuclear reactor volume compensator, steam, biological protection, two steam-turbine plant, the main capacitor, two power supply and two propeller motor - power systems on board SSBNs, circulating pumps, propeller motor, single-shaft propulsion system driven by a propeller control equipment and control.
The main element of a nuclear reactor power plant is water-cooled type K-15 150 MW. A similar reactor is installed and the French nuclear aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle. Unlike American and British experts, the French nuclear scientists since the late 1960s went the way of use as fuel in reactors of low-enriched uranium. The reactor SSBN Le Triomphant used uranium enriched to 7-20%, while in the U.S. and British Marine reactors it reaches 95%.
Application of low enriched uranium to fuel a nuclear reactor has its own advantages and disadvantages. Vol 20 percent enriched fuel 2-2.5 times greater than highly that slightly increases the size of the nuclear reactor. At the same operating conditions the life cycle of the core French reactors 2 times less, for example, U.S. reactor installed on SSBN Ohio, and accordingly requires double the frequency recharge. However, according to the French experts, shorter periods between replacements of the reactor core is acceptable, since coincide with periods of modifying electronic equipment and weapons (about every 5 years), and the relative cost of replacing nuclear fuel is negligible.
The second difference
French reactor K-15 from the American and British - a union in one unit of a nuclear reactor and steam generator. French engineers, using the concept of nuclear reactor coolant - pressurized water entered the main energy-producing (heat exchanger), the unit or steam directly into the reactor vessel. This is an outstanding achievement puts French technology ahead of U.S., where used nuclear reactor coolant - double distilled water, with forced circulation of coolant in the primary circuit.
reactor and a steam generator unit, absence of the first circuit GEMs in its classical form, i.e. with the main pipes and a circulation pump, the reactor led to K-15 is quite compact. The height and diameter are respectively 10 m and 4 should be noted that this size of the reactor block with biological protection, the outer surface of which is mirror-coated. Characterizing biological protection, French experts say that during normal operation of the reactor, even at full capacity, the level of radiation around the reactor is equivalent to the natural.
The generated steam generator
steam drives a steam turbine plant, which converts thermal energy into mechanical steam required for power generation.
Generator generate energy for all electrical systems SSBN. First, the most powerful electric motor provides the propeller, the second - all other ship systems. Produced the first alternating current generator is converted to DC and served on the propeller motor, whose power had SSBN Le Triomphant is 30.5 MW. Efforts through the propeller shaft of the motor is transmitted to the propeller.
propulsion system SSBN Le Triomphant is based on circuit pump jet, it is single-shaft, with the shaft position on the axis of the submarine. Seven-bladed propeller, precision machining, with a special blade shape (a "twist" to reduce cavitation).
Auxiliary power plant includes diesel generator, batteries, motor propeller, propeller device of a diesel engine under the water management and control system. It provides motion SSBN in case of failure or GEMs stop nuclear reactor at an emergency exit from the nuclear submarine base at sea.
Diesel unit SSBN Le Triomphant includes two eight-cylinder diesel engine brand PA4 V200 SM 8 engine with 700 kW (950 hp.). Everyone has a rated speed of 1300 rev. / Min, length 2.3 m, width 1.5 m and a height of 1, 8m, weight 5500kg.
To improve maneuverability at low speed class SSBNs Le Redoutable have bow thruster. Apparently, a similar device fitted and missile type Le Triomphant.
system management and control of wind turbines made with extensive use of electronic, computer and pneumatic technologies. Diesel power plant is made to meet the requirements shock - and vibration, different climates and navigation features swimming SSBN.
equipment management and control includes main control EC and analog to digital converter data from sensors monitoring the voltage in the lines of shafts, technical condition of machinery, equipment runtime and frequency characteristics of noise operating systems and components EC. It provides control of the levels of noise fields propulsion and propellers, including their analysis when maneuvering. Noise characteristics displayed as a combination of diagrams that can qualitatively assess them to comply with the prescribed limits of noise levels.
When designing systems
SSBN Le Triomphant developers goal was to create a missile submarine, noise which would not exceed the natural sounds of the sea (in rough 0 points). The solution to this problem depended on a number of technological aspects, such as optimal in terms of hydrodynamic hull form, neutralizing the influence of external devices, especially sliding, obesshumlivaniya of pumps, gearboxes, motors, etc. In Le Triomphant mechanisms used bearings that replaced noisier bearings (ball and roller), widely used in Le Redoutable. All boats shumovydelyayuschie mechanisms attached to the body through depreciation gaskets. Each engine and the pump, all the pipes and the power cables are placed in a sheath of elastic, vibration damping material. Above elements, in turn, are attached to a robust housing SSBN through noise - and vibration absorber plates made of rubber or rubber-elastic polymer. Applied the so-called two-stage vibration isolation. In this case, the noise level in the fight against the principle: "If you can not prevent noise, you need to drown it (quarantine)".
According to French experts, the use of these measures has led to the fact that the SSBN Le Triomphant, despite its size, has a noise level of 2 times lower than Le Redoutable. One expert compared in terms of noise, both types of missile as follows: "If you perceive Le Redoutable as a truck, Le Triomphant - a luxury limousine, the rustle of movement which merges with the noise of the sea".
According to foreign experts, with constant desire to reduce noise, especially strategic missile submarines, Le Triomphant can compete in this respect with the American class SSBNs Ohio.
1. Warships. ru - History of combat surface ships and submarines
2. Website "ATRINA»Warships of the USSR and Russia