type submarine Rubis
first attempt to construct in France multipurpose nuclear submarine, designed for anti-submarine and surface ships of the enemy, was made in 1957, when a French shipyard was laid a boat.
However, due to
major technical difficulties building submarines had then stop, and its unfinished hull was used for towing rocket diesel-electric submarine Gymnote, on which the French Navy conducted tests of its ballistic missiles.
first attempt to construct in France multipurpose nuclear submarine, designed for anti-submarine and surface ships of the enemy, was made in 1957, when a French shipyard was laid a boat. However, due to major technical difficulties in the construction of the PLA had to then stop, and its unfinished hull was used for towing rocket diesel-electric submarine Gymnote, on which the French Navy conducted tests of its ballistic missiles.
decision at the ministerial level on the construction project SSNs SNA 72 was taken in January 1973 among the main requirements imposed by the customer to designers of the ship, were, in particular, noise reduction SSNs as much as possible and ensuring that all its equipment and weapons systems such as high performance reliability and safety in operation, what should have its NPI. Designing in KB PLA naval shipyard in Cherbourg, took more than two years.
In February 1976, the shipyard received an official order of the government to build a head of PLA S601 Provence, later renamed to S601 Rubis. Construction of the entire series type Rubis submarines carried out at the shipyard in Cherbourg.
In determining the contours of the hull Rubis submarines as a prototype took diesel-electric submarine Agosta. Rubis has a full SSNs shtevnevuyu bow shape with rounded upper and lower parts. Contours in the middle and aft parts of the submarine circular shapes. Feed axisymmetric Phillips plumage. In most parts of the hull length lightweight body is missing. Two case construction provided in the bow near the torpedo room and aft - in the area of electromechanical compartment.
guard sliding devices airfoils mounted shift to the forward end of the housing. It is equipped with the navigation bridge and placed mines sliding devices: periscopes, radar antenna and radio reconnaissance, radio antennas, as well as mine RDP. Mounted on the fence as nasal hydroplanes.
PLA Rubis made of high strength steel. Plane transverse bulkheads robust housing is divided into 5 sections. In the first (nose) compartment has four torpedo tubes and racks for torpedoes, missiles or mines. In the second (on three decks) are the central post, post traffic control, navigation equipment, living quarters, as well as battery, compressors and other equipment. In the third compartment placed a nuclear reactor to the steam plant, turbo-generators mounted in the fourth, the fifth - the main and auxiliary propulsion motors, as well as the emergency diesel generator and control post NPI.
It should be noted that the design of the PLA type Rubis give due attention to ensure the best possible conditions of habitability in residential and office space ship. Each crew member has a single bunk. Kubrick separated from the dining room, which is also used as a space for community recreation. Due to the desalination plant, fresh water consumption is not limited to the crew. Equipment from different positions projected ergonomically.
Endurance is defined PLA inventory provisions, stamina and endurance of the crew. In times of tension or war-time food reserves can be increased. Under normal conditions, the boat autonomy does not exceed 60 days. One of the peculiarities of the French nuclear submarine fleet is the presence of boats (like the rocket and multipurpose) two crews, each of which performs two annual campaign lasting 60 days. Mezhpohodovy period is 3 weeks. This allows the command of the French Navy have used constantly combat-ready ships, five of which may be in the sea.
displacement and measured PLA type Rubis considered the smallest multipurpose nuclear submarines in the world. Under pressure from financial constraints, French designers have created and the most inexpensive (in the West) nuclear attack submarines: the cost of building submarines Rubis is estimated at about 350 million dollars, that is the construction of the entire series of b-type submarines Rubis cost French taxpayers "only" 2.1 billion dollars, which is only slightly higher than the cost of one American submarines type Seawolf.
relatively small size of PLA type Rubis allowed to develop for her nuclear power plant reduced power using natural circulation of coolant in all modes except mode corresponding to maximum power. This increased plant reliability and reduced noise submarine cruising and low speeds. Feature of the nuclear power plant PLA Rubis type is the absence of the main unit turbozubchatogo as boat used electric propulsion principle. This fact, and the fact that all the components of the plant components are mounted on a depreciated platforms also helps reduce noise submarine.
Developed in France
rowing electrical installation (GEM) consists of a main propulsion motors (HED), the two main turbine generators (TG) AC receiving steam from the nuclear steam supply system, and backup diesel alternator. Each turbine generator together with its capacitor is mounted on the frame, based on shock absorbers to reduce the noise emissions when operating units. Rowing electrical installation uses two kinds of power: AC turbine generators converted to DC to power the GED.
On the move
submarine general ship all current consumers (drives auxiliary machinery, weapons and avionics, air regeneration unit, lighting network, etc.) are powered from the main TG. Slow speed ship can provide emergency HED, powered by battery or generator vspomogatelnogodizel.
as a mover on PLA type Rubis used low noise propeller increased diameter.
The first in a series of PLA S601 Rubis had only torpedoes four 533-mm bow torpedo tubes could be used to fire torpedoes ECAN F-17 mod 2 or minelaying FG29.
Starting from the second ship S602 Sapfir French submarines equipped with anti-ship missiles SM-39 Exocet, which also fired from torpedo tubes.
The complex avionics Rubis submarines type includes active (DUUA-28) and passive (DSUV-22) with a cylindrical antenna sonar, passive sonar (DUUX-5) with antennas spaced along the sides of the boat and sonar communication and as radar, radio communications, navigation, radio - and radio-technical intelligence.
Starting with the fifth ship in the draft S605 Amethyste submarines have been significant changes, provide additional measures to obesshumlivaniyu, in particular, greater use of insulating and damping materials. Redesigned bow and accepted teardrop hull shape. Become more streamlined form a superstructure.
central post Amethyste submarines type includes 7-Function Remote (FIP) ASBU, each with two color display screen with a diameter of 48 cm between the distribution functions will be determined by the tactical situation. It is believed that usually three or four operators MFP used for processing sonar information, they can search and target detection, classification and analysis of the noise spectrum, as well as control over the noise level PLA. Two remote permanently reserved in the event of a torpedo attack, which need guidance on the wire remote-controlled torpedoes at four different targets (technical possibilities to solve this problem with a single MFP, but it is believed that even a well-trained operator is not able to carry more than two goals at the same time) .