PRS-1/53T6 antimissile missile complex and A-135/RTTS-181 Cupid / 5ZH60



    Mine PU

    management system:

    Office for radio


    spetsboepripasov, high-explosive/fragmentation/incendiary






    100 km.

    year development:


    antimissile prs-1/53t6 complex and about a-135/rtts-181 amour / 5zh60 Multichannel ABM Central Industrial Region and Moscow second generation A-135 is a development of a similar set of first-generation A-35. Study of the upgraded version of the A-PRO 35 - A system-35M - conducted NIO-4 DB-30 with GV Kisunko until his dismissal in 1975. In parallel with the GV Kisunko work on a new missile defense system were initiated at the direction of the Minister VD Kalmikova in late 1968. a group of experts under the leadership of the USSR Ministry of Radio Industry AG Basistov. By the end of 1969. dvuheshelonnoy concept ABM system was coordinated with the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. in 1970. Usage defense completely took control of the USSR Ministry of Radio Industry - January 17, 1970. CSPA was formed specialized "Vympel", in the scope of which included problems ABM systems missile warning and space surveillance, etc. Study of SEC CSPA "Vympel" conducted research on the topic "background 1" ;.

    USSR CM Resolution № 376-119 to establish a missile defense system with the A-135 long-range interception firing system "Cupid" and polygon prototype "Amur-P" published June 10, 1971. project envisages the creation of three-fire complexes " ; Cupid "at a distance of 600-800km from Moscow and three universal complexes close interception system S-225, which would minimize the damage from the use of the far-tier missile defense interceptors with powerful thermonuclear warhead and improve reliability intercept attacking warheads. In December 1971. completed a preliminary design of the A-135 (Research Institute of Radio Ministry of Radio Industry of the USSR), avanproekt firing system "Cupid" (NTC CSPA "Vympel", Chief Designer - AG Bassistoff). Development of a two-stage missile intercept long-range trans-atmospheric tier A-925/51T6 (denoted U.S. / NATO - ABM-4 Gorgon/SH-11) was entrusted with the ICD "Torch", the chief designer - PD Grushin. After the conclusion of the ABM Treaty in June 1972. redesign was launched missile defense system and firing system "Cupid" for the placement of all funds in the area of a diameter of 100 km (Moscow reg.), S-225 were excluded from the system, and high-speed missile PRS-1/5YA26 which were created for these complexes OKB "Innovator" under the leadership of L. Lyuleva (with 1985. - Chief Designer PI stone) - coming 53T6 (new index since 1973.) were included in the proximal (second) atmospheric tier system A-135. Development of revised project led AG Bassistoff. Draft design of the A-135 in 1973. USSR Ministry of Defense, and offered some remarks approved in late 1973. In the same 1973. chief designer of the missile defense system A-135 AG appointed bassist. As the radar with a phased antenna array (PAR) system considered the following options: radar "Don-2N" (RTI, Ch. Constructor VK Sloka) radar "Neman" (NIIDAR, Ch. G. Designer Boatmen) radar "Istra-2" (NIIRP, Ch. Kisunko Designer GV). The winner was a project of the radar "Don-2N».

    In 1974

    . after the signing of the Protocol to the ABM Treaty under the direction of G. Basistov was developed third draft of a missile defense system A-135. In 1975. a discussion of the project in the USSR Ministry of Defense, the project sent for revision with some remarks. In 1975, AG Bassistoff appointed chief designer of SKB-2 CSPA "Vympel" - designer of missile defense systems in Moscow (until his death, which followed 16.09.1998g., Then it was replaced by EP Andreychuk), first deputy AG Basistov system on the A-135 was appointed M. Minasyan. Draft design of a missile defense system A-135 with the elimination of customer comments developed in 1976. The system according to the conceptual design included:

    Command and computational point;

    data transmission system and communication;

    firing system consisting of multi-function radar "Don-2N" and missile launching sites two echelons;

    technical preparation position missiles.

    system was created as a system with distant dvuheshelonnoy antimissiles 51T6 (see photo), is a development of the missile defense system A-35 interceptor missiles and medium-53T6, originally created in the framework of the universal system S-225 KB-1. Objects missile defense system designed spaced apart at a distance of 100 km. In the system of the A-135 was supposed to use missiles with nuclear warheads on missiles of various capacities of different levels.

    antimissile prs-1/53t6 complex and about a-135/rtts-181 amour / 5zh60

    decision to create the polygon sample missile defense system A-135 - "Cupid-P" 5ZH60P test components and the whole system adopted in 1974. Building and deploying treatment complex defense system mainly carried out in 1976 to 1979. , the complex includes radar "Don 2NP" (polygon sample), command-and-click computer 5K80P with computer type "Elbrus", firing system and data transmission system 5YA67. K 1978. creation firing complex system A-135 "Cupid-P" 5ZH60P generally been completed. Test missiles and other means of system conducted on the 6th (silos PR 51T6), 8th (radar "Don 2NP" and 5K80P KVP) and 35th (silos PR 53T6 experienced missiles that were used in the tests, according to some data were designated U.S. / NATO - ABM-X-3A/SH-08) sites of the 10th State Research Sary Shagan ("Polygon" A "Priozersk, Kazakh USSR). In 1973. was created and delivered for testing the first experimental model OL 5YA26. The first launches were conducted launcher inclined at an angle of 20 ° to the horizon - the first, start throwing, November 27, 1973 at the 35th floor, "Polygon" A ". Up to and including the second launch rocket not equipped with on-board equipment. Division of the degree / MS was carried out. From the third - missile had the box. Since 1978, from the 7th to 11th starts, factory tests were conducted with the use of the first prototype of the system ("Azov"). Starting from the 12th start in 1979, funds were used the second prototype of the system ("Amur-M"). PR tests in general were great difficulties related to the peculiarities of the rocket. Of the 15 and subsequent launches in six rocket destroyed and until the 17th start failed to provide reliable radio communication with the board. The fact that the rocket designers, worrying about the strength and aerodynamics, took to install the bottom of the on-board antennas starting-sustainer stage rocket. Tests have shown that these in-flight antenna fully screened plasma generated during high-speed flight in the atmosphere. After a detailed analysis of rocket designers had to install the antenna on the body of the rocket before the gas jet nozzle control system. Moreover, the original system was developed antenna switching depending on the position relative to the axis of the missile complex radio aids. However, despite the difficulties, starting from the 17th starting managed to get a stable connection on the control channel, and on the 20th - and via sight . Furthermore,
    during mining landfill sample missile defense system "Amur-P" worked the following test procedures and test without a real missile launch:

    "Hangar" - check operation of the radar system with a control board board radio missiles located on the ground;

    "Recumbent start" - check the functioning of the complex to capture the missile passing training in a technical position, with the establishment of the radio through the external antenna, the simulation on a rocket to use all control system without the inclusion of engines.

    "Cold Start" - check all the facilities of the complex preparation mode and launch with working all operations, including irreversible, for interceptors installed in silos starting position, with the erosion of squibs made in bronekassetah

    "E-start" - check functioning of the complex when working in full-scale incidental or simulated ballistic targets using software simulators missile interception near and far.

    In August 1979 he was first produced start throwing PR 53T6 of silos. OL flew out of the mine and in about 5 seconds. samopodorvalas. On this test was set design defect gas deflector mine: there were holes in it and when you start OL under it creates a pressure of 15 atm. and it worked like a piston, taking off from the mine to a distance of about 20 meters, crushing the WPK and tear guide with support ring (weighing about 7 tons). It was also stated that the poor quality welds led to the separation of metal. Later thickness of the metallic glass shaft was increased from 7 to 32 mm, turning it into a load-bearing structure. The first launch of missiles in a closed loop control was carried out in July 1981. In April 1982 was done successful intercept ballistic real goal - BRSD 8K65. The discrepancy with the target at the firing range of 40 km was about 50 meters, which is enough to hit a target. One of the tests of the system was June 18, 1982 as part of the largest exercises of the Armed Forces of the USSR (in the West called "seven-hour nuclear war"). Two OL 5ZH60P system running from the landfill "A" intercepted BRSD 15ZH45 BGRK "Pioneer", launched from Kapustin Yar, and RSM-29 SSBN 667B "Moray" Northern Fleet. Factory complex field tests using equipment of the first phase of the complex was started in November 1982 and completed in March 1984 (held 8 51T6 missile launches, including four in the complex; 5 rockets 53T6 including 4 Closed-loop control; 9 postings custom ballistic purposes, posting 27 satellites, aircraft overflew the cycles of modeling and functional control of the complex). In March 1984., On a number of data were completed State tests of the rocket itself 53T6.

    In 1986, completed test complex computer "Elbrus-1" and spetsvychislitelem (apparatus of the first stage). The gradual installation of equipment of the second stage with better computer "Elbrus-2" to the landfill complex made from March 1984. to October 1987. Test system A-135 "Cupid-P" with the equipment of the second phase conducted from March to October 1987. (2 missile launch conducted 51T6, 53T6 5 rockets, ballistic custom wiring 2 goals and 36 targets postings for free). According to test results concluded under TTX specify complex, including the destruction of the latest maneuvering warhead BRSD type "Pershing-2." After some modifications of the system carried out one step control tests landfill sample - January-July 1988. (Holds 2 start 51T6, 53T6 3 starts, posting five custom ballistic targets and 16 targets postings for free). State tests of the A-135 near Moscow started in 1989 Here at the landfill complex "Amur-P" in the state tests were conducted missile launches - 3 starts 51T6 and 53T6 4 serial start, made 14 postings custom ballistic targets. When testing a missile defense system was given considerable attention to evaluating performance, design and reliability characteristics, evaluation of noise immunity (using a special set of interfering). Held transportation and endurance tests missiles, transport and installation of machines, studied the impact of the gas jet rocket launch on elements starting position and their mutual influence when starting with an interval ->

    antimissile 53T6 (see the alleged scheme) is a stage with a start-solid propellant sustainer, detachable part of the compartment with the micro-management of solid propellant and unmanaged detachable head portion comprising a warhead and a special control system. Enclosure Type - Ball pointed cone with no protruding elements. According to some sources, the body is made of CR-wound composite materials using a separate construction sites titanium alloys and high-strength steels, tip head of the rocket - quartz ceramics. Almost the entire body is covered with special rocket multifunctional light thermal barrier coating that protects the antimissile of action of hot gases at the start and from the aerodynamic heating. Onboard cable network missiles wrapped in a body, ribbon cables passing cable network installed in the motor housing in its manufacture (in special channel between the "pods" winding).

    homepage-rocket boosters 5S73 53T6 developed by OKB-16 (Kazan KB engine, later - CB "Union"), the chief designer PF Barb leading designer - IH Fakhrutdinov. Terms of reference for the creation of a rocket engine 53T6/PRS-1 received in 1969 (according to other sources - in 1970). According to some reports, the engine is divided into the starting side and marching with prochnoskreplennymi-specific channel-shaped slit charges of high mixed solid fuels of various compositions with high specific impulse. Engine nozzle - central, fixed, recessed. The launch - gasdynamic of transport and launch container on its own engine with guides on the inner surface of the WPK. Manage missiles at the initial stage of the flight - gasdynamic using supercritical injection nozzle part starting-flight engine combustion chamber of SRBs (according to unconfirmed reports, thrust vector control at the work site starting-flight engine is carried out by injection of liquid freon supercritical part nozzle). Adjustment of the trajectory of the rocket, including the final stage of flight before separating warhead - gasdynamical using pulsed gas jet thrusters solid directed perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rocket.

    radio command missile control system includes on-board rocket placed the defendant (the responsible designers - VI and VI TOLSTIKOV debt) and autopilot 5A13 (responsible designer P. Kirillov) CDB development "Almaz" with float sensors. When you create a control system have been applied unique technology to securely perform tasks rocket during accelerations above 100 g. Applied in a rocket electronic units have special anti-shock system "fill" in conjunction with increased resistance to PFYAV. At the stage of prototype testing of throwing a rocket was installed software device ("Programmer") Design Bureau "Innovator", in conjunction with sloping PU programmer supersede autopilot. Since issuing the command "Enable training missile (OL)" in fairgrounds complex operations are performed: "zero-range", "current issue commands declination missiles", "the timing of issuing the command" Start "," account reverse time before issuing the command "Start". Remembers the last command values decline produced by the signal "Start adopted" - these values decline commands executed PR autopilot during engine operation when radio contact with the PR difficult or absent. For the same team Fairgrounds Complex remembers the last value "zeroed range." When the signal is "Wheels" runs counter flight time AVE. After engine cutoff established radio contact with the defendant OL: the signal of the defendant to determine the coordinates PR, transfer instructions and guidance of other teams going via the command station (FBS). Receiver antenna and defendant teams are arranged in pairs on 2 pcs. on missile body.

    antimissile prs-1/53t6 complex and about a-135/rtts-181 amour / 5zh60 Guidance and control of the entire missile complex command and performed computational point 5K80 with multifunction radar 5H20 "Don-2N" (city Sofrino, Moscow region). 4 fixed phased array with broadband probing signal. Prototype - radar 5N20P "Don 2NP" ("P" - polygon configuration option, prototype) - installed at the site in Sary-Shagan (Priozersk). Command and computational point missile defense system with a computer system 5K80 "Elbrus" designed SKB-2, the developers - AG Bassistoff VS Bourtsev. Prototype radar 5H20 "Don-2N" - 5K80P ("P" - polygon configuration option, prototype calculator 65I6) - installed at the site in Sary-Shagan. Elements of the complex were separated by a distance of up to 100 km (radar, CP, CP missiles, rockets technical training positions) and linked data system 5YA67. Command and control complex interception occurs in fully automatic mode. Development of radar "Don-2N" Radio Engineering Institute conducted behalf Mints USSR Academy of Sciences since 1972, Chief Designer VK Sloka, chief designer of the antenna systems G. Bubnov. At the first stage was created with analog radar signal processing and computing complex "Elbrus-1", the second stage - the radar with digital signal processing and VC "Elbrus-2." Computational complex "Elbrus-2" (the development of the Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the chief designer of VS Bourtsev) - a multi-processor computer system with parallel computing, the performance of 125 million operations per second ("Elbrus-1" - 15 million operations per second). The modular architecture allows you to keep swapping without stopping the system. Hardware support for basic constructs high-level languages. The system uses high-precision circuit boards and drainage system power dissipation. To prepare for the test system "Elbrus-1" in 1975, an experimental group, which for three years preparing the system for testing. Testing of "Elbrus-1" were conducted from 1978 to 1980 on the basis of the NGO "Almaz". In 1985 he successfully completed the state tests of the modernized system "Elbrus-2" (chief designer VS Bourtsev). Construction radar "Don-2N" started in 1979, construction was completed in 1981, installation and adjustment of the equipment completed in 1986

    antimissile prs-1/53t6 complex and about a-135/rtts-181 amour / 5zh60 MFR - multifunction monopulse radar centimeter range from coarse-grained active phased arrays, electronically controlled characteristics and position in space of the transmitting and receiving antenna patterns, digital processing of radar signals. Is a stationary ground complex electronic equipment, coupled to the computer system DPC-135 and placed in one of two semi-detached buildings of special engineering structure. Construction is a regular rectangular truncated pyramid with a side length on a 6 m - 144 meters, on the roof - 100 meters, a height of 33.6 m on all four side surfaces of buildings located around the phased array tracking of targets and missiles (antenna diameter of 16 m) and square (10,4 x10, 4 m) phased array command guidance missiles on board. Radar "Don-2N" provides simultaneous overview of the entire upper hemisphere in the complex area of responsibility. Radar operators regularly perform training shooting defeat BR special computer program that simulates real combat conditions. Programs are divided into different flight paths BR amount warhead and decoys, the degree of complexity of defeat. In training battle involving all the defense system. The battle is in real time and real geographic dimension. In peaceful surroundings radar "Don-2N" operates on a low radiated power. Translation station into a more active mode is carried out, if necessary, detailed exploration and space control, etc. According to NATO classification MFR "Don-2N" is designated as PILL BOX, landfill and its prototype - as HORSE LEG. Unique opportunities MFR "Don-2N" were clearly demonstrated in the results of one of the joint experiments with the United States to detect small-sized space objects, held under the program ODERACS 1 (Orbital DEbris RAdar Calibration Spheres) in order to verify the ability to track the so-called "space junk"

    antimissile prs-1/53t6 complex and about a-135/rtts-181 amour / 5zh60 The basing of missiles - group (group consists of 12 or 16 silos located a few meters from each other) in mine development PU GSKB "Spetsmash" under the direction of Barmina (development started in December 1971), in fiberglass TPK (see the alleged scheme). The protective device of the sliding type silos, weighing 25 tons, 2 parts (see photo1, photo2). According to some reports, the shooting speed silo lid - 0.4 s. Creating data silos for PR was a difficult task - it was necessary to provide an output from the mine will start on OL for one second after receiving a start command. This was accomplished through: high thrust-weight ratio missiles many times greater thrust ICBMs similar class; disclosure provision of the protective device (roof) of the mine with a substantial mass fraction of a second, and outputting a signal about this in the launch control PR, creating a system of temperature and humidity regime in the shaft to ensure long-term storage TPK with a solid OL and spetszaryadom. TPK in silos amortized. Construction started on the silo positions near Moscow in 1980, since 1982 was carried out installation of equipment, pre-readiness - 1985

    Transport and storage

    missiles in silos is carried out in the transport and launch container, which made all the technological verification work missiles at a technical position, storing missiles at technical and silos, transportation and launch missiles. TPK tight. Inside it maintain the required temperature, pressure and humidity that allows long antimissile store outdoors, in the vertical and horizontal position. When transporting and storing TPK both ends closed with special lids that allows for transportation used for heating rocket TPK termoobogreva system that connects to the conveyor. When installed in a silo cap removed. Launch missiles made from closed TPK, which he closed in front of a special rubber cap and the rear - rubber bottom. When starting missile front hood and the bottom of the WPK erupt simultaneously respectively toe missiles and gas jet engine. Automatic control test stations and test missile 51T6 53T6 (AKIPS) produced DMZ. For transportation with rocket and TPK TPK installation charge the car used to transport the machine 5T93 MAZ-543M. The machine is equipped with a heating system missiles for the winter season (see photo). There are at least two versions of the machine 5T93.

    antimissile prs-1/53t6 complex and about a-135/rtts-181 amour / 5zh60 To install TPK used in missile silo transport and loading vehicle 5T92 on the MAZ-543M and automated control and test mobile station missiles 23D6.

    By Western

    data to 1990 were carried out R & D on mobile modifications PRS-1M/53T6M (Chief Designer - PI stones) with PU-based 6-axle chassis MAZ-547 PU similar BRSD " Pioneer ".


    assumption (based on specific terms of the ABM Treaty in 1972, the presence of the WPK, the dimensions of the rocket), which was developed silo launcher rockets 53T6 with reloading mine drum type - for reuse mine and enhance the combat system performance.


    length of the engine without the nozzle, m



    1000 t

    engine run time, with


    Length, m

    ~ 12

    Diameter, m

    ~ 1,7-1,8


    10000 kg

    Mass MS

    ~ 700 kg

    Warhead weight

    ~ 150 kg

    Range, km



    defeat km


    speed missiles km / c


    climb to an altitude of 30 km, with a


    Acceleration time to maximum speed, with


    Time out of mine since launch, with


    Maximum overload:
    - Longitudinal
    - Lateral

    90 g

    Warranty period

    10 years, with the prospect of extending up to 15-20 years.

    PERFORMANCE radar "Don-2N»

    antenna diameter, m


    Radiated Power, MW


    detection range ballistic targets, km

    1200-1500 (according to other sources up to 3700 km)

    detection range space goals km


    angle, azimuth, deg


    accuracy coordinates:
    - Range, m
    - The angle, deg.

    200 (100 - after the upgrade)
    0.06 (0.02-0.04 - after upgrading)

    Number of simultaneously tracked ballistic targets

    Up to 100 (30 to modernization)

    Number of simultaneously induced missiles

    not more than 100 (according to some estimates, up to modernization - 36 pcs. (16 51T6 and 53T6 20)).



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