In 1949 adopted the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) was adopted by the RRB antitank grenade launcher M49 (manual Reaktivan Batsach M49 - handmade rocket launcher of 1949). Soon, however, identified a number of shortcomings, both the grenade and fired him.
Weapons and ammunition were improved, but the majority of deficiencies has not been remedied, in addition to portable anti-Department of National Defence (MHO) Yugoslavia has developed a new very stringent operational requirements. The only solution in this situation was the creation of an entirely new RPG.
On the other hand, the Yugoslav army until 1953 on the basis of the "Agreement on aid" received from the United States 1000 modern antitank rocket grenade «Bazooka» M9 and M9A1 caliber 60 mm 99600 M6A1 anti-tank missiles and rocket launchers 4890 «Super Bazooka» M20 , and M20A1V1 M20V1 caliber 90 mm 419114 89 mm anti-tank missiles. Pending further deliveries "bazooka" M20 was planned that the national industry shift towards the production of ammunition for them, namely, the release of 3.5-inch active-propelled grenades with fuses BD-M404A1, and thus, in the period from 1955 to 1964 satisfy the needs of the army with this type of armament. But the need for anti-tank weapons of its own design not anymore, because the JNA units in 1953 from 17,569 required by state, but in reality was only 11,400 units portable antitank grenade launchers of various models and gauges (44 mm RRB M49, 60mm Bazooka M9 90 mm Super Bazooka M20).
In 1952, the Department of JNA Corps sent a request to create a new hand grenade and fired him the Belgrade Military Technical Institute and valevskomu predpriyayutiyu "Krusik". Designing a prototype and mass production of the new weapon in the end, they put on Kragujevac weapons factory "Crvena Zastava».
Commission JNA infantry Department considered three options for a new grenade launcher. The first was a simplified version of the M49 design RRB Anton Meshichka. At first he liked the military, so the "Crvena Zastava" prepared technical documentation released "zero" series and started preparation of production. However, once it became clear that the new launcher Meshichka has the same drawback as the old RRB M49 - the complexity of the design and operation.
Experimental grenade sample 1952,
We supply mechanism which the primer was
Designed as a rotating cylinder (drum)
Capacity of six capsules
Department infantry offered Kragujevac plant to prepare a second version of its weapons and make a trial batch. In this embodiment, feed mechanism the primer was carried out in a rotating cylinder (drum) with a capacity of six primers. Soon, however, it turned out - this is not rocket launcher meets your TTX.
Details experimental grenade
A second embodiment of the sample in 1952
a result, the Commission adopted the third option grenade submitted captain Todor Tsvetichem of "Military Institute." Tsvetich decided as a reactive (expelling) charge to use 93 g Low Smoke Zero nitrocellulose powder and capsule initiating move to the back of the stabilizer mines. These measures promised to give a significant increase in the initial velocity and provide quick preparation for firing weapons.
grenade at the rear of the capsule had two installed on two opposite sides at the level of the stabilizer. This allowed us to turn in case of misfires ammunition in the barrel 180 ° and re-attempt the shot. Grenades equipped with a drop-down stabilizer in flight of four flexible metal wings, which were introduced in the grooves on the tail of ammunition during loading weapons. Originally nadkalibernaya 90mm grenade equipped with unsafe cumulative impact igniter ATI M57, later replaced by a temporary slow-UTI-M61. Reactive (expelling) charge of nitrocellulose powder was placed together with some black powder and sand in a cardboard box.
trigger mechanism grenade worked on the principle of double-action (like a revolver), and thus was always ready for action. When you press the trigger cocked the hammer first, and then hits the capsule, which through the hole ignited gunpowder and reactive (expelling) of nitrocellulose propellant charge.
trigger mechanism system Tsveticha,
Weapons had a barrel length of 960 mm and 44 mm caliber, mechanical sight, optical sight 3.8-fold OH M59 with an angular field of view of 12 °, a bipod, shoulder rest and swivel to attach the shoulder strap attached to the outer surface of the barrel by welding.
Grenade Tsveticha had a rather high rate of combat, decent initial velocity grenades, good effective firing range, it was a decent armor and cumulative mine.
After various tests
Department infantry grenade Tsveticha gave an excellent rating. Enterprise "Crvena Zastava" in Kragujevac cooked set of technical documentation for the serial production and in 1956 released a trial batch of 15 launchers. These samples have passed the new tests, again received positive evaluations. "Zero" series of 50 pieces was made in 1958, and she was sent to the military tests, which confirmed the compliance of the required performance characteristics of the new grenade launcher.
As a result
grenade design captain Tsveticha under code RB 44mm M57 (manual Batsach 44mm M57 - grenade launcher caliber 44 mm sample in 1957), was adopted by the JNA and put into series production. Until 1966, it produced 26,000 of these weapons.
| Caliber, mm || 44 |
| Length mm || 960 |
| Weight || 8.200 |
| Combat rate, |
Rds / min
| 4 |
| Muzzle velocity |
Grenades, m / s
| 147 |
| Effective range |
- On moving targets
- On fixed targets
| Penetration, mm || 270 - 320 |
However in 1964, the military said that quite often the back of the pipe bursts in a place where welding sling swivel attached to the trunk. It was revealed that this was due to poor welding technology chosen. On the "Crvena Zastava" duty laid to address these shortcomings. One solution was to strengthen the rear of the barrel at the troops already in grenade by wrapping it with galvanized steel wire of 1.5 mm diameter and adding new rings for shoulder rest and swivel (so-called "RB renovated"). GRENADE new issues finalized, making the rear of the trunk thickening, and rings for shoulder rest steel welded with new technology. This variant was named RB weapons M57A1. Final weapon same model designation M57A2 had thickened posterior part of the trunk, shoulder mount stop using the ring and special grooves for rings antabok.
Kragujevac weapons factory "Crvena Zastava" from 1965 to 1967 released 4331 corrected grenade launchers, and until 1975 produced another RB 12600 M57A2. Until 1970, Kragujevac factory produced a total of 47,751 units of the M57 all the options.
antitank grenade launcher M57 RB model represents one of the most successful designs of the national defense industry Yugoslavia, the JNA was in service for half a century. From 1991 to 1995, he was used extensively during the war in Yugoslavia, although at that time there were already armed with grenade launchers more modern domestic and foreign production.
RB M57, M57 renovated RB, RB M57A1, M57A2 RB