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Revolver Revolver arr 1895

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    revolver pistol mod 1895

    Nagan sample 1892
    (Prototype Nagant mod 1895)

    famous 7.62mm Nagant revolver adopted by the Russian Army in 1895, was developed in Belgium and has a long history of its appearance and use.

    In 1878, the Belgian company Nagant brothers older brother Emil was developed 9.4-mm revolver with a double-action Nagant M 1878, which adopted the Belgium. In 1883, for arming non-commissioned officers and support staff of the Belgian Army has created a variation of a revolver with a trigger, single action - Nagant M 1883, and in 1886 the younger brother, Leon Nagant revolver designs Nagant M 1878/1886, improving the model in 1878.

    revolver pistol mod 1895
    Regulation drum revolver Nagan arr 1895
    With a flat (top) and cocked (bottom) trigger

    In Belgium Nagant revolvers also widely recognized in the armies of other countries. Until the mid-1890s they were in different versions (Nagant M 1884, M 1887, M 1993) were adopted by the European countries under 7.5 mm caliber cartridge and Latin America under the cartridge of caliber 11.2 mm. However, at that time a serious shortcoming in the design Nagant revolvers had a breakthrough powder gases between the State-owned muzzle and the front end of the drum.

    In 1892 Leon Nagant creates semizaryadnuyu model revolver Nagan obturation system with propellant gases. He perfected weapons brother, embodying the best features of the models 1883 and 1886's, as well as borrowing from Liege gunsmith Henry Piper obturation system propellant gases - in particular thrusting drum cartridges on the barrel before each shot.

    Create a new

    Revolver Revolver coincided with the efforts made by Russia to resolve the question of rearming its army with modern types of personal defense weapon when enough there was a question of replacing the outdated regular 4.2-linear (10.67 mm) revolver System Smith & Wesson. Russian military commission found that "military revolver must have the fight to a single bullet at a distance of up to 50 steps to stop the horse. If the bullet hit four or five inch boards, then sufficient combat power. " For this gun had to have: weight 0.82 - 0.92 kg; caliber - 3 lines (7.62 mm); nesamovzvodny simple trigger mechanism; Tagged accuracy of fire at a distance of 35 - 50 steps (25 - 35 m) , the initial velocity of at least 300 m / s. Revolver design should be easy to manufacture, maintenance, insensitive to contamination and reliable operation in difficult conditions.

    announced a competition for a new short arms of the Russian army and the potential giant order attracted great interest from domestic and foreign arms manufacturers. There were several modifications of existing revolver Smith & Wesson revolvers and automatic pistols, but the main struggle was between the Belgian gunsmiths Henry Piper Model M1889 revolver and Leon Nagant M1892 with.

    revolver pistol mod 1895
    single action trigger (top)
    And the double-action (bottom),
    Nagant revolvers used in the mod 1895

    Nagan, feeling he can get substantial profits, adapted his revolver under the requirements of the Russian military. Nagant Model 1892 sample was redesigned under the 3-way (7.62mm) revolver cartridge. Along with weapons armorer and presented two options cartridges with bullets weighing 6 and 7 g, low-smoke filled with black powder, since the system obturation gases require special sleeves with elongated dulcitol, which would conceal the entire bullet. Also, to meet the requirements of using single-action trigger, the revolver had deliberately degrade design of their weapons - he has gone off the beaten path, adapting the design of the new revolver similar alteration model 1878 model in 1883, which excluded the possibility of self-cocking firing. In converted to nesamovzvodny firing guns to open fire had first right thumb cock and only then pull the trigger.

    However

    design revolver Nagant M 1892 it was revealed many small flaws. In addition, Leon Nagant Russian army offered to buy his patent on the revolver for 75000 rubles. Russian military refused to pay, and returned to the Belgian revolver appointed rebid defining prize of 20,000 rubles for the construction of a revolver, 5000 - smokeless gunpowder, as well as obtaining all rights to Russian model-winner, including the production, both at and abroad, without any additional payments to the inventor.

    revolver pistol mod 1895

    Nagan arr 1895
    Belgian production company Revolver brothers

    During 1893 - 1894's Revolver consistently developed several improved models of their weapons, which were eliminated almost all the shortcomings of the sample revolver 1892: increased slot sight; recess on the right side of the frame for inserting cartridges into the drum extended; increased slightly (by revolver pistol mod 1895
    liner and cartridge 7.62x38 R
    Revolver Revolver arr 1895 The new competition

    compact and lightweight revolver Nagant Model 1894 very quickly stepped forward. However, the Russian army at the request of the officer corps, also needed a better gun with self-cocking trigger. Leon Nagant, working for the future, at the end of 1894, submitted to the Russian military commission sample of the self-cocking revolver. In addition to the design of a revolver was introduced a number of small changes that by the spring of 1895 took its final shape: drum Camore nests have been deepened by 0.15 mm - has become more simple connection of the movable tube with the drum, change cartridge design - Dultsev sleeve received enhanced crimp, and the bullet, shortened by 1 mm spherical instead became vershinku have a flat - as a result, the edge of the sleeve became positioned 1.4 mm higher than the top of the bullet, which significantly improved obturation when firing.

    As a result, the Russian army had decided to take a revolver Nagan two samples: the officer - with self-cocking trigger mechanism and a soldier - with nesamozvodnym trigger single action. Along with the high performance of the weapon, an additional factor, slope Russian military to a deal with a revolver, has become quite acceptable purchase price does not exceed 30-32 rubles. his revolver. May 13, 1895 decree of Emperor Nicholas II soldier and officer samples Nagan revolver were formally adopted by the army as a regular handgun. Military department adoption of 3-way (7.62mm) Revolver Revolver of 1895 was held by order of the Minister of War number 156 of 26 June 1896.

    revolver pistol mod 1895

    Nagan arr 1895 production Belgium
    Diagram of the revolver

    Experts admit that the revolver Nagant M 1895, stood in line with the most perfect examples of this weapon at the time. It is much superior in combat and operational qualities consisted before armed Russian revolver Smith & Wesson. In terms of concepts of that era, he was a typical representative of military weapons - powerful and reliable in operation, but at the same time simple and relatively cheap.

    revolver pistol mod 1895
    Nagan arr 1895
    With closed (top) and open (bottom) the door

    7,62-mm revolver Nagant model 1895 consisted of: frame with cover, front sight with the barrel, muzzle-loading tube with a ramrod, with the axis of the drum and the return spring lock mechanism door with spring, the trigger guard.

    skeleton revolver component consisted of the barrel and frame are fastened together screw connection, shompolnye ramrod tube placed in the trunk, detachable lid and the side of the trigger guard.

    Barrel with 4 internal right-handed rifling had stepped-cylindrical shape with a massive shoulder on the muzzle. Ledge base of the trunk was a fly and had a groove type "dovetail" to attach itself flies. The bore rifling had four going up on the left to the right, as the chamber bore portion for placing the sleeve case mouth. In the breech had rifled stump for screwing with frame, a neck and a belt for muzzle-loading tube.

    shompolnye tube fits over the neck of the trunk and turned on her, and it was part of a surge of cutout belt, thereby limiting its turn. In muzzle-loading tube and stopper mounted ramrod ramrod - spring, fixed screw on muzzle-loading tube.

    frame skeleton was a complex milled parts with lots of grooves, notches and grooves pressed axes for connection of different parts of a revolver. The front of the box had the threaded hole for the connection with the barrel. Rear turnback frame with detachable side cover, two wooden cheeks formed a revolver handle. Connect the side cover and frame carried by a coupling screw. Convex steel backplate arm was oval in shape, fortified with movable ring for safety cord. In the middle part there was a rectangular window frame for an opening of the drum and to its axis. The upper part of the chute and was aiming slot.

    revolver pistol mod 1895
    Nagan arr 1895
    With the loading

    drum was both chamber and magazine. He had seven Camore for placing cartridges. On the outer surface of the drum were made seven recess to reduce weight and belt with seven deep recess for the rear projection of the trigger and seven slots for tooth door. At the rear end of the drum had a ratchet wheel to interact with the dog. At the front end of the drum, its concentric chamber, made undercut OD hemp stem. The drum was placed in the window frame and turned it on the axis.

    axis drum profile heads are inserted into the holes of the front frame is held within a muzzle-tube sets before his head drum axis tide.

    canceling device consisted of a pipe and drum spring. The tube was placed in the central channel of the drum and can be moved along its axis, confining tube shoulder, an annular groove formed part of the channel. Spring housed in the same channel of the drum, resting in front of the tube, and behind - in the channel wall.

    Locking device consisted of a drum door with the axis of the screw and spring-door with a screw. Door drum was placed on the right side of the revolver frame and rotated on an axis, eyelets screwed into the door and passing through a hole rack frame. The door had to interact with the tooth sockets girdle drum lug for connection to the ends of the drum and groove knurled. In the open position the door to swing down, releasing the bolt decal to it. Ledge door entered into the end of the recess of the drum, fixing it for loading or unloading.

    breech was placed in the nest of the rear wall window frame and turned it on the axle pressed into the frame.

    slider moved vertically in the grooves of the frame and cover and had a top notch for the passage of the trigger, the lower part of the groove was cut, tail slide had recess for the bell crank trigger; bevel worked on the ledge of the breech.

    < td> Sighting range, m < / tr>
    Caliber, mm 7.62h38
    Length mm 236
    Barrel length, mm 114
    Weight empty, kg 0.750
    weight of ammunition, kg 0837
    drum count. cartridges 7
    Muzzle velocity, m / s 272
    50
    Combat rate of fire, rds / min 14 - 21

    Trigger - complex shape, placed in the bottom nest frame and turned it on the axle pressed into the right wall of the frame. The trigger had a tail, crankshaft projection used for interaction with the slider, shoulder to limit rotation, sear to hold the hammer in the cocked position, oval head for action on the trigger rod. To place the pawl rod there was an opening to accommodate a lower pen mainspring - recess. In addition, the hook had two tabs - rear and front associated with the operation of the drum.

    trigger revolver has the following parts: swinging on the striker pin, needle cocking, spring-loaded rod for self-cocking the hammer and disruption, cocking, shoulder to compress the mainspring, the cut area to stop the top of the pen and the mainspring tail to close the top of the nest frame for trigger. Trigger placed on the right side frame slider back and turned on the axis, pressed into the wall of the frame.

    mainspring V-shape was located inside the handle of a revolver and was attached to the right side of his spine frame within the opening frame. Top feather on his finger was late for court action on the trigger and beveled oval ledge to ledge interaction with the hammer. The thin end of the lower pen mainspring housed in removing any trigger. Lower Feather also relied on the trigger guard.

    Revolver had a trigger mechanism of two types: double-action for "officer" and single-action model for "soldier" model.

    Drum equips one patron through a hinged door to the right and down. Removal of spent cartridges from the drum alternately performed using ramrod rotated around the trunk, with the door open.

    revolver pistol mod 1895

    Nagan arr 1895
    Production Imperial Tula Arms Factory

    In 1895, the tsarist government concludes with the Liege Revolver by a contract for the supply of Russian army over the next three years, 20,000 revolvers Nagant model 1895. In this case, the contract expressly stipulates the obligation of the Belgian side to assist Russia in establishing production revolvers Tula Arms Plant. So the very first samples mainly trigger mechanism double action purchased directly from the Belgian company Nagant brothers in Liege and intended primarily for weapons officers and NCOs. By 1899 their production ceased in Belgium, and has been launched in Russia Naganov own issue.

    revolver pistol mod 1895
    Russian Arms revolver (left)
    And Belgian (right) production

    production revolver in Russia was organized at the Imperial Tula arms factory (TOZ) in two versions: with a self-cocking mechanism, intended to arm the officers ("officer" model) and its degraded version without self-cocking mechanism ("soldier" model) for weapons lower ranks. At the same Tula gunsmiths not only mastered the production revolver Nagant 1895, but simultaneously improved its design, and production technology. And the cost of a revolver Russian manufacturing was 22.6 rubles, which was almost one-third less than the cost of the Belgian Nagant production, while preserving the high quality of martial weapons. Were changed head handles, which became solid and not split, the front sight is a simplified semi-circular shape instead of a truncated cone in the original sample.

    revolver pistol mod 1895

    revolver carbine for border guards,
    Made on the basis of Nagan revolver mod 1895

    In addition, Russian gunsmiths TOZ, trying to expand the functionality of the revolver, produced in 1912-1913 by order separate corps of border guards very limited number of revolvers with extended 300 mm barrel and butt integrally. New model was supposed to equip the horse guards. This gun actually belongs to a class of revolvers, rifles, intended to engage targets at ranges up to 100 m, however, exceptionally large size (total length was nearly 700 mm), low light killer action revolver bullets shooting at distances greater than 50 m, as well as "meshkotnost "reloading was the main reason for the failure of the sample.

    revolver pistol mod 1895
    view mount detachable butt
    Modifications Nagan arr 1895
    For the lower ranks of technical forces

    Around the same time the Tula plant designers developed another version of the revolver with an extended 200 mm barrel and a removable wooden butt, destined for the lower ranks of the army in the technical (gunners, telegraph, communications, engineers) to replace the two weapons (revolver and rifle) only one sample. However, this model proved to be unacceptable for the army, and remained only in test samples.

    Before the First World War, the Russian army was virtually assured modern handguns. The troops on the report card weapons to July 20, 1914, there were 424 434 Revolver Revolver model 1895 all modifications. And in the period from 1914 to 1917 Tula gunsmiths produced more 474800 revolver revolvers of all modifications.

    revolver pistol mod 1895

    Flies Nagan revolver mod 1895
    Produced in Belgium, Tsarist Russia and the USSR (left - right)
    revolver pistol mod 1895
    View pillar Nagan arr 1895, produced in the USSR

    After the 1917 revolution revolver was adopted by the Red Army and the security forces of Soviet Russia. In this case from the "soldier" model refused, leaving armed only with a more advanced model of self-cocking revolver.

    By the mid-1920s the Soviet state, based on the experience of using Nagan revolvers during the First World War and the Civil War, decided to simultaneously work on the creation of new self-loading pistols and automatic hold and partial modernization proven revolvers. But changes in their structure affected only sights: slot sight instead became triangular truss, and a semi-circular front sight was replaced with the same, but with the "truncated" top, more convenient for aiming. Revolvers manufacturing technology was simplified, although the complexity of their production has not decreased was 30 machines / hours per product.

    revolver pistol mod 1895

    Nagan arr 1895
    Production TOZ (USSR)

    In 1927 Tula Arms Plant mastered, along with the production staff revolvers of 1895, the production of new modification revolver - with a shortened barrel (85 mm long) and handle. This compact revolver, the so-called "commander" revolver was intended primarily for weapons operational staff OGPU and the NKVD, where the specific character of required concealed carry handguns. These weapons were produced in very small quantities (no more than several thousand) until 1932.

    revolver pistol mod 1895

    «Commanding" Revolver

    In 1933 Tula Arms Plant mastered mass production, who later became well-known, self-loading pistols TT, which was adopted by the Red Army. However Tokarev pistols were unable to completely dislodge from the factory system armed with a revolver model 1895, mainly due to their high quality of service and performance. Therefore, the manufacture of both types of handguns continued parallel to Tose. In the period from 1932 to 1941 was issued more than 700,000 revolver Nagan.

    revolver pistol mod 1895

    Nagan arr 1895,
    Intended for use silencer Bram

    revolver pistol mod 1895

    «Commanding" Nagan
    With an installed muffler Bram

    Shortly before the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, especially for the security organs to Tose was pilot batch of revolvers with appliances Brama (brothers Mitya) for silent-flameless. This silencer has a fairly effective expansion chamber type with rubber gaskets - obturator. Soon these weapons received a baptism of fire, albeit in a very limited scale using KGB, abandoned as part of reconnaissance and sabotage groups behind enemy lines.

    revolver pistol mod 1895

    Nagan arr 1895,
    Produces Izhevsk during the Great Patriotic War

    Since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War of Tula in October 1941 forced the evacuation of the main power to the Urals. Production revolvers in early 1942 launched a branch in Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant number 74, which in July 1942 was given number 622. However, the continuously growing demand for weapons led to the fact that in addition to the Izhevsk plant, since the end of 1942 the production of revolvers reopene Tula (and continued until the end of the war Izhevsk). In 1942 - 1945 years of Soviet gunsmiths transferred to the front over 370,000 revolvers.


revolver pistol mod 1895
Nagan arr 1895
With plastic cheeks

With the end of World War II and retired in army revolvers part has been stockpiled in the arsenals, and a significant number of revolvers for many years continued to carry his service in the militia. After re in the middle of the 1950s the internal affairs bodies more modern types of handguns revolvers transferred units of private security (Security Police) and a collection service, where many of these revolvers were used even after 100 years from the date of their creation until their appeal is not in Russia was limited to the Law "On Weapons", adopted in 1993.

Given the long-term operation and high demand for many stakeholders in the official weapon in 1960-1970-ies almost all remaining revolvers underwent major renovations and therefore have undergone some changes. So for most of the revolvers were installed plastic handle cheeks, instead of worn out over the years of operation of the old wood. In all revolvers until 1922 trigger mechanism altered in self-cocking. All weapons manufacture 1931-1932's got instead flies semicircular fly model 1930 with "truncated" the upper part.

revolver pistol mod 1895

Details revolver Nagan arr 1895 production in the USSR
The overall design

revolver Nagant model 1895 in due time became a classic. Along with well-established production "Naganov" in Russia, and later the Soviet Union, many foreign companies have repeatedly copied its design. Thus, the Belgian firm Lepage, Vayard, Francott, as well as the German company in Suhl C. G. Haenel established at production as direct analogues and modified several revolvers Nagant model 1895. In the 1920-1930-ies Spanish armory firm F. Arizmendi y Goenaga produced modified revolver Nagan arr. 1895 chambered caliber 7.5 mm. From 1930 to 1935, under the designation "revolver model 30", he also produced the Polish government weapons arsenal in Radom using equipment purchased during liquidation in 1930, the Belgian brothers' company Revolver.

In combat and service applications revolver Nagant model 1895 was used in sports. In prerevolutionary Russia, any major changes to the design of target shooting revolvers have been made. At the competition used a standard revolver with nesamovzvodny USM, distinguished by high stability and accuracy of fire fight.

revolver pistol mod 1895

«Sports» Nagan
Chambered caliber 5.6 mm (.22 LR)

In 1926, one of the founders of the Soviet shooting sports, outstanding hands and arms designer AA Smyrna proposed project rework regular army 7.62 mm revolver under 5.6 mm rimfire cartridge (.22 LR). Revolvers of this type were intended for the initial training of shooting handguns and shooting sports. From combat revolvers new TRAINING weapons besides caliber differed primarily by the presence nesamovzvodny USM, reduced height front sight inserts in chambers drum cartridges with a much smaller and thermowell diameter than regular bullets. In addition, the upgraded revolver had a slightly different location drummer, which was due to the use of rimfire cartridges. Deservedly these revolvers enjoyed good reputation target weapon with a decent accuracy of fire and accuracy at ranges of combat to 25 m, which was due not only to the good qualities of the weapon itself, but also the fact that the trigger pull in a training revolver Nagan-Smyrna was not more than 1.5 Kg.

In 1930 Scientific testing station for sports weapons Osoviahima Central Council created a special driving device for firing small-caliber patronami.22 LR staff of 7.62mm Nagant revolver. Device consisted of a gimp barrel caliber 5.6 mm and truncated semizaryadnogo drum. Peredelenny similar way revolver had a sufficiently high accuracy of hits, as well as considerable vitality. The disadvantages of this design include excessively high cost of manufacturing small-bore-liner kit for regular revolvers, although such modifications and cost less than the production of new 5.6 mm of training Nagant revolvers.

In 1953 specialists of the Central Design Bureau of Sporting and Hunting Arms (TSKIBSOO) Tula create 7.62mm "perestvolenny" sports revolver Nagan. It differed from its predecessor not only target "weighted" barrel larger diameter and a length of 147 mm, but modified iron sights with adjustable sight and front sight, as well as more comfortable prosthetic arm. In addition to changing the structure itself of weapons. for him on the basis of regular revolver cartridge developed a new 7.62-mm X38 target revolver cartridge "B-1».

revolver pistol mod 1895

«perestvolenny" revolver (bottom)
And TOZ-36 (top)

In 1962, the famous gunsmith Yefim L. Haydurov began work on a new 6-charging sports target revolver, later received the designation of TOZ-36. This weapon has retained many Haydurov tested in revolver units and mechanisms. Feature was the presence of a revolver Haydurova control efforts descent (1.5-1.8 kg) and the stroke of the trigger (0.5 - 2.0 mm). Sights consist of an adjustable horizontal and vertical pillar and flies. For a more comfortable hold weapons firing revolver was equipped with walnut handle orthopedic floor type. Revolver is highly resistant to the process of aiming and firing, had a great balance and handiness, which together with a long sighting line provides high accuracy combat weapons.

revolver pistol mod 1895

TOZ-36 (top)
And TOZ-49 (below)

In 1969-1971 years on the basis of TOZ-36 EL Haydurov developed another revolver - TOZ-49. From the base of the sample it differs mainly shortened barrel and improved adjustable shutter (1.3-1.7 kg), which was due to the use of new sports cartridge 4 ELP. 1000 mm in length of the sleeve 26.

At the turn of XX - XXI centuries on the basis of the revolver Nagant model 1895 created traumatic rezinostrelnoe civil defense weapon P1 "Naganych" chambered 9P. A. (Ukrainian version - "Scat 1P", "Brigade Commander", "Mr. Revolver" and shortened "Scat 1Rk") and "Revolver-M" chambered 10h32T. For the production of civilian revolvers "Naganych" and "Revolver-M" were stored in warehouses used revolvers, last modification, excluding combat use of weapons.

revolver pistol mod 1895

«Naganych»

In the first decade of the XXI century, a number of Russian companies has been undertaken modifications stored in warehouses combat revolvers in different years of release signal (noise) modification, shooting of which is conducted capsules "Zhevelo." This weapon received the designation "Nagan-S" and "Bluff" (producer - Vyatskie Polanski plant "Hammer"), MR-313-07 or Nagan (producer - Izhevsk Arms Factory), R-2 (producer - Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant) . The design of these revolvers exclude retroactive alteration in military weapons (chambers drum capsule converted by caliber, barrel bored out in the breech plug is inserted). And the appearance of revolvers fully preserved, and disassembly, assembly and service is performed in the usual way.

revolver pistol mod 1895

«Bluff»




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