Rukavishnikova anti-tank gun model 1939
Extensive work on the development of anti-tank guns (MFI) in the Soviet Union to the governmental decree of 13 March 1936. In the years 1936-1938 have been tested 15 different systems PTR caliber from 12.7 to 25 mm, until it became clear that the requirements imposed on an antitank rifle, were originally overstated. November 9, 1938 the Red Army Artillery Administration has formulated a new assignment involves the development of 14.5-mm semi-automatic anti-tank rifle, which could reside in a rifle company with offices at any place and in any combat conditions.
powerful patron 14.5h114 mm, which began in 1934, were carried out on Scientific Testing of small arms firing range (NIPSVO) and continued at a Moscow factory. With the expectation of this ordnance officer of the same polygon NV Rukavishnikov constructed quite successful autoloading shotgun with a rate of 15 rounds / min.
In August 1939, field tests were carried out anti-tank rifles 14.5mm, which was recognized as the best PTR Rukavishnikova. This gun was easy to handle and use, has good maneuverability and rate of fire, had small size and easy to be carried by two soldiers using a shoulder strap attached to the front and rear handles designed to carry for short distances. Encountered delays easily eliminated without the use of special tools. By armor piercing gun quite meet your requirements: it pierced 20-mm cemented armor at an angle of 20 ° meeting at a distance of 500 m
| Caliber, mm || 14.5h114 |
| Length mm || 1775 |
| Barrel length, mm || 1180 |
| Weight || 24.0 |
| store count. cartridges || 5 |
| Rate, |
Rds / min
| 15 |
| Sighting |
| 1000 |
| Muzzle velocity |
Bullets, m / s
| 1010 |
| Penetration, |
Angle of incidence /
| 100 m / 90o / 30 mm |
400 m / 90o / 22 mm
Automation PTR Rukavishnikova worked on the principle of removal of powder gases from the barrel by turning the bolt lock.
striker type firing mechanism. Primer cartridge broke under the influence of a massive hammer mainspring mounted in the striker. The trigger mechanism has a lever type fuse located on the right side of the trigger guard.
Extraction and reflection spent cartridges were made with the extractor mounted on the gate, and a reflector, rigidly fixed to the rear of the receiver.
Food arms ammunition made from detachable box magazine capacity of 5 rounds, secured with the left side of the receiver.
Sights consisted of open sight sector type, calculated at a range of 1000 m, and flies.
To reduce the impact of considerable force on the trunk mounted-chamber muzzle brake on the back plate and wooden butt - cushion of foam rubber.
PTR Rukavishnikova mounted on wheeled carriage with motorcycle wheels. There was also an option on the bipod, but the shooting of it was difficult.
Oct. 7, 1939 Defense Committee of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR adopted a resolution on the introduction into service of the Red Army (the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army) 14.5-mm anti-tank rifle Rukavishnikova system under the name "14.5-mm anti-tank gun mod. 1939 ».
planned in 1939 to produce 50, and in 1940, 15,000 rifles. However, because of the mistaken belief that the enemy tanks will have a strong armor, at least 60-80 mm against which the MFI will be helpless, and that the Soviet Army is saturated enough artillery to suppress enemy tanks deploy their production was hampered in every way, and for 8 months was made only a few guns. In addition, retesting PTR Rukavishnikova demonstrated its high sensitivity to pollution, dust unmasking position, lifting gas from the muzzle brake. Shotgun needs refinement and July 26, 1940 was withdrawn from service and production.
Despite the withdrawal from service of the antitank rifle system Rukavishnikova work on improving it did not stop. Control of small arms commissioned NIPSVO modify Rukavishnikova antitank rifle model 1939.
finalized and slightly modified the sample in June 1941 passed the test. According to their results June 23, 1941, it was recommended to adopt the Red Army advanced anti-tank rifle sample Rukavishnikova system. July 8, 1941 after a demonstration Supreme Military Council was presented a second time for adopting 14.5mm PTR Rukavishnikova. Compared with similar foreign samples it had significant advantages in combat and operational qualities, but was rejected because of the complexity that the conditions of that time (the beginning of the Great Patriotic War) is of paramount importance. Attempt to establish at the beginning of the war the mass production of rifles Rukavishnikova failed. Debugging and setting it on production would require a long time. However several PTR Rukavishnikova used in parts of the Western Front during the defense of Moscow.