SAM Improved Hawk (MIM 23B)




    management system:

    Radar GOS









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    SAM improved hawk (mim 23b) SAM "Improved Hawk" in 1972 adopted by the U.S. Army to replace developed in the late 50-ies of the complex "Hawk", is now available in the armed forces almost all the European NATO countries as well as in Egypt, Israel, Iran, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Japan and other countries. According to the Western press, SAM "Hawk" and "Improved Hawk" U.S. supplied to 21 countries, with most of them in the second option.

    SAM "Improved Hawk" can hit supersonic aerial targets at ranges from 1 to 40 km altitude and 0.03 - 18 km (maximum values of range and altitude SAM defeat "Hawk" are respectively 30 and 12 km) and is capable of firing in adverse weather conditions and the application of interference.

    main fire unit complex "Improved Hawk" is an anti-aircraft battery dvuhvzvodnogo composition (the so-called standard) or trehvzvodnogo (reinforced). In this case the first battery consists of basic and advanced fire platoons, and the second - from the ground and two advanced.


    In both types of fire platoon has one target illumination radar AN/MPQ-46, three launchers M192 with three anti-aircraft guided missiles MIM-23B each.

    In addition, the composition of the base include the platoon firing pulse radar targeting AN/MPQ-50, radar rangefinder AN/MPQ-51, item of information processing and the battery command post AN/TSW-8, and best - target designation radar AN / MPQ -48 and control post AN/MSW-11.

    Basically firing platoon enhanced battery except pulsed radar targeting, there is also a station AN/MPQ-48.

    The composition of each battery unit includes both types of technical support with three freight loading vehicle M-501E3 and other accessories. When deploying a battery on the launch pad used longest cable network. Time to transfer the battery from the stowed position to the firing of 45 minutes, and clotting - 30 min.

    Separate antiaircraft battalion "Improved Hawk" includes the U.S. Army or four standard, or three armored batteries. Typically, it is used at full strength, but anti-aircraft battery can independently decide the combat mission and apart from its main body. Independent task to combat low-flying targets as best able to solve the firing squad.

    SAM improved hawk (mim 23b)

    SAM MIM-23B - Single stage, made of aerodynamic configuration "tailless", with "X"-shaped arrangement of the aerodynamic surfaces.

    Her bow are semi-active radar homing head (under the fiberglass fairing radio waves), on-board guidance equipment and power supplies. SAM induced by the target proportional convergence.

    arming missiles includes high-explosive fragmentation warhead (weight 54 kg), remote detonator and safety adapter providing fuze arming in flight and issuing commands to self destruct in case of a miss. SAM applied on a single-chamber solid engine with two modes of traction. Maximum speed of 900 m / s. In the tail of the rocket are hydraulic actuators aerodynamic control surfaces and electronic equipment onboard control system.

    missile is stored and transported in sealed containers made of aluminum alloy, where apart from it are also wings, control surfaces, engines and igniters warhead.

    SAM improved hawk (mim 23b)

    launcher M192 is a structure of three hardwired open rails mounted on a movable base, which is fixed on a single axle trailer. Changing the angle of elevation is performed using a hydraulic actuator. Rotation of the movable base with the UE is performed by a drive placed on the trailer. Ibid installed control electronics drives, providing guidance on the launcher rockets are in point of pre-emption, and equipment preparation for launch Zour. When deploying on the launch pad PU gorizontiruetsya using jacks.

    SAM improved hawk (mim 23b)

    transporter-loader machine M-501E3 , made on the basis of light self-propelled tracked chassis, intended for delivery of missiles from a technical position and the subsequent loading of the launcher. Charger with a hydraulic drive provides the ability to boot the machine and loading PU simultaneously by three-Zour. For storage of missiles after assembly and transportation used shelving, which are transported in the back of trucks and trailers on the road uniaxial.

    SAM improved hawk (mim 23b)

    Pulse radar targeting AN/MPQ-50 is designed to detect air targets flying at high and medium altitudes, and to determine their bearing and range. The maximum range of the station is about 100 km. Her work (in the frequency range 1 - 2 GHz) provides low attenuation of electromagnetic energy under adverse weather conditions, and availability of the device moving target - the effective detection of air attack under clutter and in the application of clutter. Featuring a range of circuit protection solutions achieved by jamming station.

    SAM improved hawk (mim 23b)

    radar targeting AN/MPQ-48 , operating in continuous wave mode, is designed to detect air targets at low altitudes and to determine their bearing, range and radial velocity. The maximum range of the station more than 60 km. Its antenna rotates synchronously with the antenna impulse radar provides target designation and correlation of data on air situation displayed to the command post of the battery. Isolation signals proportional to the distance and radial speed of the target is carried out by digital processing of radar data is performed on the information processing section. The station is equipped with a built-in control equipment operation and fault indication.

    SAM improved hawk (mim 23b)

    target illumination radar AN/MPQ-46 is used for the automatic tracking and narrow beam irradiation selected aerial targets, as well as transfer to the missile induced in the target reference signal wide beam antenna. The station operates in the frequency range GHz 6-12,5. To capture the tracking of targets on the radar antenna for target designation data obtained with the command post of the battery or item of information processing, is set in the direction required for the sector search goals.

    SAM improved hawk (mim 23b)

    Radar rangefinder AN/MPQ-51 is a pulsed radar operating in the frequency range 17,5-25 GHz, which allows measurement of the target range and providing this information to the radar illumination conditions suppress the last active interference.

    item information processing Designed for automatic data processing and connecting battery complex. The equipment is located inside the cab mounted on a single axle trailer. It consists of a digital device automatic processing of data from radar target designation of both types, equipment identification system "friend or foe" (antenna mounted on the roof), interfaces and communications.

    control station neredovogo platoon firing AN/MSW-11 is used as the control center and fire command center platoon. Fasting is also able to solve the problems of information processing points, which it is similar in composition of the equipment, but additionally equipped with a control panel with indicator Omnidirection other means display and controls. Post includes a crew commander (fire control officer), radar operator and operator communications. On ocnove information purposes derived from the radar and target designation AN/MPQ-48 is displayed on the circular review, an assessment of the air situation and appointed shelled goal. Target designation data on it and the necessary commands are transmitted to the radar illumination AN/MPQ-46 best platoon firing.

    battery command post AN/TSW-8 is located in the cockpit, which is installed in the back of the truck. It includes the following equipment:

    remote command and control with the means to display data about the traffic situation and the controls (in front of him are jobs calculate commander and his assistant),

    Remote "azimuth - speed",

    two remote fire control operators, through which the issue of targeting each of the radar illumination, turn their antennas toward designated for the purposes of fire and tracking manually.

    There is also a complex

    auxiliary equipment, including a filtering unit.


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    tests and operation

    Combat complex work and functioning of its assets in the process of shooting carried out as follows.
    Pulse radar and targeting AN/MPQ-50 station targeting AN/MPQ-48, operating in continuous wave mode, search for and detect air targets. At the command post AN/TSW-8 battery when it is operating in conjunction with item processing (as in the forward firing platoon - in the control AN / MSW-11) on the basis of obtained data from these radar target identification problems are solved, evaluation of air situation, determine the most dangerous targets, target designation fire section. After the capture of target illumination station AN/MPQ-46 carried her support automatic or (usually in difficult noise conditions) in manual mode. In the latter case, the operator uses a battery command post range information obtained from radar rangefinder AN/MPQ-51. In the process of target tracking station backlight produces its exposure. With a rocket launcher selected for shelling targets induced in the pre-emption point. Homing SAM captures the goal.

    After coming

    start command (with battery or manual control point forward platoon firing) missile leaves the rail, and reaching a certain speed, begin to work on the target. While its seeker uses the reflected from the target and received from the station lighting (reference) signals. Evaluation results of shooting is performed based on data obtained by processing the Doppler signal at the target station backlight data processing station.


    Modernization Program SAM "Improved Hawk", which began in 1979, has now entered the third phase. At this stage the planned work on several fronts, the main ones are:

    - giving the complex the simultaneous destruction of several goals through the use of radar illumination additional antenna with a wide beam. It is believed that when firing at several targets range of their defeat will be 50-70 percent. range achieved when firing at a single target.

    - Replacement manual battery and item information processing control station, basically similar post best platoon firing, but differ by the presence of a second controller and digital computing device. Both the remote control provides fast access with digital display means air situation display similar means SAM "Patriot".

    - Increased mobility SAM while reducing the amount of the complex transport units (from 14 to 7) by allowing the transport of SAM on the launcher and replace the transport and loading vehicle M-501E3 machine equipped with hydraulic lift, which was established on the basis of truck. On the new TPM and its trailer will be transported by a single rack with three-Zour on each. It is reported that during deployment and retrieval battery with halved.

    - radar equipment and PU complex navigation equipment and digital computing device to give a set of possible goals to fire on the data from radar AN/MPQ-53 SAM "Patriot".

    Upon completion of the modernization program SAM "Improved Hawk" in the United States and other NATO countries plan to create modifications of this complex, which would largely meet the requirements of modern anti-air attack weapons.

    Thus, the American firm "Raytheon" develops radar ACWAR [Agile Continuous-Wave Acquisition Radar), which can be replaced by radar targeting both types. This three-coordinate station will have an antenna with electronic beam scanning in elevation and mechanical - in azimuth. Mention is also made of the possibility (in case of a new modification of missiles) use radar for guidance ACWAR Zour on average-trajectory, while excluding from the SAM station target illumination.

    The structure of a new modification of the complex "Improved Hawk", intended for the Norwegian Armed Forces, included three-coordinate radar LASR (Low Altitude Survellance Radar), developed by the American company "Hughes" on the basis of radar serifs artillery positions AN/TPQ-36 .


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