USA, Germany, Italy, Spain, European Union, Norway, Turkey
Ship air missile system (SAM)" Sea Sparrow "is designed to organize defense of surface ships against aircraft, helicopters and low-flying cruise missiles at close range. SAM "Sea Sparrow" various modifications is one of the most popular anti-aircraft complexes NATO navies. The system is designed primarily for small-displacement surface ships, which are essential for overall weight and dimensions limits hosted weapons, as well as to strengthen the defense of large ships at close range.
komplesk created as a result of carried out since 1964 work program BPDMS (Basic Point Defence Missile System) based on a modified aircraft missiles "air-air" Sparrow-III AIM-7F. Test version of the complex base management system Mk 115 and target illumination radar Mk 51 conducted between February 1967. Between 1971 75gg. complex was 31 USS.
. Denmark, Italy and Norway came to an agreement with the U.S. Navy to work together to modernize SAM "Sea Sparrow" in the framework of international cooperation - NATO SeaSparrow Project Office (NSPO). NSPO launched a program IBPDMS ("Improved Basic Point Defense Missile System") for the purpose of developing a unified air defense of surface ships of the NATO countries. The new complex, designated NSSMS Block I (NATO Sea Sparrow Missile System), has been successfully tested, production began in 1973.
Over the years, the service complex repeatedly upgraded and now adopted by the Navy in many countries. SAM "Albatros", developed by the Italian company "Alenia Marconi Systems" and installed on ships of Italy, Morocco, and Egypt is a localized version of SAM NSSMS "Sea Sparrow".
currently to replace in service with RIM-7 missiles of various modifications in the composition of SAM "Sea Sparrow" offers a new anti-aircraft missile RIM-162 ESSM (Evolved Seasparrow Missiles). Development of RIM-162 ESSM started in 1995 by an international consortium led by the company "Raytheon". As part of a consortium of firms in Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Spain, Greece, Holland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Turkey and the United States. The new missile can start with both rotary and vertical launchers of complex "Sea Sparrow" (see photo).
The structure of SAM
"Sea Sparrow" first modifications include: guided missile AIM-7F, the control system Mk115 radar target illumination Mk51 (see photo), launcher Mk25 8-Zour (modified PU PLRK ASROC) and cellar ammunition .
Zour AIM-7F - Single stage, solid propellant sustainer Rocketdyne Mk38 mod 2 is equipped with a passive radar homing. The system operates as follows. After detection of the target data on it from combat information center by the management system Mk115. Radar Mk51 X-band, part of the control system Mk115, provides illumination purpose. Radar antenna post is placed on a rotating basis and using servo drives connected to the movable part of the launcher. Operating experience base case SAM revealed a number of serious shortcomings of the complex, which have been linked in the first place, with a weak energy sustainer rocket engine AIM-7F, significant transverse dimensions of the rocket due to non-folding wings, a low level of automation of combat work and lack of efficiency of the control system Mk115 at night and in bad weather conditions.
SAM NSSMS Block I (Nato Sea Sparrow) has received a new missile RIM-7H with folding wings, upgraded compact launcher Mk 29, a new target illumination radar SPS-65 and automated control system Mk91 (see photo). SAM RIM-7H was created based missiles AIM-7E2 air-to-air specifically for use in anti-aircraft complex. RIM-7H rocket equipped with an improved seeker and a new engine Aerojet Mk52.mod2 (engine weight - 68.5kg, time 2.8s). For guidance Zour RIM-7H used Mk91 control system modifications and mod.0 mod.1. Currently RIM-7H decommissioned.
In 1972 the firm "Raytheon" has launched a new version of the aircraft missiles AIM-7F. Onboard control system of the new missile was performed on the basis of solid-state electronics. Significant reduction in weight and size of the control system will move the warhead in the nose of the missile warhead weight increase and apply increased energy boosters. The new missile, which was adapted for ship SAM "Nato Sea Sparrow", was put into production under the designation RIM-7F.
in 1983. complex NSSMS got a new weapon of destruction - rocket RIM-7M. RIM-7M has a new noise immunity monopulse seeker can securely defeat low-flying targets, autopilot, providing the flight of the missile in the aiming point on loss goals, and fully digital control system. RIM-7M engine is equipped with "Hercules" Mk58.
C 1991. began shipping missile RIM-7P composed SAM NSSMS. RIM-7P made subcontractors firms "Raytheon", "General Dynamics" and "Hughes Missile Systems" (beginning of the development - 1987.), Equipped with a new pulse-Doppler semi-active radar seeker and allows you to attack targets on top of the background of the underlying surface. With the adoption by RIM-7P complex "Nato Sea Sparrow" got a chance to attack surface targets.
last representative of the family of missiles is the RIM-7 missile RIM-7R (1997). System homing RIM-7R equipped with an additional thermal channel. Integration of channels homing SAM significantly increased noise immunity, however, because of the high cost of software development RIM-7R was closed.
RIM-7 missiles recent modifications management system is used Mk91 mod.2 and Mk91 mod.3. Mk91 mod.2 provides shelling targets one-Zour, Mk91 mod.3 - two goals successive starts one SAM or one goal with two missiles. Mk91 mod.3 can be used in conjunction with an early warning Mk23 TAS, which is used to display the tactical situation, target allocation and target designation, including for other combat systems ship carrier. Together they form a system of self-AN-SWY-1 (V). Standard radar tracking and target illumination is the Mk95, but the control system is coordinated with other radar similar purpose.
Launchers Mk29 provide storage, aiming at the target and start the eight-Zour RIM-7 all modifications, as well as missile RIM-162 ESSM. Reloading is done manually (see photo). PU Mk29 equipped frigates: type "Wieligen" (Belgian Navy), type "Bremen" - F122 (German Navy), type "Tromp", "Kontenaer" and "Jacob van Heemskerck" (Royal Netherlands Navy), type "Oslo" (Norwegian Navy), type "Vasco da Gama" (Portuguese Navy), type "Yavuz" (Turkish Navy). Carriers class "Nimitz" immet three twin launchers Mk-29, one of which is located in the nose on the right sponson and two at the board on the aft flight deck area below. Newest U.S. Navy strike aircraft carrier "George H. W. Bush "is armed with two twin launchers Mk-29 missile RIM-162.
suggestive Mk29 launchers can not provide the required firing rate and reaction time for massive use of enemy air attack. To address this deficiency developed modifications SAM "Nato Sea Sparrow" with launchers vertical launch Mk41 and Mk48.
For use in SAMs PU vertical launch missile RIM-7 is equipped with a special power gas rudders "Jet Vane Control" (JVC), placed on the nozzle block solid propellant sustainer. JVC unit provides automatic declination missile towards the target after the start and reset after the maneuver. SAM RIM-7 interfaces with aboard the carrier via the MIL-STD 1553 and upgraded PU Mk41 Mk48.
PU Mk48 includes a support structure system venting jet engine Zour, sealed containers, equipment and launch control has four main modifications.
PU Mk48 mod.0 is a package starting up venting containers which can be placed on the deck of the ship (in particular, its destroyers equipped with type "Murasame" Japanese Navy frigates and class "City" Canadian Navy). On Canadian EM URO "Halifax" two PU Mk48 mod.0, designed for eight-Zour (RIM-7M) each, are placed at the board in the area of the superstructure (see photo). Dimensions Dual container module PU Mk48 mod.0 (width, depth, height) - 2280 * 1270 * 4780mm. Curb weight of the launcher (16 RIM-7) - 15942kg (32 ESSM) - 29976kg.
PU Mk48 mod.1 armed frigates type "Karl Doorman" Royal Netherlands Navy. PU Mk48 mod.1 is a package with the launch canisters gazotvodom aside, which can be mounted on a bulkhead ship carrier (see photo). On frigates "Karl Doorman" eight packets (of 16 missiles) are located on the left side at the helicopter hangar. Dimensions Dual container module PU Mk48 mod.1 - 1730 * 1320 * 4650mm. Curb weight of the launcher (16 RIM-7) - 13278kg (32 ESSM) - 26428kg.
PU Mk48 mod.2, consisting of 16 containers with venting up is usually placed inside the ship's superstructure. PU Mk48 mod.2 installed on Greek frigates of type "Hydra" and South Korean destroyers type KDX. Dimensions PU Mk48 mod.2 - 4770 * 4170 * 4740mm. Curb weight of the launcher (16 RIM-7) - 17648kg (32 ESSM) - 30890kg.
PU Mk48 mod.3, designed for ships with a displacement of less than 1,000 tons PU Mk48 mod.3 is a compact module of six launchers containers (see photo) that is placed on the deck of the ship. This type of PU type corvettes equipped with "Flyvefisken" Netherlands Navy corvettes type "Niels Juel" Navy Denmark. Dimensions PU Mk48 mod.3 - 3660 * 2170 * 4730mm. Curb weight of the launcher (6 RIM-7) - 7748kg (12 ESSM) - 11816kg.
System Mk41 vertical launch missiles deployed on ships in various configurations ranging from a single module with eight to 16 cells with 128 cells.
at the Australian frigates "Anzac" vosmikonteynernaya launcher Mk41 mod5 (see photo) SAM "Nato Sea Sparrow" is available in the add-in chimneys. Type frigates "Brandenburg" (project 123) equipped with a 16-charging PU Mk41 mod4 in bow superstructure. PU Mk41 mod5 frigates have also type "Naresuan" Thai Navy. 16 charging Mk41 mod8 installed on Turkish frigates "Barbaros' (draft MEKO 200TN).
To organize and launch four missiles RIM-162 ESSM from one cell PU Mk41 developed a special transport and launch container Mk25, so-called. "Quad pack". "Quad package" provides physical, electrical and mechanical connection between the SAM RIM-162 and Pu Mk41. Implementation Mk25 require software development to manipulate specific SAM launch from the WPK. Using the "quad pack" can significantly increase the firepower, as it gives the opportunity to place 32 missile in the space normally required for eight.
Maximum range, km
19 (50 ESSM)
height of defeats the purpose, m
Dimensions RIM-7 missiles (M, P), mm:
maximum flight speed, M
Warhead weight, kg