Sniper rifle Mosin sample 1891/1930


    In 1891 adopted the Russian Empire was adopted rifle is a more or less basic design of the Mosin with some (not too significant, but nonetheless available anywhere) borrowings from Nagant system.

    sniper rifle Mosin sample 1891/1930
    Mosin rifle model 1891

    From a technical standpoint, Mosin rifle is a gun store with a manually operated. Locking barrel by longitudinally - rotary bolt on the two lugs of the receiver box. Lugs are located in front of the gate and locked state located in the horizontal plane. Cocking the hammer and staging his cocked performed at the opening of mash. Shutter simple in design, straight handle reloading is located in the middle of the gate. Fuse as separate items are not stead for making a fuse is used openly located behind the shutter head hammer (striker). The shutter can be easily removed from the receiver without tools (just take the bolt all the way back, and then pull the trigger and pull it back). Store box, neotemny, SIL cartridges. Bottom cover flap down shop-ahead for quick unloading and cleaning shop. Equipment shop - clips of the plate for 5 rounds or one patron through the top window of the receiver at the open gate. Because of the store design (single-in-line cartridges when loading from the top) in the design had to introduce a special item - a cut-off, the second block and lower cartridges in the store when submitting the top cartridge in the barrel. When fully closed gate cutoff disconnected, allowing the next cartridge up on the supply line in the trunk. The early samples also served as the cutoff reflector cartridge cases, later (1930) introduced a separate reflector. Boxes rifle - wood, as a rule - from birch, with a straight neck and steel butt pad. Sights open since 1930 on a number of rifles entered the ring guard flies.

    sniper rifle Mosin sample 1891/1930
    Mosin sample 1891/1930

    After World War sniping firmly entrenched in military life, becoming a great element of combat training in the military shooters. But in the USSR attention to the sniper movement was drawn only in the late 1920s, and even then not the military high command and the leadership of the omnipotent NKVD. Close military-technical cooperation with the Soviet Union contributed to the transfer of Weimar Germany's most modern Soviet military hardware and weapons, as well as their production technology. At the same time the Soviet Union appear and the first venture for the production of optical devices. It is this fact, along with the start of work on improving the basic infantry weapon - mosinskoy trehlineyki, provided the impetus for the creation in 1927-28 the first Soviet-style sniper rifles, constructed on the basis of Dragoon Mosin rifle, sample 1891

    new version of the old sniper rifle was equipped with a 4x optical sight D III («Dynamo", the third of the sample). The first Soviet riflescope D III is a copy of the German sight "Zeiss" and served for accurate shooting at a remote small targets show in sight arrow for a short time. It is an optical telescope with installation mechanisms aiming angles and accounting side of the amendments. At the top of the eyepiece tube had a drum with handwheel and graduated scale from 1 to 10 (every 100 m) on the left - located to the side drum amendments horizontal limb. The sighting device consisted of a vertical thread with a sharp tip (impact hemp) and horizontal threads at right angles to the hemp. The top edge of horizontal threads at the same height with a sharp end hemp, forming the crosshairs.


    sighting device and the target image were in focal plane of sight, the aim was to combine the tip sighting threads depicting goal. Sniper rifle made it possible to deliver fire with a telescopic sight from 100 to 1000 m, and with an eye open framework (with the optical) - at a distance of up to 600 m New weapons equipped with domestic sights, different fighting qualities. So, when shooting in batches of 10 shots at a distance of 100 m dissipation was 3.5 cm, 200 - 7.5 400 - 18.0, 600 - 35.0. Soon sniper rifles began to come into service escorts and border troops of the NKVD.

    sniper rifle Mosin sample 1891/1930
    Mosin sample 1891/1930
    Aiming PT

    Soviet armed forces were similar weapon only two years later - in 1930 Constructors Design Bureau of Tula arms factory in integrated improvement works regular weapon developed a special model sniper rifle 7.62mm sample 1891/30 years, which differed from the standard presence of an optical sight, high quality manufacturing trunk bent down for easy loading handle stem gate Bayonet increased by 1 mm high flies, relief efforts on the trigger to 2-2.4 kg.

    Key indicators

    ballistic sniper rifles (without bayonet) were similar to those rifles gross production, but the target was improved weapons accuracy battlefield by their selection of the number of ordinary samples showed the best shooting results, or through a special manufacturing with improved processing quality the surface of the bore and reduced tolerances.

    sniper rifle Mosin sample 1891/1930
    Reticle EP

    Stability battlefield sniper rifles was significantly higher than that of the gross production of weapons that reached more careful fitting to the trunk box to the receiver and manufacturer lodges are usually of high quality material - walnut. Because of the elevation setting, overlapping groove clips in the receiver, charge sniper rifles of the standard five-shot clips was not possible, so the loading was carried out on one cartridge, which greatly reduced the combat capabilities of these weapons in a real combat situation.

    sniper rifle Mosin sample 1891/1930
    sniper rifle Mosin sample 1891/1930
    sniper rifle Mosin sample 1891/1930
    Soviet sniper
    With a sniper rifle Mosin sample 1891/1930
    With optical sight PE

    first major baptism sniper weapon passed during the Soviet-Finnish War of 1939-40., when the great qualities of the Soviet rifles equipped with scopes VP, PT and PE were tested combat practice.


    bet that in the prewar years, the military high command made by the widespread introduction of the system of automatic weapons infantry weapons, led to what is already in the 1937 sniper rifle sample 1891/30 years. planning to replace the 7.62-mm automatic sniper rifle system SG Simonov (FAA) of the sample in 1936, however, high dissipation even when shooting single lamp promoted that was made just a small game sniper rifle Simonov. And just three years later, in 1940, to replace the 7.62mm sniper rifle model 1891/30 years. comes a new 7.62-mm self-loading rifle sniper Tokarev (SVT) of the sample in 1940 PU scope was considerably enhanced compared to its predecessors and weighed 0.27 kg. Mounting bracket sight PU top of the receiver, also developed by FV Tokarev, allows shooting with an open eye on the sector range to 600 m

    sniper rifle Mosin sample 1891/1930
    Reticle PU However, the harsh reality

    fights initial period of the Great Patriotic War has convincingly proved that a sniper rifle SVT-40, despite its many advantages, is much inferior to its predecessor on the key indicator for this type of weapon - the accuracy of fire. Numerous complaints as they came from the front SVT sniper forced the Soviet military command again to recall the old, undeservedly forgotten sniper rifle sample 1891/30 years. In October 1941 sniper SVT-40 is removed from production.

    In early 1942, Izhmash restores production sniper rifles sample 1891/30 years., but they have been designed under a unified sight PU designed specifically for sniper SVT-40. However, and this rifle had some shortcomings: soldiers not satisfied in the first place, its mass and its considerable length, resulting in long-term work with her bored sniper, rifle low rate - 10-12 aimed shots per minute is also not quite meet the requirements of modern transience maneuverable combat.

    sniper rifle Mosin sample 1891/1930
    sniper rifle Mosin sample 1891/1930
    With optical sight PU

    Special criticism is unregulated trigger as tight descent is not ensured that the accuracy of aiming during firing. Daylight simplified and cheaper production technologies have led to the fact that the lodge, which in 1942 began to be made from birch billets, often gave the leash, which used to have weapons, which had high quality walnut box, did not occur. Some snipers noted insufficient quality production optics, in particular sights PU Release 1943-44. In addition, the conclusion of soldiers at reconciliation and bringing the rifle to normal combat setting on the scale drum vertical amendments sight not always coincide with the actual distances and frequent change a drum vertical amendments gave horizontal deflection.

    Caliber, mm 7.62
    Length mm 1232
    Barrel length, mm 729
    Weight empty, kg 4.0
    Capacity count. cartridges 5
    Sighting range, m 1000
    Muzzle velocity, m / s 865

    was felt ill-placed optical sight PU rifle. In particular it was noted that the sight is located away from the shooter's eye, causing the sniper aiming at you have to tear the butt cheek of up to 3 cm and crane your neck (to watch the entire field of view without the crescent-shaped shadows on the edges). Due to improper eye arrow head position deviated from the optical axis of the sight, causing an error in aiming.

    During the Great Patriotic War, Soviet snipers used the following ammunition: 7.62 mm rifle cartridges with light, heavy, armor-piercing (B-30), armor-piercing incendiary (B-32), sighting-incendiary (PZ) and tracer (T-46) bullets. Cartridges with light and heavy bullets are usually used for firing at enemy troops, with armor-piercing ammunition and armor-piercing incendiary bullets - to destroy settlements guns, artillery (especially direct fire guns) and MFR (RPG), as well as for shooting embrasures bunkers and pillboxes at the telescope, vehicles and diving plane. Chucks with incendiary bullet used to ignite objects hindering observation and fire harboring snipers and fill timber enemy firing points; cartridges with a tracer bullet - for targeting (and only in the offensive). Sighting (explosive) bullets used for shooting flammable objectives and to adjust shooting at moving and stationary targets, as a rule, Soviet snipers during the war, almost never used. Wearable ammo depended sniper tasks performed and the type of combat (offensive or defensive).

    in 1941-1943. "Izhmash" handed over the front 330 000 sniper rifles sample 1891/30 years. The war experience has shown that this rifle with PU scope is one of the best in its class and surpasses similar weapon of the enemy (7.92mm sniper rifle German Zf. Kar. 98 k). Czechoslovakia in 1949-1951. Designer Otakar Galash based on this weapon was actually created a new sniper rifle, known as arr. 54.

    In 1960, this work was continued in the USSR, where on the basis of the famous Soviet Mosin rifle gunsmith EF Dragunov created several modifications sporting rifle for target shooting - AB and AVL.


Site is a private collection of materials and is an amateur informational and educational resource. All information is obtained from public sources. The administration does not apply for authorship of the materials used. All rights belong to their owners