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Strategic cruise missile air-launched AGM-129A (ACM)

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    Basing

    :

    Plane

    management system:

    management software

    Warhead:

    spetsboepripasov

    Application:

    Strategic

    Country:

    U.S.

    Range:

    3700 km.

    year development:

    1990

    strategic cruise missile airborne agm-129a (acm) In 1982, the U.S. Air Force analysts announced that by the end of the 80s the combat effectiveness of the bombers of the Strategic Air Command USAF can dramatically decrease. The reason for possible downgrade was called primarily potential growth opportunities of air defense forces of the USSR. Air defense systems, with the latest skompleksirovannye interceptors, AWACs and ground radar had supplant strategic bombers with all possible ranges of heights and flight speeds. Equipping aircraft strategic cruise missiles airborne first generation (AGM-86B) was seen only a partial solution, effective in a massive launch these missiles. To solve the problems of preserving and increasing the effectiveness of U.S. strategic aviation proposed the creation of various types of new generation weapons based on new technologies. Particular emphasis was placed on the development of "Stealth" technologies - technologies reduce the visibility of combat weapons in all possible ranges, as well as ultra-modern electronics. First strategic missile-carrying bomber USAF droves embodying the concept of this technology became supersonic Rockwell B-1B "Lancer", whose arrival in the parade of the USAF SAC began in 1985. Effective scattering surface of the aircraft in the course plane was reduced to a value of about 10m2, in order of magnitude corresponds to the aircraft class "fighter-bomber." Under a new car was supposed to be a new weapon for her.

    In 1982, the U.S. Air Force announced a contest to create a strategic cruise missile air (ALCM) of the second generation, which was to replace the ALCM AGM-86B. The main difference between the new missile was to be reduced visibility in the main ranges of detection. In addition, the missile was to have significantly increased range, which would push the areas of combat patrols strategic bombers from the area of the effective action the Soviet air defense. To save money, a new missile was decided to equip the same thermonuclear warhead as AGM-86B. Program to build a new rocket called ACM ("Advanced Cruise Missile"). In 1983, after consideration of all of the proposals, the main contractor was selected branch "Convair Division" corporation "General Dynamics". Rocket received the designation AGM-129A. Initially it was announced 2,500 new manufacturing ALCM. In addition, it was decided to consider the option of placing these missiles on board then create the world's first low-profile strategic bomber Northrop B-2A "Spirit". But the program is the creation of B-2A was delayed and became more and more onerous financially, forcing regularly to reduce the number of aircraft scheduled for production (just released 21 cars). In addition, and new B-1B suffered from many shortcomings (numerous problems have been observed in the control system and electronic warfare), so it was decided to equip the latest ALCM and aircraft Boeing B-52H "Stratofortress". Alterations B-52H aircraft received advanced inertial control system SPN / GEANS AN/ANS-136, receivers GPS satellite navigation and other electronic equipment.

    first test launch of the new missile was held in July 1985. The first missiles AGM-129A aircraft received B-52H of 410 Heavy Bomber Wing USAF SAC (KI Sawyer AFB, Michigan) in July 1988. However, program development and putting into service of new missiles suffered from weight problems for various properties. First of all, the number of missiles to produce unscheduled systematically decreased - from 2500 to 1460 first, and then to 1000 missiles. It became clear that the new missile will not replace, but rather complement ALCM AGM-86B. The program tests missiles on board B-1B was rolled (nodes corresponding suspension and electronics were in one way or another aircraft equipped with only 3 of the 100 units released).

    In connection with increasing shaft problems (both technical and administrative) related to the implementation of the program development and production of new missiles, began in 1987 considered the question of finding the second participant for the contest to identify the best potential main contractor. The second participant was selected McDonnell Douglas Missile Systems, in 1987/1988, the Company received $ 18 million from the Air Force to prepare their production facilities to manufacture new missiles, the audit of a potential new main contractor to assess the readiness was originally appointed in December 1990 (then repeatedly postponed deadline), by this time the second participant had to get (and known, received) required documentation set has developed a rocket to start its production. Competition between the two contractors to be held in 1993, but in 1992 (by which time a new potential contractor gathered their forces only 1 CR) competition was canceled and the program select an alternate contractor closed. In 1989 and 1991, the supply of new missiles in part were suspended until the problems identified. In 1989, Congress went even a temporary cessation of funding for the program. However, despite a number of unpleasant delays, production of missiles and equipping their aircraft B-52H continued. In June 1990, the aircraft with missiles AGM-129A on board have taken up for combat duty.

    collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 had a serious impact on the future plans of the Air Force to deploy modern missile system. Already in January 1992, it was announced that the number of missiles will not exceed 640 units. In addition, the deployment of missiles was finally decided not to carry on aircraft B-1B, and B-2A. In August 1992, the corporation "General Dynamics" sold its missile-power corporation "Hughes Aircraft", which became so new main contractor. In September of the same year were discontinued regular flights B-52H bombers with missiles AGM-129A in warheads, missiles were withdrawn in the active reserve. In 1993, the assembly lines were shut down after the release of 509 missiles (30 of them - and one pre-production pilot assembly McDonnell Douglas).

    U.S. Air Force began studies for possible improvements missiles AGM-129A in 1985. New version - AGM-129B was to get improved thermonuclear warhead and a new generation of electronics (including satellite navigation receiver system for control and guidance). Furthermore, in the production of new planned actively applied structural materials, which would reduce the inertial mass of the missile and its visibility. According to the American experts, a new modification planned to use against such targets, where the missile AGM-129A proved to be ineffective (most likely thermonuclear warhead new missile was to get a "penetrating" the ability to destroy heavily buried / hardened targets). Scheduled for release by 125 rockets deep modernization of existing AGM-129A. However, the program was closed in 1991 by the decision of the Congress. Reported and the program of development of non-nuclear modification, received the designation AGM-129C. Program AGM-129C did not come out of the stage of conceptual design.

    In 1997, the corporation "Hughes Aircraft" sold its missile-power department "Missile Systems" Company "Raytheon", which now is the main contractor for servicing these missiles. According to published data, in August 2007 the U.S. Air Force had about 460 missiles AGM-129A.

    In March 2007, the U.S. Air Force announced the withdrawal of missiles AGM-129A with weapons, removing them from the "nuclear offset" and placed on the long-term storage by the end of 2008. The subsequent fate of these rockets is still unknown, but one can assume that they will be modified to the level of high-precision cruise missiles with conventional high-explosive fragmentation warhead or penetrating. This is all the more likely, given that the stock of missiles AGM-86 is limited and does not return, and the only carrier missiles AGM-129A - strategic bomber B-52H "Stratofortress" will remain in service until at least 2030. Given the low visibility ALCM AGM-129 and a large range, the use of these missiles are most likely against countries with relatively developed defense and largest territory with potential targets in depth.

    Composition

    strategic cruise missile airborne agm-129a (acm) ALCM AGM-129A is based on the normal aerodynamic scheme, has a body of complex shape with a polygonal head of the fairing. Case shape is optimized so as to minimize the visibility of missile radar signature, as well as possible, and in the optical domain. The missile has a folding and sinking lighted in housing high-wing swept and swept folding tail in the rear fuselage. Kiel - folding and placed in the rear bottom. Reverse sweep wings provided to reduce radar signature of the rocket. Actuators for control surfaces were developed Allied Actuation Systems Department of Allied Signal Aerospace. The air intake is set to the tail portion under the fuselage of the missile.

    case is made of durable aluminum alloy, and radio-organic materials. To reduce radar visibility and visibility in the infrared to the body, wing and stabilizer specially treated. The coating has a special color to reduce the visibility in the optical range missiles. When choosing the form of the missile body took into account the requirements of the Air Force - enable long-term presence ALCM external load at supersonic aircraft carrier for a long (3-4 hours) time and start ALCM as nodes with external load, and with the rocker vnutrifyuzelyazhnyh rotary launcher CRM aircraft B-1B Lancer in flight at supersonic speed machines (up to 1300 km / h).

    missile AGM-129A is equipped with a small-sized highly economical Turbofan engines F112-WR-100 from "Williams". Design air intake and exhaust nozzle (so-called. "Beaver tail") are designed in such a way as to minimize the visibility of the radar range missiles. Furthermore, when work on the propulsion rocket exhaust nozzle and given special attention to activities to reduce the visibility of the product in the infrared range (including by efficiently mixing the exhaust gas with the surrounding air) and in the acoustic range. Efforts of engineers and scientists to reduce the visibility rocket unsuccessful - according to experts, the EPR in the radio for missiles AGM-129A in the course plane does not exceed 0.1 m2.

    warhead strategic ALCM AGM-129A is the warhead W-80-1 (weight 123 kg, a length of about 1 m, diameter 0.27 m) with the presence of a selective choice of power options - 150kt or 5kt which provides a flexible application of the rocket. Warhead developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory ("Los Alamos National Laboratory"). Undermining made contact fuze. 3km radius of destruction. High accuracy and considerable power of thermonuclear warheads allow high efficiency strongly protected hit small targets.

    control and guidance system TAINS (TERCOM Assisted Inertial Navigation System), developed by General Motors Corporation for ALCM AGM-129A, is a combination of the following subsystems:

    inertial,

    trajectory correction system in the image of the terrain type TERCOM ("Terrain Contour Matching")

    precision Doppler laser velocimeter and demolition.

    Inertial management subsystem works on all parts of the flight of the rocket. It includes an onboard digital computer, block laser gyroscopes to measure angular deviations missile unit accelerometers and barometric altimeter. The system provides a definition of space rocket with increased accuracy compared to the AGM-86B through the use of not only new nodes and electronics, but also because of software of a new generation. The right to secede from the ALCM carrier aircraft inertial data is updated subsystem control rocket to the coordinates of the current location and altitude. Leading role in this process, the system plays an inertial control system aircraft carrier.

    Aircraft Carrier B-52H with new missiles got modified inertial control system for laser gyroscopes, skompleksirovannuyu with a satellite navigation system, which helped to increase the accuracy. Inertial control subsystem missiles AGM-129A has a higher resistance to PFYAV and interference from enemy EW.

    correlation subsystem TERCOM works at the middle and end portions of the flight of the rocket. It includes an onboard digital computer, a special laser radar LIDAR ("LIght Detection And Ranging"), a set of reference maps of areas along the flight path of the rocket. Application of laser radar altimeter instead allowed, according to U.S. experts, significantly reduce the electromagnetic field unmasks own rockets and increase the accuracy of determining the current terrain.

    principle TERCOM subsystem based on a comparison of the terrain specific area finding missiles with reference maps of the terrain along the route of its flight. Determination of terrain is accomplished by comparing data and laser radar altimeter. The first measures the height of the earth's surface, and the second - on the level of the sea. Information about a particular terrain digitally inserted into the onboard computer, which is compared with the actual data on the topography of the area of the reference maps of areas. Computer generates correction signals for inertial control subsystem. Stability of the subsystem and the required accuracy TERCOM determine where a cruise missile is achieved by selecting the optimum number and size of cells, the smaller their size, the better the monitored terrain, and, consequently, the location of the missile. However, due to the limited amount of memory on-board computer and a small time of navigation adopted some nominal cell size. The entire route of flight of a cruise missile over land is divided into several dozen districts correction specific length and width. Adopted quantitative characteristics of cells and areas of correction, according to U.S. experts, provide the conclusion of a cruise missile to the target, even when flying over flat terrain.

    Finally, the laser Doppler velocity and drift with high accuracy to determine the rate of demolition and missiles, including in conditions of active jamming enemy. The use of accurate information about the current flight speed and available demolition can significantly offset their own mistakes inertial control subsystem.

    strategic cruise missile airborne agm-129a (acm)

    missile AGM-129A is a precision munition thermonuclear delivery vehicle to the goal - according to some, CWE missiles at maximum range amounts to about 30m. In memory, the main onboard computer control system rockets are stored coordinates several potential targets, selecting one of which may be provided using a special system navigator-bombardier aircraft carrier is already in flight, which increases the flexibility of the missiles.

    Bombers B-52H can carry up to 12 missiles ACM two pylons under the wings. Each pylon can carry 6 KR and attaches to the suspension assembly of aircraft B-52, located between the fuselage and the inner engine pylon. After starting all KR pylons can be discharged to reduce the drag of the aircraft. Data on the location of the new opportunities vnutrifyuzelyazhnyh KR on a rotating rocker launcher CSRL ("Common Strategic Rotary Launcher") rather contradictory - on a number of data can be placed on the CSRL 8 (according to some - 4) RS. However, several sources indicate the impossibility of using CSRL to accommodate the new KR.

    Estimating project, it may be noted that the Americans were able to create a powerful unobtrusive strategic cruise missile air-based strike capabilities greatly enhance strategic aviation. However, technical difficulties, financial and political environment of the late 80's - early 90's were not allowed to deploy the weapon system in the planned volume.

    PERFORMANCE

    Length, m

    6,35

    Wingspan, m

    3,10

    Diameter, m

    0,705

    Starting weight, kg

    1680

    warhead weight, kg

    123

    Power CU, CT

    5/150

    average Thrust, kN

    3,25

    Cruising speed, km / h

    800

    firing range, km

    3700

    CWE, m

    not more than 90





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