Strategic cruise missile Kh-55 (BWR-500)




    management system:

    Radar GOS Correction relief


    spetsboepripasov, high-explosive/fragmentation/incendiary


    anti, Strategy, air-to-ground




    3000 km.

    year development:


    strategic cruise missiles X-55 (BWR-500)

    missile was developed in the NGO "Rainbow" under the leadership of General Designer I. Selezneva in accordance with the decision of the USSR Council of 8 December 1976. Designing a new rocket accompanied by a decision weight problems. Large range and stealth, demanded a high aerodynamic efficiency and minimum weight and a large supply of fuel at an economical power plant. When the required number of missiles of their placement on the carrier dictated extremely compact form and necessitated folding units almost all the speakers - from the wing and tail to the tip of the engine and the fuselage. The result is the original aircraft with folding wings and feathers, as well as the turbojet engine is located inside the fuselage and push down before detaching from the aircraft missiles.

    In 1983, for the creation and development of production of the X-55 a large group of workers MKB "Raduga" and Dubna Machine-Building Plant was awarded the Lenin and State Prizes.

    In March 1978

    . commenced production deployment X-55 at the Kharkov Aviation Industry Association (HAPO). The first production missile manufactured at HAPO, was transferred to the customer on December 14, 1980.

    Bearers KR X-55 aircraft are strategic aviation - Tu-95MS and Tu-160. Tu-95MS different modified cockpit, converted gruzootsekah, installing more powerful engines NK-12MP, modified electrical system, new radar "Review-MS", EW and communications equipment. The crew of the Tu-95MS reduced to seven. The crew entered a new post navigator-operator, is responsible for the preparation and launch of missiles.

    tests X-55 were very intense, aided by careful pre-testing of the control system for modeling stands NIIAS. During the first phase of tests conducted 12 launches, only one of which ended in failure due to the failure of the generator and the power system losses rocket. In addition to the missiles, was brought weapon control system, on board the carrier is performed by entering the flight mission and exhibition giroinertsialnyh missile platforms - accurately related to the position and orientation in space for the beginning of autonomous flight.

    first launch serial X-55 was made February 23, 1981. September 3, 1981 produced crediting start with the first production machine Tu-95MS number 1. In March of the following year he was joined by a second plane arrived at the base in the Air Force Institute Akhtubinsk to continue state tests.

    The envisaged the possibility of equipping aircraft underwing suspension led to the release of two options: Tu-95MS-6, carrying a six X-55 on the rocker gruzootseke catapult MKU-6-5-95MS and Tu-16, further armed even ten missiles - two on internal underwing catapult installations AKU-2 in the fuselage and three - for external installations AKU-3 placed between the engines. Bailout missiles to throw them a sufficient distance from the aircraft and the disturbed air flow around it, carried pneumatic pusher, their reverse cleaning - hydraulics. After starting the drum ISU cranked, feeding into the starting position following a rocket.

    Modernization Tu-95MS was given government decree in June 1983. Equipment training and start standing on production aircraft, replaced by more modern, unified with used on the Tu-160 and designed to work with a large number of missiles. Cannon fodder plant with two AM-23 was replaced with a new UCF-9K-502-2 with dual GS-23, were installed new communications and electronic warfare. Since 1986, the production of upgraded aircraft. Total pre-1991 Air Force received 27 Tu-95MS-6 and 56 Tu-95MS-16 (the number is given according to the START-1 treaty), more cars had to pass to the customer within the next year.

    test launches X-55 were carried out in almost the entire range of flight modes medium altitudes from 200 m to 10 km. Starting the engine was carried out with sufficient reliability, speed, route, adjustable depending on weight reduction in the development of fuel was kept in the range of 720 ... 830 km / h For a given value of CWE, in some launches were achieved remarkable results with hitting the target with minimal deviation, which gave grounds to characterize the X-55 in reporting as "high-precision". During testing was achieved and planned launch range of 2,500 km. < / p>

    December 31, 1983 airborne missile system, which included the aircraft carrier Tu-95MS bombers and cruise missiles X-55 was officially accepted into service. Collectives "Raduga", headed by Igor Seleznev and HAPO for creating X-55 were awarded the Lenin and State Prizes of five, 1500 factory workers awarded government awards.

    In 1986 production of the X-55 was transferred to the Kirov Machine-Building Plant. Production of X-55 units were deployed as the Smolensk aircraft plant. Developing a successful design IBC "Rainbow" has developed a number of further modifications of the basic X-55 (article 120), among which are the X-55SM with extended range (entered service in 1987) and X-555 with a non-nuclear warhead and improved guidance system.

    the west missile Kh-55 was designated AS-15 "Kent".


    strategic cruise missiles X-55 (BWR-500)

    X-55 is based on normal aerodynamic configuration with straight wings relatively large elongation. (See the projection of the side, top, bottom) Plumage tselnopovorotnoe. In the transport position the wing and fuselage nacelle are cleaned and tail folds (see layout scheme).

    Turbofan single-shaft turbojet engine P-95-300 (see photo) with an annular combustion chamber, developed under the leadership of Ch. Designer O. Tabor, located on the ventral retractable pylon. Low-pressure compressor - two-stage fan, high pressure compressor - a seven-step axial compressor. Oil system autonomous. P95-300 produces a static takeoff thrust, 300 .. 350 kg, having a transverse dimension in 315mm and 850mm in length. At own weight 95kg load ratio R-95-300 is 3.68kgs/kg - THD at modern combat aircraft. Axial compressor P95-300 by-pass ratio equal to 2, has a compression ratio of 8.5. Specific air consumption is only 0.785 kg / kg x h - significantly less than those measured THD and DTRD combat aircraft (at P-95-SH - 0.86 kg / kg x h, from NC-22 -0.96 kg / kg x h). P-95-300 was created based on a fairly wide range of flight peculiar cruise missiles, with the ability to maneuver in height and speed. The engine is pirostarterom placed in the tail rotor spinner. In flight with the release of the nacelle to reduce resistance are lengthened fuselage tail spinner (spinner pushed by a spring-held taut nichrome wire, which burn through electrical impulse). To perform the flight program and regulation of P-95-300 is equipped with modern automatic electronically hydromechanical control system and integrated electric generator power 4kW. Apart from the usual kinds of fuel (kerosene T-1, TS-1 and others) for the P-95-300 was developed a special synthetic fuel martial T-10 - detsilin. T-10 - high-energy and toxic compound, with this fuel reaches the maximum characteristics of the rocket. Feature of the T-10 is its high turnover, require careful packing and sealing the entire fuel system missiles.


    range missiles in flight lasted several hours, the usual rechargeable energy sources did not provide such a continuous operation of onboard systems. Their food is made using the built-in compact electric RDK-300.

    need for placing a significant supply of fuel at a limited scale has led to the organization of the entire fuselage of X-55 as a tank inside which are placed in sealed openings wing warhead, fittings and several other units. Are formed in the plane of the wing fuselage being located one above the other. With the release of the plane are at different heights relative to the horizontal construction products, seating with different angles of installation, which is why in-flight configuration X-55 becomes asymmetric. Folding holds tail, all surfaces which are steering, and console hinged broken twice. Kiel initially formed on one side, but then unified console, and on the tail appeared one additional hinge. To reduce the overall length of the tail and retractable did cook, folding "accordion". Subtended by its nichrome wire at reset fusible electrical pulse, and cook disposes spring.

    engine went down under the action of the pusher squib, and then closed the hatch opening sash opening, saving aerodynamic purity products. Pyrotechnic pushers also plowed wing and tail, and these mechanisms are working at high pressures up to 350 bar. Literally throwing out units, where they held locks.

    to assemble missiles great effort demanded its workability required mass production. Collected from individual units rocket had to have adequate strength, stiffness and linking abutting sections, providing the required purity and precision contours - the latest in technical conditions for the X-55 was measured by fractions of a millimeter. Took to establish the production of individual interchangeable compartments, set up in parallel and run in the general fuselage assembly, reduces welding annular seams "cigar". Fully welded construction, replacing the conventional scheme with heavy flanged joints on bolts and studs, provided significantly greater weight perfection, but also demanded specific assembly technology. Compartments exhibited in slipway general assembly, set one correspondence units were fitted and docked on the frames, frames, grab on the spot welding, and then all the "cigar" assembly was removed from the pile and finally cooked.

    peculiarity of X-55 caused by its extremely light and "soft" design, was a decision by the suspension medium. Usually missiles, including the most difficult to get along with one support bracket is attached to the powerful frames (so hung and 12-ton X-20). For openwork power circuit X-55 used the organization suspension with four nodes spaced evenly distributed effort to design. When assembling them had to carve a special processing center at the same time as the mountings planes, achieving unambiguous compliance with installation dimensions.

    Power set of X-55 fuselage frames-formed frames that carry units, equipment and provide docking hull compartments. Facilitating the design of the frame completed complex shapes with very high walls and thin-walled ribs. Providing defined contours with numerous transitions thickness boards and wall frames manufactured accurate punching followed by complex milling and boring CNC machining centers and machine shop. The main and most difficult problem was welding of large structural parts. Fuselage completely carried welded alloy AMG-6.

    In addition to proper

    strength, stiffness and precision outlines, bow compartment, amounting almost the entire fuselage, was to provide tightness, and trouble has added a special high flow fuel capable leak everywhere. The task was complicated not only a large number of welds, but their presence inside the compartments in remote places. For example, control valves electroplaits was laid inside the tank passes through the entire flat tube welded into the structure. Panels and components of AMG-6 boiled argon-arc welding on special welding machines, but some units in the compartments had to cook manually.

    finished product and all its seams carefully checked for leaks. However, if external leakage manifested and simply eliminated, the diagnosis of internal tightness was a problem. And such a leak were no less obnoxious - because the engine control units and placed in the tank warhead compartment, fuel leakage could damage the "stuffing" of the rocket. Possible flaws tested radiographic welding, leak and pores were found acetone, "finishing" check for leaks carried special liquid helium leak detectors on the basis of having ultra-high fluidity and penetration properties. At the slightest lack of penetration, "fistula" and low sheet thickness, helium leaking even through the structure of the material and the metal lattice.

    unpleasant incidental effect of welding are hogging design due to residual internal stresses during heating. Observing the specified contours, fuselage elements subjected termokalibrovke, relieves strain. To avoid the "leashes", welded assemblies were placed in a thick-walled steel liner with electric heating, where it is their vacation.

    strategic cruise missiles X-55 (BWR-500) In the design of a rocket implemented measures to reduce the radar and thermal signature. Due to the small midsection and purity contours, the missile has the lowest ESR, making it difficult to detect air defenses. Surface of the body has no cracks and contrast, sharp edges, engine nestled fuselage construction and widely used radio-materials. Sheathing the forward fuselage, wing and tail made of special radar absorbing materials based on silicone composite.

    missile guidance system is one of the essential differences of the cruise missile from the preceding aircraft weapon systems. missile uses an inertial guidance system with correction location on the terrain. Digital map of the area, entered into onboard computer before starting. The control system provides long autonomous flight Kh-55, regardless of length, weather conditions, etc. Normal autopilot on the X-55 replaced the electronic board control system BSU-55 fulfills the specified program with the stabilization of the rocket flight in three axes, retention and speed altitude mode and the ability to execute a maneuver to evade interception. The main mode is the passage route at extremely low altitudes (50-100m), with rounding terrain, at a speed of M = 0.5-0.7, corresponding to the most economical mode.

    X-55 is equipped with a newly developed compact thermonuclear warhead with a charge capacity of 200Kt. For a given accuracy (CEP no more than 100m), the charge capacity provided defeat the main objectives - strategic centers of government and military administration, military and industrial facilities, nuclear weapons bases, missile launchers, including protected objects and shelter.

    Bearers missiles are long-range bombers Tu-95MS and Tu-160. Each bomber Tu-95MS-6 can carry up to six missiles located launcher drum set MKU-6-5 catapult type gruzootseke aircraft (see photo). Option Tu-95MS-16 carries sixteen X-55: six on ISU-6-5, two for domestic installations underwing ejection AKU-2 in the fuselage and three - for external installations AKU-3 located between the engines. Two gruzootsekah supersonic Tu-160 can be placed 12 long-range cruise missiles Kh-55SM (with extra fuel tanks) or 24 conventional cruise missiles X-55.

    Modifications missiles:

    X 55OK (item 121) is different guidance system with an optical correlator for the reference image area.

    strategic cruise missiles X-55 (BWR-500)

    Modification X 55cm (item 125) is designed to hit targets at a distance of up to 3500km. The guidance system has remained the same, but a significant increase in range took almost polutorakratnoe increase fuel supply. Not to change an elaborate design on the sides of the fuselage bottom equipped with conformal fuel tanks at 260kg, had almost no effect on the aerodynamics and balancing the rocket. This design allowed the opportunity to save the size and placement of six missiles at ISU inside the fuselage. However, increased to 1465kg mass forced to limit the number of missiles on underwing suspensions TU-95MS (can be suspended eight X 55cm instead of ten X-55).


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    speed range of the aircraft carrier, km / h

    tests and operation

    first flight of the prototype aircraft carrier Tu-95M-55 (HM-021) on July 31, 1978. Total on this machine to top 1982. Flight 107 was performed and produced ten launches X-55. Aircraft was lost in a crash January 28, 1982. on takeoff from Zhukovsky due to pilot error.

    tests X-55 were very intense, aided by careful pre-testing of the control system for modeling stands NIIAS. During the first phase of testing was conducted 12 launches, only one of which ended in failure due to the failure of the generator power system. In addition to the missile control system was brought weapons on board the carrier is performed by entering the flight mission and exhibition giroinertsialnyh missile platforms.

    first launch serial X-55 was performed on February 23, 1981. September 3, 1981. was produced by the first crediting start with the first production machine Tu-95MS. Tests were carried out on the complex optical path-measuring complex polygon 929 th PERSONS. Test launches X-55 were carried out in almost the entire range of flight modes medium altitudes from 200m to 10km. Starting the engine was carried out safely, the speed on the route, adjustable depending on weight reduction in the development of fuel was kept in the range of 720-830km / h For a given value of not more than 100m CWE in several launches achieved deviation of 20-30m.

    first to master the new complex began in Semipalatinsk 1223rd TBAP, where on December 17, 1982. arrived two new Tu-95MS. Since 1984. retraining on the Tu-95MS started nearby 1226-TBAP same Semipalatinsk 79th TBAD. Simultaneously there was a Tu-95MS equipment regiments YES in the European part of the USSR - 1006 TBAP in Uzyn near Kiev and 182 th Guards. TBAP in Mozdok, which was part of the 106th TBAD. In division focused more advanced Tu-95MS-16. First Tu-160 received in April 1987. in the 184th Guards. TBAP, was in Pryluki Ukraine. Three months later on August 1, 1987. crew regiment commander V. Grebennikova first to Start X-55.

    After the collapse of the USSR

    most of X-55 missiles and aircraft carriers remained outside Russia, particularly in Kazakhstan and Ukraine, where there were, respectively, 40 Tu-95MS in Semipalatinsk, Uzyn 25 and 21 Tu- 160 Pryluki. Together with the aircraft remained on Ukrainian Statistics 1068 X-55 missiles. With Kazakhstan managed to agree quickly enough, exchanging heavy bombers on the Russian side proposed fighter and attack aircraft. By February 19, 1994. all TU-95MS were flown to the Far East airfields where they were equipped with the 182 th and 79 th TBAP. Negotiations with Ukraine lasted long. Ultimately the debt for gas by the Ukrainian side were handed three Tu-95MS and Tu-160 eight, who has flown in Engels in February 2000. In late 1999, 575 cruise missiles, air-launched Kh-55 and Kh-55SM was also delivered from Ukraine to Russia.

    In the Russian Air Force

    all forces YES united in the 37th VA. In its structure by July 2001. were 63 Tu-95MS is calculated with them 504 missiles Kh-55 and Tu-160 15. The first practical start X 55cm on board the Tu-160 crew was made Colonel AD Zhikhareva October 22, 1992. In June 1994. four Tu-95MS and Tu-160 took part in the exercises of Russia's SNF, spent tactical launches over the North Sea and then doing the actual shooting X-55SM at the landfill. In September, 1998. a group of four Tu-95MS 184th TBAP were produced launches X-55 in the landfill area of the Northern Fleet Siskin, 1500 km from the rocket passed to the target.

    During the exercise "West 99" "in June 1999. pair of Tu-95MS Engels completed a 15-hour flight, reaching Iceland, and on the way back made a start on the X-55 learning objectives in the Caspian region. In October, 2002. crew of the Tu-160 Colonel Yu Deyneko in a night flight passed over the polar regions of the route, start doing practical X-55SM. May 14, 2003. Four Tu-95MS and Tu-160 six participated in the exercise, which covered the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. Launches X-55 on board the Tu-95MS and conducted during the strategic command training ground, sea and air SNF in February 2004.


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