Strategic missile R-16 missile 8K64 (R-16U/8K64U)



    Mine PU, PU Surface

    management system:

    management software








    13000 km.

    year development:


    strategic missile R-16 missile with 8k64 (r-16u/8k64u) May 3, 1959 special joint resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the government team OKB-586 (KB" , Southern ") Academician Yangel requested to develop an intercontinental missile on storable propellants. Subsequently, she received the designation 8K64. The need to develop the missile was determined low tactical and technical and operational characteristics of the first Soviet ICBM R-7 .


    aggravation of the international situation, the Soviet government obliges OKB-586 to accelerate the development of the complex of R-16, exit on flight tests in late 1960 to begin mass production of missiles in 1962 in order to meet such a very short time design teams went on the road widespread use developments on missiles 8K63 and 8K65. 8K64 originally supposed to run only from ground-based launchers.

    to develop missile control system in Kharkov was formed OKB-692. For testing the combustion chambers and gas generators steering motors and power the main engines on a test basis OKB-586 was built complex stands and assembly and test building. For motor KB OKB-586 was constructed laboratory test building with stands for testing the turbopump assembly. This 5 NIIP for OKB-586 were isolated sites where construction began 8K64 rocket launch pad, assembly and test facility and a residential zone. Development of launch equipment was assigned to Novokramatorsky Machine Works, and later to the creation of silo "Sheksna-In" was drawn CDB-34.

    order to combine production capacity and accelerating the transition to mass production of missiles OKB-586 and the plant number 586 decided to refer OKB experimental production plant. In August 1960 began firing bench tests of rocket stages in SRI-229. When I first test stage of a powerful jet collapsed baffle tray stand, however launch was successful. Due to the lack of time for repair Commission decided to limit testing only start and not repairing the tray to start tests on the bench stage II. After three tests of stage II rocket was made for flight tests. Serial production started in 8K64 missiles planned government term. Beside the factory number 586 rockets manufactured the factory number 166.

    October 24, 1960 at 5 NIIP preparations were made for the first 8K64 rocket launch program LCI, which ended in disaster (as a result of errors in the circuit control system occurred unauthorized engine start of stage II, which led to the explosion of the rocket at the start). Killed 74 and injured 49 people. Among the dead - Missile Forces Commander Marshal M. Nedelin, a large group of leading experts KB.

    In February 1961, the first successful launch in February 1962 completed the program starts from the ground LCI start. November 1, 1961 the first three missile regiment in Nizhny Tagil and item Yurya Kirov region were prepared for intercession on combat duty.

    Since May 1960, carried out development work related to the implementation of the modified missiles 8K64U start of the silo. In January 1962 at the site of Baikonur was held the first launch of the silos. February 5, 1963 began production on alert first missile regiment (Nizhny Tagil), armed DBK R-16U with these ICBMs, and on July 15 the same year, the complex R-16U was adopted by the Strategic Missile Forces.

    Until 1965 was deployed 186 launchers complexes of R-16 and R-16U. ICBMs armed with this type consisted to mid 70s. Last rocket launchers ground liquidated in 1977.

    the west missile was designated SS-7 "Saddler" .


    8K64 missile was carried out on a "tandem" with a serial stage separation. The first stage consisted of the adapter, which means four explosive bolts fastened second stage oxidizer tank, the instrument compartment, fuel tank and tail section with a power ring. The second stage, which served to accelerate the rocket to a speed correspond to the desired range, had a similar structure, but was made shorter and smaller diameter.


    Fuel tanks and tank level "G" II stage - panel design and tank "On" II stage is made of sheet material using himfrezerovaniya. To ensure stable operation LRE all tanks were charging. Aspiration tanks "G" both stages performed nitrogen tank "On" II stage - air ball from cylinders placed in the instrument compartment and tank "About" I stage - velocity head oncoming airflow. As the governing bodies for the first time used the camera swinging steering motors.

    rocket stage separation is carried out as follows: command on separation steps off the main engine and reduced engine thrust steering stage I, after the launch of the steering motor stage II bond cleavage between levels and inhibition of I Corps stage brake DWP. Run II stage main engine is made after the distance between the steps 10-15m. Department head of the braking is done by the housing stage II brake DWP after turn off the main, and then the steering motor stage II.


    On stage rocket was the main engine 8D712 set consisting of three two-chamber engine 8D515 unified with 8K65 rocket engines. As used four-chamber steering engine 8D63U. At stage II established the basic two-chamber engine 8D713 steering and four-chamber engine 8D64U. Fuel supply in all engines - turbo-powered turbine combustion products of the primary fuel. All rocket engines worked on hypergolic propellants in contact: AK-oxidant and fuel 27And - unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH).

    strategic missile R-16 missile with 8k64 (r-16u/8k64u)

    missile could be equipped with two types of warheads ranging from 3 to 6Mt. When shooting at the maximum range used so-called "light" warhead, and the intermediate and minimum range - "heavy" with a more powerful charge of TNT. MS conical shape with the apex of the hemispherical fastened to the housing of the second stage by means of three bolts discontinuous. Her office was carried out due to the deceleration of the second stage when triggered Brake powder rocket engines. The power of the head of the dependent maximum range, ranged from 11,000 to 13,000 km. Along with the improvement of military rockets in the Soviet Union continued to improve thermonuclear weapons. Thus, during the flight tests 8K64 in 1961 was ordered to replace the charges in the head of the rocket 8K64 and 8K65. In this regard, in 1962, developed a unified MS suitable for equipping both missiles. Then the principle of intra-and interspecific unification of units and products are widely used in various development "Southern".

    8K64 rocket had protected autonomous inertial control system. It included automatic angular stabilization, stabilization of the center of mass system of regulation of the apparent velocity, the system simultaneously emptying tanks, automatic control range. As a sensitive element for the first time SU Soviet ICBMs was applied gyro stabilized platform on ball-bearing suspension. Control system instruments in the instrument compartment located on the first and second stages. In preparation for the launch of the rocket was set to trigger the device to stabilize the plane was in the plane of fire.

    8K64U structurally almost no different from 8K64. To ensure the start of the silo was changed automatic operation of the first stage propulsion. On the body were made rockets site for installation drags, fixing its position in the guide silo. Fuel tanks steel, charge with nitrogen.

    DBK P-16 became the base for the creation of groups of intercontinental missiles SRF. Ground launch complex included a fighting stance with two launchers, one common command post and store propellant. The rocket is launched after its installation on the launch pad, refueling propellant components and compressed gases, conducting operations aiming. All these operations take a long time. To reduce it were introduced four degrees of technical readiness, to characterize a certain time before the possible start, which was necessary to spend to perform a number of operations on prelaunch and launch rockets. In the highest degree of readiness 8K64 ICBMs could begin in 30 minutes.

    8K64U was deployed in much smaller amounts, since the construction of the mine facilities (such as "Sheksna") took longer than for the commissioning of the Republic of Kazakhstan with the ground PU. At each starting position located three silos placed in a line at a distance of about 100 meters from each other, an underground command post, store fuel components, as well as other facilities. Way to start out of the mine - gas-dynamic engines on their own. Rocket fitted yoke for movement along the guide rails in the mine, as well as depreciation. Silo door - flat, shifting the rails. The rocket was placed inside the special rotator with docked communications system filling. For DBK ICBM 8K64U establishes three levels of combat readiness. Start time of the fully operational - 18min.


    General Characteristics

    Maximum range, km


    Weapon Accuracy, km

    ± 10

    Start time of full combat readiness, min


    warranty term of missiles Wet, d


    missile 8K64

    Starting weight

    missiles, n

    140.6 - 141.2


    fuel components, n


    Length, m

    30.44 - 34.3

    maximum body diameter, m


    Diameter MS, m


    Length MS, m


    Features Control

    Traction control

    I stage (on the ground / in a vacuum), tf:
    - Main
    - Steering


    Specific impulse control stage I (on the ground / in a vacuum), with:
    - Main
    - Steering


    Link Control Level II (in a vacuum), n:
    - Main
    - Steering


    Specific impulse control stage II (in a vacuum), with:
    - Main
    - Steering


    tests and operation

    Like all first-generation missiles, these ICBMs could not long be Wet. In constant readiness they were kept in shelters or mines with empty tanks and required considerable time to bring them in readiness for launch. By the time the embattled Soviet ICBMs inferior American missiles. Low survivability of Soviet missile systems virtually eliminates the possibility of a retaliatory strike. In addition, already in 1964, it became clear that the missile obsolete.

    In May 1963, 5 demonstrated NIIP Group launch of three missiles mines 8K64U (t) for the leaders of the socialist countries.

    A total of 307 start-ups, successful launches 91%.


    one of 8K64 missile in June 1966 observed at the site of Baikonur French President Charles de Gaulle, who was in the Soviet Union on an official visit.


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